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Provisional Military Government of Ethiopia
Population and Housing Census Commission

[There are two versions of enumeration instruction, one for urban and one for rural area. The two documents are very similar in the sections on individual characteristics, but are different in the section on "Details of housing units" starting from page 67.

As such, the main body of this document is based on the instruction document for urban area, and differences between the urban and rural instruction will be noted. There will be two distinctive sections on "Details of housing unit" for urban and rural area.]


1984 Population and Housing Census
Enumerators' Manual - Urban

[Table of Contents has been omitted.]

The 1984 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia
Enumerators Manual - Urban

[p. 1]

1. Introduction

It is difficult to formulate and design plans and policies to a country in the absence of reliable information showing its population size, social and economic situation. So far limited data on population and housing were available from sample surveys conducted occasionally for the purpose of preparing plans with regard to the urban and rural areas. These data were hardly reliable and up to date. Currently comprehensive, timely and reliable statistical date is essential for the planning purpose of economic and social programs in the rural and urban areas. Realizing its importance, population and housing census will be conducted in April 1984.

2. Definition of population and housing census

Generally speaking population and housing census encompasses collection of data on population, social and economic characteristics and also on housing characteristics and compiling, analyzing and evaluating their reliability and completeness and disseminating the results. This means that the census does not only focus on the inventory of population and housing units but also covers extensively and intensively the economic and social sectors. The census may cover part or all of the administrative divisions of a country and it provide economic and social information for areas covered by the census including for areas at the lowest administrative division.

[p.2]

3. Objectives and Uses of Population and Housing Census

Since no population and housing census has ever been conducted in Ethiopia, it was hardly possible to address questions raised pertaining to the country's population and housing completely and accurately. This is because the available information was based on data collected several years ago and many of them were mere approximations. To mention a few, it can be said that there has been no complete and timely data on population and housing for administrative divisions below district and wereda (an administrative unit below district and above farmers association.) This does not however mean that for administrative divisions above district there is complete data and the quality of the data at regional and national levels are complete but to point out the extent of the limitation of the available data.

As population is the basis for any development activity, the importance of knowing its size and distribution by economic and social strata disaggregated by administrative divisions from population and housing census has been accepted by many countries and it is conducted at least once every ten years. Until now only three countries in the continent of Africa have conducted census. Ethiopia is one of them which is said to have large population with large land area.

In order to address the need for basic data with complete and timely response a nation-wide population and housing census must be conducted. Accordingly the main objective of the population and housing census is to collect and compile data on population size and relevant economic, social and housing characteristics and disseminate to users. The following are the specific objectives:

1. To obtain population size and distribution by gender, age and administrative divisions.
2. To provide basic data on the population's social and economic characteristics.
[p.3]
3. To quantify birth, death and migration of the population.
4. To find out the housing stock by purpose and also data on residential housing units.
5. To identify number of ethnic groups and distribution.
6. To obtain baseline data for planning and designing future statistical surveys.

The statistical data collected under the above-mentioned objectives are essential for policy decision making, for formulating balanced and objective planning for development and growth, for administrative and research, etc. purposes. They also have major contribution in organizing the population's social and political participation. The end result of the census plays a huge role to improve the life of the population, to make decisions to determine in a balanced manner the supply and distribution of production and services, to formulate policy on labor organization and employment, to set up appropriate programs regarding population settlement, to take administrative and political measures as needed, to determine the quantity, diversity and distribution of development projects necessary to the nation's development and welfare., to formulate relevant programs on residential housing.

4. Duties and Responsibility of Enumerator

Enumerators play important role to the successful accomplishment of the population and housing census. The enumerator is required to implement the census activities sincerely, with honesty and dedication. In addition to undertaking the enumeration in the enumeration area of assignment the enumerator is required to maintain good contact with residents distancing himself/herself from wrongdoings to win public support and cooperation. At the time of visiting households for the enumeration, the enumerator needs to greet them and introduce himself/herself and explain the purposes of his/her visit. It is important to understand that questions asked in collecting the census data must be according to the instructions in the enumeration manual and questions irrelevant to the census must not be asked. After completing the enumeration the enumerator has to thank the responding household before leaving.

When the enumerator conducts registration and administers the census questionnaire and other forms his/her hand writing must be net and legible. Furthermore the enumerator has to review all the forms filled and make the necessary corrections. If need be he/she has to return to the concerned household and make corrections for wrong, unreasonable, illegible, etc. entries. The enumerator must handle with care all the documents and other items he/she is given for the enumeration and also keep confidentiality of the data collected and must not show to anyone except the supervisor.

[p. 4]

1. Step by Step Procedures of Enumerator's Duties

A. Receive documents and items necessary to the enumeration guided by the check list after the census training is completed.
B. Go to the enumeration area of assignment and get introduced with members of the Kebele Census Committee and walk through the boundary of the enumeration area in reference with the enumeration area map, together with the committee members and your supervisor and familiarize yourself with the surrounding.
C. Register housing units, households and establishments in a systematic manner.
D. When registering housing units, households and establishments assign serial numbers to the housing units and write the number with red chalk on the upper left side of the door or on easily recognizable spot.
E. After completing the registration of housing units, households and establishments administer the census questionnaire by going door to door and complete enumerator's daily progress report form.
F. Put "X" with blue chalk next to the house number given with red chalk for housing units and households the census questionnaire is administered.
G. Administer call back form to identify those to be revisited and register household heads of households not found in the house or for no adult was present in the house to respond to the questions in the questionnaire.
H. Perform a daily review of the filled questionnaires and make the necessary correction for skipped columns, inconsistent entries and revisit right away omitted households.
I. Fill the summary form as soon as the enumeration is completed.
J. Submit the necessary documents and other items to the supervisor after supervisor verifies the enumeration is successfully completed.

[p.5]

1. List of Documents and Other Items for the Census Enumeration

a. Enumeration Area map and its detail description
b. Housing units Households and Establishments Registration Form /Form 1/
c. Books of Population and Housing Census questionnaire
d. Enumerator's manual of Population and Housing Census
e. Call back Listing Form of Household Heads /Form 2/
f. Enumerator's Daily Progress Report Form /Form 3/
g. Enumeration Area Summary Form /Form 4/
h. Enumerator's bag, pencil, eraser, etc.
i. Identity card, Badge, etc.

[p. 6]

3. Execution of the Population and Housing Census Enumeration

All housing units and households within the boundaries of the enumeration area will be covered in the census. The enumerator will conduct the enumeration by going from door to door and registering the required data.

It is known that the rural population is organized in farmers associations and the urban population in urban dwellers associations. For the purpose of the population and housing census and also for future social and economic surveys each urban dwellers association and farmers association are e divided into a number of enumeration areas and maps for the individual enumeration areas have been prepared. Each enumeration area has 150-200 households and every supervisory area contains 5-6 such enumeration areas to which a map has been prepared.

An enumerator will conduct the enumeration only in the enumeration of his/her assignment. Hence the enumerator will be issued map of the enumeration area of his/her assignment he/she must recognize the boundaries of the enumeration area prior to starting enumeration. Hence before beginning enumeration, the enumerator must walk around the boundary of the enumeration area guided by the map and identify the limits. Then he/she will register systematically all the housing units, households and establishments within the numeration area. It is necessary to exercise caution to control omission, duplication and erroneous inclusion of housing units and households. After listing of housing units and households is completed the census questionnaire will have to be administered.

When collecting the data it is preferred to have as much as possible heads of households as respondents and also concerned individual household members for questions pertaining to individual members.

Sometimes it may not be possible to obtain data for some households at the first visit. Under this circumstance data will have to be collected by conducting call backs for up to three times. If it is not possible to obtain the required data during the third call back, it has to be reported to the concerned supervisor.

[p. 7]

Instruction Manual for Listing Form of Housing Units Households and Establishments

1. Purpose of the Form

This form serves to list housing units within each enumeration area by purpose, major production or service rendered by the establishment and number of its permanent employees, head of households and data on members of households engaged in agriculture. The form has two parts. Part One is for registering area identification particulars and Part Two for registering housing unit, household and establishment characteristics.

2. Objective of the listing

The following are the main objectives of the listing.

a. To count housing units, households and establishments in the country.
b. To control omission and/or duplication of housing units and households in the census enumeration.
c. To obtain auxiliary data social and economic surveys to be conducted in the future.

[p. 7-8]

3. Execution of the Listing

The ways housing units and roads are constructed in urban areas and rural areas are different. It can be expected that housing units in urban areas are convenient for the listing whereas this can be different in rural areas.

The listing operation in urban areas is outlined below. Most of the time, an urban enumeration area has one or more blocks. A block is part of an urban area surrounded in four corners either by road, empty space, river or forest. It is mostly expected that these blocks are demarcated systematically by road. Moreover housing units in urban areas are assigned with kebele identification number. An example showing urban enumeration area is presented as follows. The following activities must be implemented when doing the listing.

a. View and study boundary of the enumeration area by going around.
b. Delineate the numeration area into zones or blocks.
c. Assign numbers on map of the enumeration area for delineated zones/blocks.
d. Register all housing units, households and establishments in a serpentine fashion beginning from the zone/block in the north western corner of the enumeration area.
e. The listing is conducted by exhaustively registering housing units, households and establishments within a block and continuing to the next block.
f. It is necessary to put an "X" mark on the location on enumeration area map to indicate where the listing starts. The main enumeration has to start from the location where the "X" mark is indicated.
G. When undertaking the enumeration and listing of housing units it is not sufficient to follow roads but it is also required to canvas all trails and compounds behind scene.
h. The listing operation is said to be completed when listing of all housing units, households and establishments within the enumeration area is completed.

As the listing operation in rural areas is not as difficult as in urban areas, example of listing operation in urban enumeration area is given on page 10.

[Pages 9-10 are omitted.]

[p. 11-13]

Instruction manual for Housing Units, Households and Establishments Listing Form

Part 1 Area Identification
Address of the enumeration area is filled in Columns 1 to 8.

Column 1: Region

Name of the region where the household resides is entered.

Column 2: District

Name of the district where the household resides is entered.

Column 3: Wereda

Name of the wereda where the household resides is entered.

Column 4: Town

Name of the town where the household resides is entered if residing in urban area.

Column 5: Higher

Number of higher where the household resides is entered in card columns 9-10 if residing in urban area and the urban area has higher.
If household resides in urban area having no higher /--/ is entered in the column and card columns.

Column 6: Supervisory Area

Code number of the supervisory area where the household resides is entered in the column.

Column 7: Kebele

Code number of the kebele where the household resides is entered in this column and card column 13-15.

Column 8: Enumeration Area

Code number of the Enumeration Area where the household resides is entered in this column and card column 16-17.

Note:
Code numbers for Supervisory Area, Kebele and Enumeration Area are obtained from Enumeration Area file and the codes of these fields have to be transcribed to the appropriate columns and card columns.

Part - 2 Particulars of Housing Units Households and Establishments

Column 9: Housing Unit Serial number
Serial numbers 001, 002, 003, etc. will be entered in this column and card column 18-20 to all housing units within the enumeration area following order of their listing. The serial numbers entered in card columns 18-20 will have to be written with red chalk on upper left corner of the door of the housing unit. If the housing unit does not have door, the serial number has to be written on convenient spot that may not be erased by children or rain. If there are more than one households residing in a single housing unit, names of heads of these households are entered in column 17 while the same serial number of the housing unit is entered repeatedly for these households in column 9. On the other hand if there are four residences in a building it is necessary to give serial numbers to the four residences in column 9. In other words if there are multiple house structures in a compound occupied by a single household then only a single housing unit serial number will be given. However if more than one households reside in the compound, then housing unit serial numbers will be given corresponding to each household.

Column 10: House number
Before recording house number in column 10, it is necessary to understand carefully definitions of housing unit, residential unit, and household.

a. Housing Unit

Housing unit is a structure with separate and independent access for the purpose of dwelling or for partly dwelling and partly establishment or else for establishment

Separate structure
A structure exclusively separated by wall, fence, etc. and covered with ceiling or roof from top in such a way that dwellers inside are not seen by people residing in the neighborhood when sleeping, preparing and eating their meals. However sometimes the wall of a structure may be made of stack, plastic, or cartoon, etc. and the roof may be covered with plastic and can serve as an establishment or a dwelling. When such structures are encounter they have to be considered as housing units from the standpoint of their purpose although they do not qualify the definition of housing unit.

Independent access

A structure is said to have independent access if it has its own entrance and exit from road, common stairs, outer surface or ground, etc. and when residents enter to or exit from home they do not trespass other dwellings but only through their own entrance or exit.

b. Residential Housing Unit
It is a housing unit for entirely dwelling purpose or partial dwelling where other activities such as trade, weaving, wood work, etc. are run. A residential unit may have been built for non-dwelling purpose but at the time of the census it may be used for dwelling or residential purpose.

[p. 14-16]

c. Household

A household is a group of persons who live together in a single housing unit or adjacent housing units who have common cooking arrangement and eat from the same kitchen.

Members of a household can include blood related persons or those related with marriage or those who may not have blood relation. Members of household include husband, wife, children, husband's or wife's father, mother, sister, brother, etc. and those not related with blood or marriage are other members of the household. House maids and guards are also considered as members of the household.

Household size can vary. Only one individual can constitute a household or other individuals such as guards, other dependents, etc. are considered as part of the household if they live and eat together with those mentioned above. However if a member leaves the household and moves to another household as a guest prior to the census date and stays there for six months or more this individual is considered as member of the household he/she is currently in, not as a guest.

If the marriage is monogamous, the household may include husband, wife, children, adopted children, other relatives and non-relatives such as house maids, etc. But if the marriage is polygamous /if a man has more than one wife/ and the wives, together with their respective children and relatives, do not live in one house or cluster of houses and have common cooking arrangement and eat together, each wife of the man other than the first wife will be considered as having their own households. The husband and the first wife will be taken as constituting a household of their own.

Realizing the definitions given to housing unit, residential unit and household house number is entered in column 10. Identification number has been given by the kebele office to most of the houses in the enumeration area. Sometimes a household may occupy residential units having more than one identification number. Also more than one household can reside in a single housing unit. Hence before entering house number in this column it is necessary to understand the following points.

1. If more than one household reside in one housing unit the same house number is entered in each of the questionnaires administered to the households.
2. If a household occupies more than one residential unit assigned with different numbers the number of the main house or the number on their ID card or on ration card will be entered in column 10 card columns 21 - 24.
3. If smaller houses /service quarters/ mentioned in number 2 above are occupied by different households and are given extension number to the main house, the number on the main house will be entered in the column and it has to be noted in the remark column that they are extensions of the main house. However if the service quarters have been given their own numbers by the kebele office, then these numbers have to be entered in column 10 card columns 21 - 24.
4. If there are two or more residential units in a compound occupied by two or more households and if only one number is given to the entire compound this number will be entered in column 10 for each household. It is needed to note in the remark column that the house number is given repeatedly for units in the compound.
5. If the house does not have a number on the enumeration date the column will be left blank. Sometimes kebeles are divided into zones and the house numbers given may be repetitive with the kebele because the numbers have been given based on zones. This means, for example, if there is house number 001 in Zone 1, there can be houses in Zones 2, 3, etc. with house number 001. Under this condition house numbers can be written repeatedly and name of each zone has to be entered in the remark column.

Column 11 House sub-number

The structure may be composed of different houses or residential units and occupied by different households. If sub numbers next to the main housing number have been given by the kebele office to each house or residential units these sub numbers are entered in column 11 card columns 25 - 27.

For example, if the number of the main building is 50 and if it has four units within, then each unit will be assigned sub-numbers 001, 002, 003 and 004. It is these sub-numbers (001 - 004) that are entered in column 11 corresponding to the main house number. Furthermore if different households reside in several houses within a compound, and if one number is given to the compound and different numbers to the housing units, these numbers will be taken as sub numbers and entered in this column. Serial numbers given in alphabets need to be converted to numbers and entered in the column. For example if there are two houses in a building and "a" and "b" are given to each of the houses as sub numbers, then these have to be converted into numbers and replaced with 001 and 002. If the house does not have sub numbers nothing will be entered in the column.

[p.17]

Column 12 Purpose of the Housing Unit

For the housing unit registered in columns 9 - 11 its purpose as of the census date will be entered in this column. Type of purposes and their codes are given as follows.

1 = Residential only
2 = Residential and establishment
3 = Hotel
4 = Hostel
5 = Other collective
6 = Other establishment only
7 = Unoccupied
8 = Under construction

Definition of housing units by purpose and how to register them are given below.

1. Residential only: "Residential only" is entered in column 12 and "1" in card column 28 if the listed housing unit serves as residence of members of conventional households on the census date.
2. Residential and establishment: "Residential and establishment" is entered in column 12 and "2" in card column 28 if the listed housing unit serves as partly residential of members of conventional households and partly as establishment on the census date. Definition of establishment is given below. Note that Residential and Establishment does not include hotel, hostel and other collective.

[p.18]

Establishment

It is a social and economic unit with identified address at a given location often managed by a manager or a proprietor. This includes production units, such as shoe factory, bakery, textile factory, etc. and service units such as shoe repair, transport, health, education, legal, food and beverages and also trading of various goods.

As stated in the definition above, purpose of the housing unit is said to be for residential and establishment if household members reside and one or more of the establishment types listed above are run in the same housing unit. To mention a few:

[Examples are omitted.]

If the managers or proprietors of the establishment do not but the employees reside in the housing unit the purpose of the housing unit is for residential and establishment.

1. Hotel: "Hotel" is entered in column 12 and "3" in card column 28 if the purpose the listed housing unit is only for hotel on the census date. Note that those living in the hotel as a household are enumerated as hotel guests not as conventional households.

Hotel is an establishment that renders either meal service or drinks or lodging or both services.
[p.19-20]
2. Hostel "Hostel" is entered in column 12 and "4" in card column 28 if the listed housing unit serves as hostel on the census date.

3. Hostel: - is a collective residence administered by an organization where a number of people live together as non-conventional households sharing the available utilities in the house such as water, electricity, and others.

4. Other Collective Quarters: This includes all collective residences other than hotels and hostels, including prisons, boarding schools, nurseries hospitals, military camps, nursing homes, police stations /with detention centers/, correction centers, monasteries, labor camps.

5. "Other collective quarter" is entered in column 12 and "5" in card column 28 if purpose of the listed housing unit is one of the above on the census date. "

6. Other Establishment includes the following other than hotels, hostels and other collective quarters. These are: government offices, manufacturing enterprises, business institutions, churches, mosques, /not including personal prayer homes/ bar without lodging, grocery store without lodging, garage, store, school, …, etc.
If the registered housing unit has one of the above purposes on the census date "Other establishment" is entered in column 12 and "6" in card column 28.

7. Unoccupied: If the registered housing unit is not occupied for any reason on the census date "Unoccupied" is entered in column 12 and "7" in card column 28.

8. Under Construction: A housing unit is said to be under construction if its walls are fully erected, or the roof is covered but not fully completed. If the registered housing unit is in such status, "Under construction" is entered in column 12 and "8" in card column 28.

If however the "under construction" is rendering service at the time of the enumeration the service it is used for is entered in the column. For example if the unit under construction is occupied as a residence at the time of the enumeration it is registered as residential. If it is used as establishment, type of the establishment will be entered. If it is hotel purpose of the unit will be hotel, if it is hostel purpose will be hostel, or if other establishment its purpose will be other establishment.

Column 13 - 15: If housing unit is for residential, establishment, hotel, hostel, other collective quarter or other establishment. These columns are filled if the purpose of the housing unit is residential, establishment, hotel, hostel, other collective quarter or other establishment

[p. 21-24]

Column 13: Name or Owner's name

If the purpose of the housing unit is residential, establishment, hotel, hostel, other collective quarter or other establishment on the enumeration date legal name of the hotel, hostel, other collective quarter or other establishment, or if it does not have name, owner's name is entered in Column 13.

Column 14: Major good produced, service rendered or trade /wholesale or retail

The goods produced, service rendered or type of trade the establishment provides is entered in column 14. Type of trade will be identified and entered as retail or wholesale. If the housing unit is used for combination of trade, production and service, then the major sector will be registered based on the income generated. Definitions for production, service and trade are given as follows.

Production: The process of changing the content and form of items and goods. This includes manufacturing industries, electric power, gas and water, construction works and others in agricultural, mine, quarrying and similar sectors. The type of production is entered in column 14.

Service: This includes selling ready-to-consume foods and drinks, renting lodging, providing transport, engineering, drafting and commercial, publicity and photo copy, postal, telegraph, telephone, telex, storage, finance and insurance, accounting and auditing, legal, educational, health, spiritual, cinema and theatre, and family care services. Those who do tailoring from scratch by acquiring the stack of cloth from other source and charging for the service they render are classified in the service sector. Whereas those tailoring cloths from their stock of their own and sell the end product to merchants are classified in producer's sector and entered in column 14.

Trade: Selling goods and services without changing their form and content. There are two types of trade, namely, wholesale and retail. Trade representatives and brokers are classified under trade. Type of trade is entered in column 14.

Column 15: Number of Permanent Employees

Permanent employee means an employee aged 10 years and over who may be paid or unpaid working in hotel, hostel, other collective quarters or other establishment. This includes owners, household members of the owner, partners paid permanent employees. However this does not include temporary employees that may be discontinued in accordance with verbal or written agreement between the employer and the employee. Number of permanent employees working in hotels, hostels, other collective quarters or other establishments on the census date is entered in column 15 card columns 32 - 35.

If the establishment is a branch its number of permanent employees refers only to its own permanent employees and not including those of the headquarters. If an establishment, local liquor house, shop, etc. is run only by its owner without hiring employee, it is considered to have one permanent employee, i.e., owner.

Column 16: Serial Number of head of Household

In card columns 36 - 37 of this column serial numbers will be given to head of households registered in column 18 if the housing unit is used for residential only or partly residential and partly establishment on the census date. Serial numbers, 001, 002, etc. are given in the enumeration area until heads of households are completely registered. Definition of household was given under the instruction for filling house number in column 10 and definition of head of household is given as follows.

Head of Household: A male or female member of the household considered as head of the household by its members. If a man has more than one wife and the wives live in different households, the man is considered as head in a household where his currently surviving first wife is a member. The remaining wives will be enumerated in their respective households as heads.

Column 17: Name of Household Head

In this column the name of the head of the household is registered if the housing unit is residential only or partly residential and partly establishment on the enumeration date. It is necessary to register the name of the head of the household with the realization of the definition given to the household in column 16. If two or more households share the same dwelling each of the household heads must be registered in the column each with its own serial number. Therefore it is necessary to ask in advance how many households live in the house.

Column 18: Any household member engaged in agriculture or semi-agriculture? If yes, type of agriculture?

First it is necessary to ask the head of the household if there is any member of the household engaged in agriculture. After affirming that there is a member engaged in agriculture, the member is asked to identify the type of agriculture he/she is engaged in and it will be entered in the column. Then the corresponding code among the following is entered in column 18 card column 39.

1 = Only Crop /Those Cultivating coffee, fruits, vegetables, Chat, Enset, Maize, etc. by plowing or using other method without using oxen or other animal. Crop producers using tractor are included here. /
2 = Only Livestock Raising / Only raising livestock without crop cultivation/
3 = Other farming /Poultry, bee keeping, fishery, charcoal, etc. /
4 = Crop cultivation and livestock raising /'Crop cultivating as well as raising more than one livestock/
5 = Crop and other farming
6 = Livestock raising and other farming
7 = Crop cultivation, livestock raising and other farming

Column 19 Remark
If any problems or other cases encountered in relation to the listing it has to be indicated in this column

[p. 24-28]

Instruction Manual for The 1984 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia the Census Questionnaire

Note

The census questionnaire will be administered to residents of hotels, hostels, and other collective quarters and also to homeless just as done to conventional households. When administering the questionnaire it is important to note the following.

a. Concerning residents of hotels, hostels and other collective quarters

The following columns or parts of the Population and Housing Census will not be administered for those the code associated with "residents of hotel, hostel and other collective quarter" is entered in column 9 card column 23 regarding type of resident. The questionnaire will be administered for any resident of a hotel or for households within the hotel compound or for hotel gusts taken as resident of the hotel.

1. Part One: Column 13 - Household serial number - Not to be filled.
2. Part Four: Detail data will not be filled about residential housing units.

However one of the following will be transcribed in column 17 and the corresponding code entered for each resident of collective quarter "regarding relationship to head of household"

0 = Student in boarding school
1 = Boarding trainee
2 = Inpatient
3 = Prisoner.
4 = Contract employee
5 = Member of the military
6 = Hotel guest
7 = Resident of hotel and hostel
8 = other /state

b. Concerning homeless

With respect to resident type in column 9, the following columns or parts of the questionnaire will not be filled for homeless whose code is circled and entered in card column 23.

1. Part One: Column 10-13, i.e. housing serial number, house number, House sub number, and household serial number, will not be filled for homeless.
2. Part Two: In Column 17 "Relationship to head of household": nothing will be filled.
3. Part Three: Date on death will not be collected.
4. Part Four: No data on residential housing units will be collected.

This questionnaire is administered after listing of housing units, households and establishments is completed to collect detail data from household members and housing characteristics by going from door to door. Codes for region, district, wereda, higher, supervisory area, kebele, and enumeration area are transcribed to the appropriate columns and card columns on the cover of the questionnaire book from the Population and Housing Census map Enumeration Area file.

The questionnaire has five parts and instruction how to fill them is given as follows.

[The rural instruction has an additional headline, which reads "Instruction Manual for the 1984 Ethiopian Population and Hosing Census Questionnaire".]

Part 1: Area Identification
In column 1 - 13 area identification of the address of the enumeration area is filled.

Column 1 - Region
Name of the region where the household resides is registered in the space provided under this column.

Column 2 - District
Name of the district where the household resides is registered in the space provided under this column.

Column 3 - Wereda
Name of the wereda where the household resides is registered in the space provided under this column.

Column 4 - Town
Name of the town is registered in the space provided under this column.

Column 5 - Higher
Number of Higher is registered under this column and card columns 14-15 if the household resides in a town having Higher. If the household resides in a town not divided in Higher, then "-" will be filled in the column.

[In the rural instruction, the sections for Town and Higher are different. It says "Columns 4 and 5 -- Town and Higher: Nothing will be filled in these columns.]

Column 6 - Supervisory Area
Code number of the Supervisory Area where the household resides is entered in column 6 card columns 16-17.

Column 7 - Kebele
Code number of the kebele where the household resides is entered in column 7 card column 18-20.

Column 8 - Enumeration Area
Code number of the Enumeration Area where the household resides is entered in column 8 card columns 21-22.

Column 9 - Type of Resident
Type of resident can be residents in conventional household, hotel, hostel, and other collective quarter or homeless. Hence from the following list of codes the correct code is circled by identifying the type of resident for the household or person to whom the questionnaire is filled and the code is transcribed in card column 23.

1 = Conventional
2 = Hotel /Hostel Resident
3 = Other collective quarters resident
4 = Homeless

Column 10 - Housing unit Serial number

Housing unit serial number has been filled in column 9 of the housing unit household and establishment listing form /Form 1/ at the time of the listing operation. The housing unit number in column 9 of Form 1 has to be copied into column 10 card columns 24 - 26.

Column 11 - House Number

Column 10 is filled by copying the house number from column 10 of Housing units Households and Establishments Listing Form. If the housing unit does not have house number then the column will be filled by "___".

Column 12 - House Sub-number

House sub- number is filled by copying the house sub number from column 11 of Housing units Households and Establishments Listing Form. If the housing unit does not have house sub number then the column will be filled by "___".

Column 13 - Household serial number

The household serial number will be filled in column 13 card columns 27-29 in the order households in the enumeration area were registered in column 16 of the housing unit household and establishment listing form. The serial number for each household is filled by copying the serial number given to each household in the listing form. Since residents of hotels, hostels and other collective quarters and also homeless do not have household serial number, card columns under column 13 will be filled with "___" when filling the questionnaire for residents of hotels, hostels and other collective quarters and also for homeless.

[p. 28-36]

Part 2 - Particulars of Household members

Detailed data will be collected on each of the household members in columns 14-40.

Column 14 - Household members' serial number

This column has been designed to accommodate ten or less members of a given household. But if members of a household are over ten, additional questionnaire has to be used. All columns, column 1 -13, of the additional questionnaire will be filled by copying from the same columns in the first page questionnaire. Also serial numbers 11, 12, etc. will be given in column 14 of the additional questionnaire until all members of the household are registered by deleting serial numbers 01-10 in column 14. When registering persons living in collective quarters and the homeless the questionnaire will be used and serial numbers are given as discussed above depending on number of members.

Column 15 - Names of Household members and guests

Before registering names of conventional household members and guests in the column, it is important to know the definitions of conventional household member, household head and guest. Definition of household was given in reference to column 13 in the filling instruction of housing unit, household and establishment listing form. The definition for household head was given in the discussion presented for column 16 of the same form. Definitions for conventional member and guest are given below.

a. Conventional household member

A person is said to be conventional household member if he/she lives with the household continuously for at least six months. Persons away from the household for less than six months have to be considered as conventional household members.

The following household members have to be enumerated as conventional household members.

1. All persons who have lived with the household for at least six months at the time of the census.
2. All house maids passing the nights most of the time with the household and who don't have other residence.
3. All persons temporarily away from the household for less than six months at the time of the census. This includes members who are, for example, on vacation, travel for holiday, hospitalized, went away for family visit, business trip.
4. All who do not have other residence and who live with the household at the time of the census. For example, a woman who got married and moved from her parent's house to her husband's house is a conventional member of her husband's household even though it has been less than six months since she moved to her husband. Also a person who has got a new job and has moved permanently to another household will be member of the household he/she is with at the time of the census even though it has not yet been six months since he/she moved in.

Note: Care must be taken to not forget enumerating recently born babies and old people.

1. Students

All students who are away from their families and parents and from their regular residence and pursuing their education in schools, theological schools, colleges, universities, …, etc. have to be enumerated as conventional residents of the (city) where they attend school. Students learning in boarding schools, those who are away from their parents and go to school and live in rental homes or stay with relatives must be enumerated at these addresses even though they go to their parents on a weekly basis or once every two-week or so to bring back their food stuff or visit their parents. However if the students go back and forth to the school every day then they have to be enumerated as conventional members of the household they live with.

2. Residents of Collective quarters

All persons who are in children homes, prisons, mental health institutions hospices, etc. at the time of the enumeration are considered as members of the respective institutions and not as members of conventional households.

b. Guests

A person is said to be a guest who has passed the night on the census date in a household but not its conventional member.

Hence based on the concept and definitions given above full names of the conventional household members and then names of guests who passed the night in the house will be entered in column 15 in the following order.

  • Household head
  • Spouse
  • Unmarried children /in the order of age/
  • Married children and their children
  • Other relatives
  • Non relatives
  • Guests /After all convention household members are registered. Guests who passed the night with the household will be registered. /

It has to be noted that data to be collected from guests are only on: Name, resident status, relationship to head of household, gender and age.

Column 15.1 - Note

It is important to read full names of conventional household members and guests and their total number registered in column 14 to the respondent. A member of the household or a guest that was not registered has to be included in column 15.

Column 16 - Residence Status
The three types of residence status are listed as follows.

1 = Resident present: Conventional member of the household who was present at home at the time of the enumeration.
2 = Resident absent: Conventional member of the household who was absent at home at the time of the enumeration.
3 = Visitor: present: Non-member of household who was present at home the night of the enumeration date.

The correct code will be entered in column 16 card column 32 based on the definitions given above.

1 = Resident present
2 = Resident absent
3 = Visitor present

Column 17: - Relationship to head of household

The name entered in the first line of column 15 is always the name of the head of the household. Hence in the first line in column 17 "head" will be entered and the remaining spaces under this column will be filled with the relationship each conventional member of the household has to the head. For example if the wife of the household head is registered next to the head then "wife" will be entered in column 17. If the head has more than one wife and his wives are members of his household, then when filling their relationship with the household head "first wife" is entered for the first wife, "second wife" for the second wife,…,etc. has to be entered in column 17.

When children's relationship with head of household is filled serial numbers of their father and mother have to be entered in combination. For example when the relationship of a son/daughter of the head and spouse with the head is filled, it has to be entered as "son or daughter of 01 and 02." For a son/daughter of head only, "Son/daughter of 01", etc. will be entered.

The following are used to fill this column for relatives. The head's father, spouse's mother, the head's brother or sister, heads father in law, head's mother in law, head's brother in law, head's sister in law, , …, etc. With regard to non-relative members of the household, relationships to head of the household are expressed and entered as: house maid, cow boy, friend, dependent, etc. After the relationship of the household members with the head is correctly entered in the space provided in the column, the appropriate code is entered in card column 33 by choosing from the list of relationship codes given at top of the column. Types of relationship and their codes are given as follows.

0 = Head /husband, wife, father, mother/
1 = Spouse
2 = Son or daughter of head and spouse
3 = Son or daughter of head
4 = Son or daughter of spouse
5 = Father or mother of head/spouse
6 = Brother or sister of head/spouse
7 = Other relative
8 = Non relative

Column 18 - Gender

After entering the gender of each individual registered in Column 115, the corresponding columns are entered in card column 34. For example if the gender of the member is male, then the term "male is entered in line with his name and code "1" is entered in card column 35.Also if the member's gender is female, "female" is written in line with her name and code "2" is entered in card column 34. Since names of some people are used for both genders, gender of members should not be determined simply by referring to their names. In some areas males are called by female names and females by male names. Hence strict caution must be exercised in filling member's gender.

Column 19 Age

Age is the time length (day, month, or year) since birth up to the census date. In this column the correct age of each household member at the time of the population and housing census is filled in full years. Age in full years means age measures beyond year such as months, weeks, days re truncated and only the years are taken and registered. For example if a person's age is 15 years 5 months and 11 days, the age to register will be only 15 years and must not be 15 years 5 months and 11 days. If a child's age is below one year "00" will be entered in column 19 card columns 35-36. If on the other hand a person's age is 98 years and over, only "98" is entered in card column 35-36.

It is expected that there are people who do not know their correct ages or do not want to report their ages. Therefore it is required to make an effort as much as possible without giving up obtaining the correct age. In order to resolve these problems it is appropriate to focus on the following method which is one among others.

It is important to attempt to estimate the respondent's age with reference to historical event that took place at national level or in the neighborhood of the respondent's birth place and based on the response to questions by asking the respondent how old he/she was when the event took place or how long was his/her birth date after the event .For example if the person was born ten years before the eruption of the Ethiopian revolution, then his/her age in 1984 is more or less /1984 - 974/ + 10 = 20 years, and this will be entered. A person's age can be estimated by relating his/her birth year with historical events. For this purpose list of major historical events by year is provided for reference in appendix 1 of this manual.

Some of the household members or people livening in the neighborhood may not know their ages. This time their ages can be estimated in contrast with those who know their ages.
If the age of one of the household member is known correctly, it may be possible to estimate ages of the other members. For example if the age of the first child in the household is known to be 13, it is possible to estimate the mother's age as 29. This is because most of the time mothers are assumed to have their first child at the age of 16 and hence her age would be 13 + 16 = 29. A person's age within a group of people having blood relationship can be estimated by making comparison among them. For example, most of the time mothers give birth every two years. If one of her child is known to be 7 years old then his/her elder one can be 9. Sometimes old people report their age much higher. Their age can be estimated in comparison with the ages of their older children and grandchildren. Hence if one of the household member's age is known then age of other members has to be estimated in relation to the others.

Furthermore if a member's age is known when he got married, his current age can be estimated by considering the number of years he stayed in marriage and also in relation with his children's age.

There are people who prefer or get it easy to report their ages in numbers ending with zero or five. However they don't have to report in figures easy for them or in figures they want but need to try to get their exact ages. In fact ages of certain people can be 10, 15, 20, 25, etc.

Parents can remember birth dates of their children under the age of 10 and the children's age have to be recorded correctly in full years. When determining the child's age becomes difficult a lot of effort has to be made to arrive at the correct ages.

The correct age of each of the household members is entered in column 19 card columns 35-36 after determining their ages on the basis of the above discussion and by making the necessary effort, posing questions towards getting the right age and by making the necessary computation.

Column 20 - Religion: What is [the respondent]'s religion?

Religion is a faith a person follows or membership to a spiritual organization. It is important to present the question on the type of religion to all members of the household and fill this column. When the answer is "Christian" to this question, then the specific type has to be further identified and filled in column 20 by choosing one from codes 1 to 3 in column 20. Hence the type of religion each member follows has to be identified by asking the member and cross checking with the list given at the top of the column and to be entered in the space provided in the column and the correct code in card column 37.

1 = Orthodox
2 = Protestant /Seventh day Adventist. Pent costal, Lutheran Mekane Yesus, Baptist, Mennonite, Anglican, Presbyterian, /
3 = Catholic
4 = Islam
5 = Other religion /Example: Hindu, Jew, Jehovah, Behay, etc. /
6 = Idolatry /Sun, River, Tree, etc. /
7 = Pagan

Sometimes it may be attempted to predict religion of household members simply be taking the household head's religion. Since this is not the right approach, each of the household members must be interviewed and the response has to be entered in the column and its code in card column 37. Husband and wife can have different religions.

The type of religion filled for children will be the religion of their parents. For children born from parents with different religions their father's religion will be taken for them.

[p.36-40]

Column 21: Ethnic Group: What is [the respondent]'s ethnic group?

Each member of the household will be asked what his/her ethnic group is and the response will be entered in column 21 and its code in card column 39. If the member has difficulty in understanding the question, it is necessary to clarify to him/her by using similar terms such as blood line, tribe, and nationality. Although it has not been possible to prepare list of ethnic groups and branch communities at this moment list of major ethnic groups with their respective codes are provided below. If the major ethnic group has another name the name is given in bracket next to the major one and its branches are also put in bracket. With this understanding names of ethnic groups and their codes will be registered as follows.

1. The name of the ethnic group the respondent gives will be entered in the space provided.
2. The name of the ethnic group the respondent gave may be that of the major group or its branch. The code that will be given is that of the major group by identifying the major ethnic group the response falls in. For example if the name of the ethnic group registered in the column is Sainte, the code that will be entered in the card column is "00" because major ethnic group to which it is branch is "Amhara". This is a code for Amhara. If the name registered in the column were "Eneqor", then the major ethnic group is "Gurage" and hence code 03 will be entered in the card column.
3. If you come across with major ethnic groups or branch communities not included in the list, then its name is entered in the column and code 98, which is for "Others", will be entered in the card column.
4. For persons aged over 18 years born from two Ethiopian ethnic groups or from Ethiopian and foreign national, the ethnic group they select will be registered in the column. However if they are below 18 years of age, the ethnic group that will be decided by their parents or guardians will be registered in the column.
5. For persons born from different ethnic groups and do not want to identify themselves with either, both ethnic groups will be registered in the column and code 97, "born from different ethnic group" be entered in the card column.
6. Foreigners will be asked their citizenship and their response registered in the column.

Names and Codes of Ethnic Groups in Ethiopia

00 - Amhara /Gondere, Gainte, Semein, Farte, Gojame, Dante, Wadle, Delante, Sainte, Laste, Shewe, Gulete, Jiruye/
01 - Adere,hadere, Arere, Harare
02 - Argoba
03 - Gurage, Cheha, Enemur, Kestane, Sodo, Meskan, Muher, Silti, Gogot, Gumer, Endegagn, Enekor, Muger, Megareb, Gura, Azhaya, Welene, Mareqo, Iner,
04 - Tigre, Habab, Ad Tekele, Ad TiMariam, Mensa
05 - Tigrawawi /Tigrie. Agematay, Andertaway, Adwetay, hamasenawi, Akale Guzatawi, Serewetay, -, etc/
06 - Agew, Awnegi, Konfele
07 - Bilen
08 - Wage
09 - Kimant
10 - Beja, Bedawi, hadareb
11 - Oromo/Tulama, Itu, Kereyu, Wello, Lemu, Lika, Gelen, becho, Abicho, Selalie, Arsi, Eraya Azebo/
12 - Borena
13 - Guji
14 - Arbore, Erbore, Aldi
15 - Bussa, Musiya
16 - Dasanech, Feleb, Geleba
17 - Gewada, mashele, Kule/ Gobeze, Werze, Ale/
18 - Gidole, Darashat; Gardula, Diraytat, Duretu
19 - Konso /karate/
20 - Tsemay, Semay/Dume, Kuile/
21 - Sidama
22 - Burji dashi, Bambela
23 - Gedeo, Derasa
24 - Hadiya, Adiya
25 - Kembata, Kembicho, Hayahaya
26 - Alaba muger, Ganzo/Sis, Shay/
27 - Tamberawa
28 - Kebina
29 - Afar, Denakil, dankele/Belewse, Damohota, Dahimela, Ankela, Modayitu/
30 - Somali/kard, Issaq, hawya, Gedeburbi, Issa/
31 - Saho, Shaha /Debri Mila, Asawurta, Miniferi, Hanhazo, Irob, Tewrwua/
32 - Mao /Kenfelo, genza, Sigoyu, Gewami, Banbisha /
33 - Ari, Ara, Aro/Bako, Kalu/
34 - Hamer, Beshan, /Bana, Karo/
35 - Dami
36 - Dizi, Maji
37 - Yemsa, Yema, Janjaro
38 - Bento, Benchinon, She, Gimira
39 - Kafa, Keficho /kanga, Beshguaro/
40 - Nao, Nawo
41 - Mocha, Sheki
42 - Shako, Dizu, Bula, Dersa, Derso, Doreso
43 - Shenash, Boro /Darecha, Chico, Semein Chico/
44 - Domete, Kulo, Dawro
45 - Konta
46 - Basketo, Angila, Mashera /Doko, Dolo Dola/
47 - Dorze
48 - Gamo
49 - Ganjile, Bacha
50 - Gofa, Genu
51 - Kechem, Kacamo, Gatsam, Haruro
52 - Hoyira, Amaro, Amariti, Gidito
53 - Male
54 - Malo, Dawla
55 - Chara
56 - Welayita
57 - Zeyise, Zergula
58 - Ayida
59 - Surma, Tirma, Dama
60 - Guagu, Kuagu, Muguji, udi, Gnedenie
61 - Me-ein, Meken, Dayno, Sarkemo/Boju, Bodu, Teshan, Minit/
62 - Mesengo, majank, Mezhnger
63 - Mursi, Mun, Muni, Gnikalabong, Tama
64 - Suri, Chai, Gnikorma
65 - Zilmam, Bale, Male, Lalmam
66 - Murle/Alawo mursie, Omo Murle, Others/
67 - Agnuwa, Agnuwak, Ymbo
68 - Maban
69 - Nuwer, Obigar
70 - Gnangetom, Turkana, Buno
71 - Berta
72 - Gamili
73 - Gobat
74 - Miyu
75 - Nidashi
76 - Fakunkum
77 - Undu
78 - Gebato
79 - Benishangul
80 - Jeblawi, Areko
81 - Kunama, Bada, Kazan, Baza /Omayshe Berka, Bitama, Elit, Marda, Betit, Begodas, Tika/
82 - Woyito
83 - Felasha, Kayla, Bete Israel
84 - Koma, Komo, Hayahaya, Meden
85 Ganzza, Ganzo, /Sis, Shai, Uluha
86 - Kiwami
87 - Shita, Chita, Langa
88 - Nara, Bariya, Marda /Higer, Mogari Santora, Koyiat, Koyisha/
95 - Ethiopians whose ethnic groups not identified
96 - Non-Ethiopian foreigners
97 - Born from parents with different ethnic groups
98 - Other ethnic group

[p.41-43]

Column 22 - Language: What language do you use most often at home?

The "language you most often use at home" means a language the member of the household use most of the time to communicate with other members of the household. It may not be correct to assume that all conventional members of a household living in the same house use the same language. For example a wife of a head may speak most of the time a language of her ethnic group or that of her husband's ethnic group or the language of the ethnic group in the neighborhood she lives in. Similarly the husband may communicate most of the time with the language of his own ethnic group or the language of his wife's ethnic group or the language of the ethnic group in the neighborhood he lives in. Children may use most of the time their father's or mother's language or the house maid's ethnic group's language. Here it has to be emphasized that in this column it is the language that the household member communicates most of the time with other members of the same household. The following is how language types are registered and codes are assigned.

1. List of languages in Ethiopia and their codes are given as follows. The language each household member uses most of the time will be registered in column 22 and its code entered in card columns 40-41. For example if the language the person uses most of the time is Agewugnia, then this name is registered in the column and code 12 will be entered in card columns 40-41. If the language of another member is Kotugnia, this will be written in the column and code 16 in card columns 40-41.
2. If a language other than those in the list is found its name will be written in the column and a code 98 - code for "other" will be entered.
3. For household members using a foreign language, the name of the language is entered in the column.
4. For a child who has not yet started to speak, the language the household uses most of the time and its ode will be registered for him/her.
5. For members who are mute, the language the household uses most of the time will be registered for him/her.
6. Since there is no language used most of the time in a one-member household, the language most often used in the neighborhood will be registered for this person.

List of Ethiopian Languages and their Codes:

00 Amarignia
01 Aderignia
02 Argobignia
03 Guragignia
04 Cheignia
05 Enmurignia
06 Kestanignia Sodognia
07 Meskanignia
08 Siltignia
09 Tigre, Mensa
10 Tigrignia
11 Gafatignia
12 Agewignia/Awungnia, onfelignia/
13 Bilenignia
14 Kimantignia
15 Bejinia, Bedawignia, Badarebignia, Benikomrignia
16 Oromignia /Bejinia, Borenihmia, Kotugnia/
17 Orboregnia, EirboegniaAljenia
18 Kusegnia, Mosiyagnia
19 Dasanchignia, Gelebignia, marlegnia
20 Gewadignia,Mashlegnia, Kulegnia/Gobezignia, Werzegnia/
21 Gidolignia/Derashtignia, Gardulignia, Dildettignia, Dultegnia
22 Konsogniakaratignia
23 Damayignia /Dumeyignia, Kuwelignia
24 Sidamognia
25 Burjignia, Dashignia, Sambalignia
26 Gedeognia
27 Hadiygna, Odiyignia
28 Kembatignia, Hambatignia
29 Alabayignia
30 Tambarognia
31 Kebinignia
32 Afarignia
33 Somalignia
34 Sahognia, Shahognia
35 Maognia, /Anfilognia/ Ganzegnia, Ganzognia, Gemomignia, Bambeshignia/
36 Orignia/Aragnia, Aregnia, Arignia/Bakognia, Shanganognia/
37 Hamerignia, Bashadagnia/Banagnia, Karognia/
38 Dimignia, Majignia
39 Yemsagnia, Yemogniajanjarognia
40 Benchchignia, Benchognia, Shignia, Gemirignia
41 Kefignia, kefichignia, Michegnia, Higugnia
42 Naognia, Nawognia
43 Shekignia, Dizognia
44 Shinashagnia, Borignia/Chekognia, Dorchognia
45 Omategnia, Kulignia, Dawrognia,Kontignia
46 Basketognia, Dokognia, Dolognia, Dawelgnia
47 Dorzignia
48 Gamognia
49 Ganjulignia, Bachignia
50 Gofignia, Genugnia
51 Kechmignia, Gachamignia, Hafarignia
52 Koyrignia, Omarignia, Karignia, Gidichegnia
53 Ma-egnia
54 Malognia, Dawulignia
55 Charignia
56 Welayitignia
57 Zeysignia, Zergulignia
58 Oyidignia
59 Surmignia, Turmignia, Damignia
60 Guagugnia, Kigugnia, Mugujugnia, Dedegnia, Nidingnia
61 Me-enignia, Mekanignia, Daymignia, Barkemignia/Dignia, Tishanignia/
62 Mesengognia, Mezhngergnia, Majanegegnia
63 Mursignia, Munegnia, Munignia, Tamignia, Gnikasa Bengegnia
64 Surignia, Chayignia, Gnikaromegnia
65 Zelmamignia, Balegnia, Malegnia, Dalmamegnia
66 Mursignia
67 Agniwagnia, Agnuwakgnia, Yembognia
68 Mabengnia
69 Nuwerignia, Abigargnia
70 Gnangatognia, Turkangnia, Sumignia
71 Bortagnia
72 Wechwetignia
73 Jeblewignia, Arebegnia,
74 Gamilignia
75 Gebatignia
76 Nidan, Agarognia
77 Kunamignia
78 Komignia/Komignia, Hayahayagnia, Adinignia
79 Gumezignia, Ganzignia/Bilegnia, Shayignia, Disohagnia/
80 Kawamignia, Kimignia
81 Shetagnia, Chetagnia, Langagnia
82 Nargnia, Bargnia, Mardagnia
98 Others

[p. 44-46]

Column 23 - Place of Birth

A person's place of birth is the conventional residence of the person's mother at the time of his/her birth. The urban area or the wereda where the mother was living when she gave birth to the person is the child's place of birth. When registering place of birth it is necessary to understand the case as in this example. For example, if a person was born in a hospital or in another region, district, town or at the residence of his mother's parents the person's place of birth is the conventional residence of the mother at the time of birth and not the town or wereda or district or region where the hospital in which the person was born is located. However if the mother and the child stay over six months at the place where the child was born, i.e. hospital or residence of the mother's parents, etc., then the child's place of birth is the town in which the hospital is located or the town or wereda where the mother's parents reside. The birth place of each member of the household will be entered in the column as outlined below.
The question for place of birth contains four columns. These are:
Column 23 - Town
Column 24 - Wereda
Column 25 - District
Column 26 - Region

1. If a household member's place of birth was a town where the census is being conducted, the term "here" will be entered in the space provided in columns 23-26 "to indicate that the member was born in this town. Then "xx, xx, xx, xx" will be entered in card columns 42-49. For example if the census is being conducted in Addis Ababa City and the household member was born in Addis Ababa City then "here" will be recorded in columns 23-26 and "xx, xx, xx, xx" will be entered in card columns 42-49.
2. If the place of birth of a household member is outside of the town where the enumeration is being conducted in, the name of the town where he/she was born in will be entered in column 23. In column 24 the Wereda name where the town is located will be recorded. Similarly the district and the region where the member's birth town is located will be entered in columns 25 and 26, respectively and card columns 42-49 will be left blank.
3. If the birth place of a household member is outside of the urban area where the enumeration is being conducted and is in rural area, a "___" is entered in column 23 to indicate the member's birth place. Then the names of the wereda, district and region in which member's birth place is located in will be entered in columns 24, 25 and 26, respectively. Note that nothing will be entered in card columns. 42-49.

Column 27 - How long have you lived continuously in the town you currently live in?

The number of full years the household member has lived continuously in the town he/she currently lives in since he/she began to live in the town will be registered in column 27, and the corresponding code will be entered in card column 50. Some people move to other towns, weredas, districts or regions from an urban area where they have lived for a short period and where they were residing at the time of the census and then return to the urban area they originally were living and resume staying there. The time period these people live continuously in the urban area is from the time they returned to the urban area to settle and up until the time of the census date. People leaving the town they were living in for less than six months and returning to the town will be considered as having lived in the town continuously. It is very important to understand and be careful that the data to be filled in the card column under column 27 is only the duration the household member has lived in the town continuously. When filling card column 50 under column 27, follow the options below.

X = For those who have lived in the town since birth and until the census date and also for new born babies.
0 = For those who have lived continuously in the town for less than one year.
1 = For those who have lived continuously in the town for one year and over but less than two years
2 = For those who have lived continuously in the town for two years and over but less than three years
3 = For those who have lived continuously in the town for three years and over but less than four years
4 = For those who have lived continuously in the town for four years and over but less than five years
5 = For those who have lived continuously in the town for five years and over but less than six years
6 = For those who have lived continuously in the town for six to nine years
7 = For those who have lived continuously in the town for ten to fifteen years
8 = For those who have lived continuously in the town for over fifteen years

[p. 46-48]

Column 28 - Disability Status: Is [the respondent] disabled? If yes, state type of disability.

A person having physical or mental impairment or defect of a body part is said to be disabled. Generally speaking a disabled person is one who is limited in terms of performing social and economic functions fully and is unable to perform fully or partly the functions normal people can perform because his/her body part is impaired, injured or damaged. Each member of the household will be asked about his/her disability status and the response will be entered in column 28.

Some people are not happy when asked directly "Are you disabled?" Hence care has to be taken when posing this question to respondents. Instead of asking directly that the respondent is disabled, it is better to ask friendly and indirectly if the person has some kind of health problem, such as sight and hearing problems, difficulty of mobility due to problems on extremities of the body, etc. and try to understand the situation.

A person may have multiple disability conditions. Each household member has to be asked about his/her disability condition and identify the type among those listed, together with the corresponding codes 00 - 27, below and record the type in the space provided and its code in card columns 51-52.

List of Disability Types and Codes

Code: Disability Type

00 = Not Disabled
01 = Full blind
02 = One eye blind
03 = Two ears deaf
04 = One ear blind
05 = Deaf and Mute
06 = Deaf, Mute and Blind
07 = One leg amputated below knee
08 = One leg amputated above knee
09 = Two legs amputated below knee
10 = Two legs amputated above knee
11 = Both arms and legs amputated
12 = One arm amputated below elbow
13 = One arm amputated above elbow
14 = Two arms amputated below elbow
15 = Two arms amputated above elbow
16 = Limp/having only one leg/
17 = Limp/Having no leg/
18 = Mental sickness /Madness/
19 = Paralyzed /One leg/
20 = Paralyzed /Both legs/
21 = Paralyzed /One arm/
22 = Paralyzed /Both arms/
23 = Complete paralysis /Both arms and legs/
24 = paralyzed /One arm and one leg/
25 = Leprosy
26 = Epilepsy
27 = Multiple disability
28 = Other /Specify/

[p. 48-54]

Column 29 - 30 Educational Status: only for household members aged five years and over/

Each household member aged five years or over will be asked if he/she is enrolled in school at the time of the census and the school grade currently attending. If the member is not currently enrolled data regarding the status of his/her past school attendance will be gathered. Furthermore data on the member's literacy status and the grade the member completed will be recorded in column 30 regardless of his/her current attendance.

Column 29 - School Attendance

If currently enrolled in school, grade attending, if attended in the past, code"24", if never attended code "25".

For those five years old and over, their school enrollment at the time of the census and the grade they are in will be entered in the column. For those currently enrolled,

Questions that enable to find out correct responses have to be posed to the head of the household or to concerned persons if:

a) they have ever been enrolled in school in the past or
b) if neither have they been enrolled.

Then for those enrolled the correct code from the list of codes given below will be entered in column 29 card columns 53 and 54 after recording the label in short.

Grade Level Enrolled In

A. For currently attending

00 = Attending pre- school or under grade one
01 = Attending grade one
02 = Attending grade two
03 = Attending grade three
04 = Attending grade four
05 = Attending grade five
06 = Attending grade six
07 = Attending grade seven
08 = Attending grade eight
09 = Attending grade nine
10 = Attending grade ten
11 = Attending grade eleven
12 = Attending grade twelve
20 = Attending in school, institute, college or university at level above grade 12 to qualify with BA or BSc degree
21 = Attending college or university at level above grade 12 to obtain first degree /BA, BSc. /
22 = Attending university in post graduate program
23 = Attending educational institution that cannot be classified under regular educational standard. Examples are Priest School, Koran School, Litracy Program, Training Institute requiring lower level educational qualification.

B. For those who attended in the past and not enrolled at the time of the census

24 = For all who have attended in the past in school, institute, college or university but not enrolled at the time of the census.

C. For those who have never attended

25 = For all who have never attended in the past in any school, institute, etc. and not attending at the time of the census.

The following example makes the data collection more clear for cases which are impossible to get complete and direct response.

What is the grade level a student in the Addis Ababa Technical School who has completed his first year education and currently enrolled in his second year education is attending? This is determined by adding the grade level he is required to complete in regular school to qualify for admission in the technical; school on the school year he currently is in. Because entry to the technical school requires completion of at least 10th grade, his current grade level has to be 12 [10 + 2]

Column 30 - Highest Grade Completed

Each household member aged five years and over will be first asked if he/she can read and write. A person is said to be able to read and write if he/she can read and understand and also write in any language. People can read and write only their names and numbers are not considered as having educational qualification. Also those who can read only scripture- related and memorized texts are not taken as having been educated.

If the person does not read and write, the term "illiterate" will be entered in column 30 and "00" in card columns 55 and 56. However if the household member is able to read and write, he/she will be asked the highest grade he/she completed and then the correct code for the response among those in the list will be registered in the space provided in column 30 in line with the household member and this same code will be entered in card columns 55 and 56.

Highest grade completed refers to the highest educational grade individuals are currently attending or the highest grade level they completed in the past under the available curriculum in regular schools, universities, training institutes and the like.

The highest grade the household member completed will be registered in the space provided corresponding to the household member in column 30. Then the correct code among those listed below will be identified and entered in card columns 55 and 56.

00 = Illiterate. This includes those currently enrolled but not yet able to read and write and those who have attended in the past and discontinued attending before knowing to read and write and those who have forgotten to read and write .Also those who have never attended are included here.
01 = Completed first grade and able to read and write.
02 = Completed second grade and able to read and write. Those qualified to read and write under literacy program are considered as having completed second grade.
03 = Completed third grade and able to read and write.
04 = Completed fourth grade.
05 = Completed fifth grade.
06 = Completed sixth grade.
07 = Completed seventh grade.
08 = Completed eighth grade.
09 = Completed ninth grade.
10 = Completed tenth grade.
11 = Completed eleventh grade.
12 = Completed twelfth grade.
20 = Completed education of one year or more in a program above 12th grade offered in schools, institutes, colleges or universities, that is not intended to qualify with first degree /BA. BSC/.
21 = Completed education of one year or more in a program above 12th grade offered in colleges or universities, that is intended to qualify with first degree /BA. BSC/ but not yet awarded with degree.
22 = Completed education with first degree /BA, BSC, LLB/ and having similar qualification.
23 = Completed a one year or more of education above first degree in graduate program in university with but not awarded with MA, MSC, LLM.
24 = Completed education with master's degree /MA, MSC, LLM/ and having equivalent qualification.
25 = Completed education with doctorate degree or equivalent qualification.
26 = Able to read and write but their qualification cannot be classified according to the standard educational classification. For example, priests, monks, other members of the clergy, sheiks, etc. who have attended schools in churches, monasteries and mosques and in others and learned how to read and write come under this category with regard to the highest grade completed. Those who could read and write by learning on their own with the help from others prior to completing first grade come under this category. This includes those attending literacy program and who can read and write.

To determine the highest grade completed for a person who has attended or still attending other than regular school and university the number of academic years completed in the institution or equivalent level is added on the grade or level completed in regular school. For example, if some years ago the requirement for entrance to a nursing school was to complete eighth grade in regular education, and the course in the nursing school takes three years to complete the professional training then grade completed will be calculated as: 8 + 3 = 11. Hence 11 will be entered in card columns 55 and 56.

But if the requirement for admission to a nursing school was completion of 11tth grade from regular schools, then the situation has to be treated differently. One who completes a three-year nursing training without any repetition and having no further regular education is said to have completed 14, i.e. /11 + 3/. For people who have attended or currently attending evening schools, teachers training institutes, commercial, technical, telecommunications, etc. schools or institutes, their highest grade completed will have to be determined in the same way.

One thing worth noting here is that the highest grade completed for a person who has studied in different educational institutions will be the highest grade among these. For example, let us assume a nurse completed 11th grade in regular school and also 3 years training in nursing school and later completed 12th grade in evening school and further pursued her education in the university extension program for three years. The highest grade this person completed is: First) grade completed in regular school (11) plus years completed in nursing institute (3) equals 14. On the other hand if she has completed 11th grade in regular school and completed 12th grade in extension session of regular school and further completed 3rd year education in a university, then the highest grade she completed will be 15 /11 + 1 + 3/. If she completed a three year education above 12th grade under a program unintended to obtain degree, code "20" will be entered in card columns 55 and 56 or code "21" will be entered in the card columns under a program intended to obtain a degree.

As can be understood from the second example above, the standard of some vocational training institutes does not match with that in regular schools and universities. And this does not have to create any confusion because the required data is highest grade completed not the school or institute standard people have attended or are still attending.

[p. 54-55]

Columns 31 - 36: For household members ten years and over

Column 31 Marital Status

This column must be for all members of the household aged ten years and over. For household members aged below ten years, /—/ will be entered in column 31. Marriage means union between man and woman through legal or traditional ceremony and living together as husband and wife.

Categories of marriage and their codes are given below to indicate marital status.

1 = Never married.
2 = Married
3 = Divorced /Married before the census day and divorced legally or traditionally before the census day. /
4 = Widowed /Person whose spouse has died and has not remarried until census day/
5 = Separated /Husband and wife whose marriage is not annulled legally or traditionally but separated on the census day due to misunderstanding/

Based on the listing of categories of marital status given above the correct code of marital status will be entered in column 31 card column 57 for household members ten years and over.

[p. 55-59]

Columns 32 - 36: Questions on Economic Status for Household Members Aged Ten Years and Over.

Data to be collected on economic status in urban areas refer to current economic activities in the last seven days prior to the census day. This includes number of days individuals have been employed in productive activity during the past seven days, and if they have not been employed reason for not, type of employment, main production of the enterprise, and type of service the industry renders, or type of business and also employment status.

Column 32 - How many days have you been engaged in productive work in the last seven days?

Household member aged ten years or above will be asked if he/she has been engaged in productive activity during the last seven days prior to the census day and the response is entered in column 32, card column 58. Number of days that is entered may be 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7. A person is said to have worked for one day if worked for four hours and over in a day. If the person has worked for less than one day in the last seven days, or has not worked at all, then he/she will be considered as not worked. For those who have worked for less than one day or who has never worked, "00" will be entered in this column card column 58. If the household member has worked over the last seven days, then "7" will be recorded in card column 58. Definition of productive activity and classification of productivity by sector are presented as follows and it is important to understand them well.

Productive activity is the process of producing goods and services with the intention of marketing and to exchange in cash or in kind in order to derive income. The activity may be run in enterprises under private, family, private, government or public ownership and payment or income may be secured on daily, weekly, monthly basis, or in proportion to the work done.

Moreover those engaged in crop production, livestock raising and poultry farming, hunting and fishery and use their entire production to household consumption instead of bringing to market are considered to have been engaged in productive activity.

But in-house work and service is not considered productive. For example the time a housewife spends on preparing food and tella (local drink) and similar items for the household consumption is not considered as being engaged in productive activity. In addition beggars, those who live in prostitution serving in bars or otherwise and others are not considered as being engaged in productive activities.

However, owners of bars and hotels who employ cooks, janitors and housekeepers other than bar ladies and bartenders, etc. are considered to have been engaged in productive work and "Employer" will be entered for them as their employment status. Female owners employing workers other than bar ladies are considered to have been engaged in productive activity and "self-employed" will be entered for them as their employment status. Furthermore both males and females employed in government hotels and working as waiters and waitresses are considered as being engaged in productive activity. In addition people working and volunteering in public and humanitarian organizations and others without pay (having no other job) and those working in garage and similar places to acquire experience are considered as working in productive activities.

Productive activities are classified in the following categories.

a. Agriculture: This includes crop production, cattle breeding, poultry, beekeeping, hunting and fishing.
b. Mining and Quarrying: Includes digging for mineral/ iron, charcoal, etc. / stone, sand, lime, etc.
c. Manufacturing: Production of materials and goods that entails transformation of form and content of materials. This does not include production by households for own consumption and utility. Examples of manufacturing include shoe making, bottling of soft drinks, producing cement, bricks and other household items. Preparing food and brewing traditional drinks such as Tella, Katikala and Tej at home and selling to another retailer is classified in productive activity. But preparing and selling traditional foods and drinks at home is considered as trade. Those who purchase textile and make cloths and sale are classified in trade. However those sewing cloths supplied with fabrics are classified in other services but those sewing cloths from own fabric and sale to retailers are classified as producers.
d. Electric power gas and water: Includes generating and distributing these.
e. Construction: Includes the act of constructing buildings, roads, bridges, dams and similar others.
f. Trade: This includes buying and selling goods and materials without changing their form and content. For example, trade of textile, goods, etc. come under here. Brewing and selling Tella, Tej, katikala and the like at home also come under trade. Also retail and whole sale trades are included within this category.
g. Transport and communication: This includes provision of transport services to transport passengers, materials and goods from one location to another for individuals, families and agencies. It also includes postal, telephone, telegraph and telex and similar services.
h. Finance: This includes financial and insurance services offered by banks, insurance companies, auditing agencies.
i. Other services: Selling various services, other than transport service, to individuals, families and to organizations. For example, medical service, educational service, interior administration or defense administration human and religious services, personal service, hair dressing, laundry/ washing and ironing for cash/, and maintenance of instruments and various services. Auto services and sewing cloths provided with fabrics, etc. are included in here.

Column 33: Reason for not working

This column is filled for those who have not worked in the last seven days prior to the census day or for those "0" was entered in column 32. Those who have not been engaged in productive activity in the last seven days may be grouped in one of the following.

01 = Unemployed without work experience: - These are people who have not worked even for one day due to not finding job and never having work experience. These are who have attempted to find job and are ready to work if they get one.
02 = Unemployed with work experience: - These are people who have not worked even for one day in the last seven days but have work experience. They may or may not have tried to get job and they are ready to work.
03 = Employed but did not worked in the last seven days: - These are people who have regular job but haven't worked even for one day in the last seven days due to illness, annual leave, accident, -, etc.
04 = Not worked because of off work season: - These are people who have job but have not worked because the factory didn't have raw material or the factory is undergoing annual renovation, -, etc.
05 = Student: - These are people who have been enrolled in any kind of educational institution in a regular program during day time and who have not worked for even one day in the last seven days.
06 = Unpaid house workers: - These are people who don't get payment in cash or in kind and who only work any kind of job in the house., These are house wives, relatives, -, etc.
07 = Disabled: - These are people who were not able to work due to physical handicap or mental illness. Disabled people who are doing begging are categorized under beggars.
08 = Beggars: - These are people who run their lives by begging. Disable people who beg are considered as beggars.
09 = Prostitutes: - These are those engaged in prostitution working as waitresses in bars or having their own booth of drinks or others engaged in similar activities.
10 = Child: - Has not worked even for one day because too young to work.
11 = Pensioners, living with family support and contribution: - These are people who live by getting money from annuity, pension, saving, family support and contribution. Senior pensioners are included in here. If encountered with others different than mentioned above they are also grouped here.

Based on the codes given above the correct answer will be recorded in the space provided under column 33 and the code in card columns 59 and 60.

Note:

1.If a person is disabled and engaged in productive activity and meets the definition of productive activity as defined in column 32, then he/she is considered as working and not assigned code "06" which refers to Disability as reason for not working.
2. If a person has income from pension, insurance, property, etc. and has worked in the last seven days, he/she is considered as working and not living with pension or with family support and contribution.
3. Evening students having no job but making effort to find a job are registered as unemployed.

[p. 60-64]

Column 34 - 36: To be asked for those who have been engaged in productive activity at least for one day in the last seven days, and for unemployed having work experience/ Column 33 Code 02/, for Employed but have not worked in the last seven days/Column 33 code 03/, Not worked because of off - season/Column 33 code 04/

Column 34: What is type of occupation?

This column is filled only for those who have been engaged in productive activities for one day or more in the last seven days prior to the census date, for unemployed with work experience, for employed but have not worked in the last seven days, and for those who have not worked because of off - season. These people have certain kind of occupation and the occupation will be registered in this column. When registering the occupation it has to be registered so that it is easy to identify it. For example writing "medical professional" does not tell the specific type of occupation. Therefore it is important to specifically state the occupation type such as: "Health Assistant", Sanitarian", Nurse", or "Medical Doctor".

[Examples of occupation types are omitted here.]

Some individuals may have more than one occupation. In this case the type of occupation that must be recorded in column 34 is the type among the two or three occupations the individual spent more time in the last seven days.

Only the occupation type is recorded in for the household members and nothing will be entered in card columns 61 - 63.

Column 35: Major Production or Service of Employing Industry

In order to fill column 35 it is important to ask the person where or in which industry he/she works and then what the organization produces, distributes /wholesale or retail trade/ or what kind of service it provides. In this column the type of product, service or trade must be recorded clearly.

The following listing shows types of products, trade or services and they have to be understood.

1. Agriculture, Hunting and Fishing
a. Cereal pulses farming
b. Vegetable and fruit farming
c. Enset cultivation
d. Coffee farm
e. Chat cultivation
f. Cattle Raising
g. Poultry farming
h. Hunting
i. Fishery

2. Mining, Quarrying
a. Stone Quarrying
b. Salt Quarrying
c. Gold Mining
d. Sand Quarrying, etc.

3. Manufacturing
a. Abutter
b. Milk and milk products production in factory
c. Food oil production
d. Sugar production
e. Textile production
f. Brewing Tella, Tej and Katikal and selling, etc. to traders

4. Electric and Gas
a. Electric light and water
b. Water works and water distribution

5. Construction
a. Building contractor
b. Electric works contractor
c. Building maintenance…etc.

6. Trade, Hotel, Restaurant, Bar, Snack Bar,…,etc.
a. Foreign Trade
b. Domestic Trade
c. Retail Trade
d. Domestic Wholesale Trade
e. Hotel, Restaurant…etc.

7. Transport and Communication
a. Land and Air Transport
b. Train Transport
c. Communication, etc.

8. Finance Insurance and Commercial Service
a. Banking
b. Insurance
c. Legal service
d. Accounting and Auditing Services
e. Engineering and Consultancy Services, etc.

9. Social and Private Services
a. Government Offices and Defense
b. Educational Services
c. Health Service
d. Professional Associations

10. Recreation and Cultural Services
a. Radio and Television Services
b. Theatre Service, etc.

11. Personal and Family Services
a. Shoe Repairer
b. Electrical Equipment mender

12. International Organizations and Embassies
a. African Economic Commission
b. Organization of African Unity
c. Embassies

Based on the example mentioned above, major production or trade or service the organization where the person works in will be recorded in the space provided in column 35. Nothing will be entered in card columns 64-66.

Column 36: Employment Status

For all household members occupation and major product or service of industry are filled for, employment status will be recorded in brief in column 36 and the correct code will be entered in card column 67 from the list of codes given below.

List of Employment Status and their Codes

0 = Employer: - A member who owns and runs a business by himself/herself and hiring one or more employees in his/her business.
1 = Public Employee: - One who works for public office paid with salary or in kind.
2 = Employee for producers or Service Cooperative Association: - Working for Producers or Service Cooperative Association paid salary or in kind.
3 = Employee of Private Organization: - Hired employee for private or private family paid in salary or in kind.
4 = Employee of International Organization: - Employees of embassies, United Nations Agencies, Overseas Organizations, Organization of African Union-etc.
5 = Member of Producers Service Cooperative Association: - Member of the producers association working for the association and member of the Service Cooperative Association.
6 = Self Employed: - A member who runs own organization on his/her own or with the help from family. This does not include members of Service Cooperative Association.
7 = Unpaid Employee of Family Organization: - A member working for the organization owned by the family he/she lives in.
8 = Other: - /for Humanitarian, public organizations, faith organizations, workers without pay, etc. /

[p.64-65]

Columns 37 - 40: For All women Ten Years Old and Over

In these columns all women aged ten years and over will be asked the number live birth they have given and the number filled in these columns.

Before entering any data in these columns, it is important to understand the definition of "live birth". Live birth means a newborn baby has life as the time of birth. In general number of babies born live does not include abortion or still birth.

Columns 37 - 39: Total number of children ever born to [the respondent]?

For women ten years and over who has never had children born to them "00" will be entered in the card columns under columns 37, 38 and 39.

Column 37: Living at Home

Number of children by gender living with the household their mother is a member of will be entered in card columns 68 and 69 under column 37. Code "00" will be entered in card columns 68 and 69 for women aged ten years and over if the children do not live with them.

Column 38: Living elsewhere

In column 38 card columns 70 and 71 number of children living elsewhere will be entered by gender. If the children born to the woman do not live elsewhere then "00" will be entered in this column and in card columns 70 and 71.

Column 39: Dead

Number of children dead by gender, if any, will be entered in column 39 card columns 72 and 73. However if there are no children dead "00" will be entered in this column card columns 72 and 73. When filling this column it has to be noted that children dead means those who died after they were born.

Column 40: Live births in the last 12 months

Women aged ten years and over will be asked number of children they gave birth to in the last twelve months and the number will be entered in card column 74 under column 40 labeled "Total".

Furthermore number of children born during the last twelve months up until the census day and still surviving will be entered in card column 75 of column 40 under label "Surviving". The last 12 months means 12 months before the census day. For example if the census day is April 23, 1984 then the 12 months duration before this date ranges from April 24, 1983 to April 22, 1984. If the woman has not given birth in the last 12 months, then "0" will be entered in card columns 74 and 75.

[p. 66]

PART 3: Data on Death

Column 41: Household Members Dead in the Last 12 Months

The household will be asked if there has been a regular member of the household who has died in the last 12 months. If there is any, then full name of the deceased by age and gender will be recorded in card columns 67 to 90. With regard to gender, "1" will be entered for male and "2" for female deceased members of the household. Also age of the deceased at the time of death will be entered in full years in the appropriate card columns.

This column is designed to accommodate data for up to five deceased household members. If the number of deceased household members exceeds five, then the additional data on death must be recorded in the blank space at the bottom.

[p. 66]

PART 4: Detail Information on Residential Housing Units

Instruction:- Understand the following points before filling part 4.

1. If there are more than one household residing in a single house , data on the housing unit is collected only from one of the households and part of the questionnaire pertaining to residential housing unit for the remaining households will be marked by "-----".
2. If a household resides in more than one house then the data to be collected with regard to housing will be by taking all the houses as one unit.
3. Data on hosing is collected only if the purpose of the housing unit is fully residential or semi residential on the census day.
4. The questionnaire will not be administered for housing units used for establishments and not inhabited at the time of the census.
5. Response options for most of the questions in this part are pre coded. First circle the correct response and then enter the same in the appropriate space.
6. When asking about the availability of television, electric light, radio, and telephone in the house, it is considered available regardless of its working condition.
7. It is important to carefully identify the correct answer when collecting housing data especially data on building materials of the house wall, roof, floor and ceiling. Furthermore it is recommended to walk through the rooms and around the house to assist the respondent.
8. It is important to understand well and explain to the respondent the definitions given to the parts of the house such as room, roof, ceiling, modern kitchen, traditional kitchen, safe water, ,-,etc. and find the correct response and record it in the designated column.


[p67-71]

[The instruction for urban and rural areas for questions 42 onwards are different. From here on, the urban and rural questionnaires will be discussed separately.]

Detail Information on Residential Housing Units -- Urban form

Column 42: What is type of housing unit?

1 = Permanent
2 = Improvised
3 = Mobile
4 = Other /Specify/______________
Permanent house

A type of house including one that is built from stone, brick, cement or other building, materials available in the surrounding. For example villa, high rise, House from mud, etc. come under this category.

Improvised

This type of housing includes temporary shelters and also residential houses in the rural areas. This is made of woods erected up from ground, walls and roofs made from cartoons, iron sheet, etc. that may not last long but inhabited by people at the time of the census. For example a hut made from poles' and covered with leaves and branches can be considered as improvised housing unit if it is inhabited at the time of the census

Mobile
It is a housing unit made to move from one place to another and inhabited by people. For example house of nomads, tent, ship, boat, etc. are mobile houses if people live in them at the time of the census.

Other
A house, other than those described above is included in here. After indicating "Other" as type of house, its type is specified in words. For example, a graveyard.

According to the instruction given above the correct code will be circled and entered in card column 30

Column 43: Location of the housing unit in a building

Type of the building the housing unit is a part of will be described in column 43. Building is an independent structure that has one or more rooms covered with roof and wall. One building may be a single residential unit or may include several residential units. For example villa, apartments, or horizontally attached houses come here.

The location of the housing unit in a building will be identified and circled from the following list of codes and entered in card column 31.

0 = None-storied and independent single housing unit
1 = None-storied building having two adjoining housing units
2 = Non-storied building having 3 to 5 adjoining housing units
3 = Non-storied building having 6 and more adjoining housing units
4 = One or more storied building having one independent housing unit
5 = One or more storied building having 2 to 3 adjoining housing units
6 = One or more storied building having 4 to 6 adjoining housing units
7 = One or more storied building having 7 to 10 adjoining housing units
8 = One or more storied building having 11 and more adjoining housing units

If a building is entirely residential apartment building number of adjoining housing units can be determined by counting them and also if the building is occupied by apartment residents and by offices, their numbers can be identified separately as well.

Column 44: What is the purpose of the housing unit?

If the purpose of the housing unit is only for residential it is said for residential. However if it is partly residential and partly establishment it is semi-residential semi-establishment. For example if the people use their residence as a shop or for selling tella (local drink), or for weaving, etc. then the purpose of the house is said to be residential and establishment.

With regard to the purpose of the housing unit, the correct code from the following list of codes will be circled and entered in card column 32.

1 = Residential only
2 = Residential and establishment

Column 45: What is the main building material the wall of the housing unit was constructed from?

The main building material of the wall will be asked and identified among those enumerated below and entered in card column 33 after circling it. If encountered with building material other than listed here, record the name in line with "other" and enter code 8 in card column 33.

0 = Brick
1 = Stone and cement
2 = Cement and mud
3 = Cement Block
4 = Wood and mud
5 = Bamboo, Wicker and mud
6 = Concrete Cement
7 = Iron sheet
8 = Other /Specify/ _________

Column 46: What is the main building material the roof of the housing unit was built from?

Roof: - A covering of a house or a room resting on upper edge of walls to prevent the inner part of the house or room from rain, wind, dirt, etc.

The main building material of the roof will be asked and identified among those enumerated below and entered in card column 35 after circling it. If encountered with a building material other than listed here, record its name in line with "other" and enter code 8 in card column 35.

0 = Corrugated iron
1 = Concrete/Cement
2 = Cement
3 = Wood and mud
4 = Thatch
5 = Reed/Bamboo
6 = Asbestos
7 = Other /specify/__________

Column 47: What is the main building material the floor of the housing unit was made from?

The building material most of the floor of the house is made from will be asked and the response from the given codes of building materials will be identified and circled and entered in card column 35. If encountered with building material of the floor other than given in the list its name is recorded in the space next to "other' and code 8 is entered in card column 35.

0 = Earth/mud
1 = Wood tiles
2 = Cement/Concrete finish
3 = Plastic tile
4 = Cement or clay tile
5 = Marble tile
6 = Stone
7 = Bamboo/Reed
8 = Other (Specify) ____

Column 48: Do most of the rooms of the housing unit have ceiling?

Ceiling: - An interior cover of the house or the room beneath the roof. The ceiling is attached with the house wall and the wood, iron, etc. that supports the roof and it can be made of garment, lumber, plywood, chip wood, cement, etc.

After asking if most part of the house has ceiling one of the correct option from the following options will be circled and the code entered in card column 36 If only one room has a ceiling and most of the rooms of the house do not have then the house is considered as having no ceiling.

1 = Yes
2 = No

Column 49: If the house has ceiling, what is it mainly made from?

The main type of material the ceiling of the house is made from will have to be identified from the list of codes of materials given below and circled and entered in card column 37. If encountered with a ceiling material other than listed here, record its name in line with "other" and enter code 7 in column 49 card column 37.

1 = Fabrics
2 = Hard fabrics
3 = Chip board
4 = Wooden
5 = Cement or concrete
6 = Clipboard
7 = Other (Specify) ____

Column 50: How many rooms does the house have?

A room is a space inscribed by wall from floor level up to the height of the ceiling or the roof or surrounded by a wall having a height of 2 meters and which has an area of four square meters having enough space to accommodate a bed for an adult. Number of rooms includes living room, dining room, bedroom, kitchen, service quarters and rooms for other purposes. But bath rooms, hallways and porches are not considered as rooms.

Hence the number of rooms will be entered in the space provided in column 50 card columns 38 and 39. If a household has more than one housing unit then the numbers of rooms of all housing units have to be summed and the total will be recorded in the space provided.

[p.72-73]

Column 51: What the type of tenure the housing unit?

Tenure indicates the proprietor of the house property. The house may be a private property of members of the household inhabiting in it and no one of them is paying rent. If the house is rented then the renter may be the Kebele Administration or Rental Hosing Administrative Agency.

Furthermore if a household is living in a house whose rent is higher than their own house at another location paying the difference the house they live in considered a rented house.

Properties free from rent include those owned by Kebele (local) Administration, government, or agencies and given to certain residents to live in without being charged or those entrusted to take care of the property by relative, friend, etc.

In this column ownership of the house is asked and the correct response from the list of codes given below will be circled and entered in card column 40.

1 = Owner occupied
2 = Rented from Kebele or City Residents Association
3 = Rented from public housing agency
4 = Paying difference in rent
5 = Rent free

Column 52: If the house is rental, how much is the monthly rent?

If the response to question 51 is code 2 or 3 or 4, then the amount of rent will be asked and recorded in column 52. When recording the rent in column 52, cents must be rounded up to the nearest Birr (Ethiopian currency). This means that cents over 50 cents but less than a birr will be rounded to one Birr and cents less than 50 cents will be dropped down. For example if the monthly rent is Birr 10.50, then 10.50 will be recorded in the space provided and 0011 in card columns 41 to 44. However if the house rent was Birr 10.25, then the figure 20.25 will be recorded in column 52 and, 0010 in card columns 41 to 44.

If a house is rented by two or more households, the amount of monthly house rent recorded will be the sum total of rent all households pay. If a household rents more than one house the amount of rent will be the total of all rents. Also if an individual has own house and resides in another house with higher rental value than his house but pays only the difference between the rental values of the house he rented and that of his own, then the rent recorded in this column will be the difference. For houses with undetermined rental value, it is necessary to indicate in the column that it is undetermined.

[p.73-74]
Column 53: What type of kitchen does the house have?

A house may have one or more rooms used to prepare food. A room is taken as kitchen if it is used to prepare food most of the time even if people sleep in it. The kitchen may be used only by the household living in the house or shared by other households living in another houses.

Private kitchen: - It is a kitchen used only by one or more households living in the house.

Common kitchen: - It is a kitchen used commonly by the household in living the house and households in another place.

No kitchen: = A house said to have no kitchen if the household living in it uses other rooms of the house to prepare food because it does not have room for this purpose or if the household prepares food outdoor in the field.

If a house has both modern and traditional kitchens code 2 will be circled in column 53 as having modern kitchen. After confirming that the house has a kitchen the correct type will be identified and circled from the list given below and entered in column 53 card column 45.

1 = No kitchen
2 = Modern kitchen, private
3 = Modern kitchen, shared
4 = Traditional kitchen, private
5 = Traditional kitchen, shared

Modern kitchen: -

A kitchen with at least pipe water and sink and also having a stove to prepare food with one or more source of fuel from electric, butane, diesel, or fire wood or coal,-, etc. is said to be modern kitchen.

Traditional kitchen

A kitchen with no pipe water and sink where wood, coal, leaves, etc. are used as source of fuel for cooking is said to be traditional kitchen.

Column 54: What is house's major source of fuel for cooking?

Residents in the household will be asked what source of fuel they mostly use to cook their foods, and based on their response one of the options given below is identified and circled. The code selected will be entered in column 54 card column 46.

1 = Electricity
2 = Gas
3 = Electricity and gas
4 = Electricity, firewood and charcoal
5 = Gas, firewood and charcoal
6 = Firewood and charcoal
7 = Firewood
8 = Other (Specify) ____

[p-75-78]

Column 55: Where does the house get water?

Residents in the house will be asked the source of water they sue for drinking and food preparation, and based on their response one of the options given below is identified and circled. The code selected will be entered in column 55 card column 47.

1 = Tap inside the house
2 = Tap in compound, private
3 = Tap in compound, shared
4 = Outside compound, public tap
5 = Tap outside compound, shared
6 = Protected well or spring
7 = Unprotected well or spring
8 = River or lake/pond

In order to clearly identify the sources of drinking water described by codes "6" or "7" it is necessary to carefully realize the definition of "Safe water" from "well, spring".

Methods of safekeeping well water and spring water are given below.

1. There must be a wall built with cement encircling the well or spring, i.e.
a. For a well: the wall has to be a minimum of at least 2 to 4 meters deep from the ground level and 70 centimeters high above the ground.
b. For a spring: its depth extends up until hard stone is at its base and a wall built above ground as high as necessary.
2. The wall surrounding the well or the spring needs to have a firm lid built from cement or other unyielding material.
3. There must be an outlet to divert the direction of flood to prevent the flood from flowing into the well or the spring.
4. The well or the spring must be at a distance of at least 25 to 30 meters from objects such as latrine that may infect the water.
5. If the source of infection such as the one pointed in 4) above is located at a higher level from the well or the spring then its distance must be further than indicated in 4) above.

If the household gets water from the above sources then it is said the household has access to safe water. In general it can be said that the water obtained from river or lake is unsafe water, except water from the pipe. This means that households using water from river, lake or pond are not using safe water. Pipe water is generally considered safe water.

Column 56: What kind of bathing facility does the house have?

The type of bathroom the house has will be asked and based on the response one of the options given below is identified and circled. The code selected will be entered in column 56 card column 48.

1 = None
2 = Bath tub, private
3 = Bath tub, shared
4 = Shower, private
5 = Shower, shared
6 = Bath tub and shower, private
7 = Bath tub and shower, shared

Column 57: What kind of toilet facility does the house have?
The type of toilet the house has will be asked and based on the response one of the options given below is selected and circled. The code selected will be entered in column 57 card column 49. If the house has a pit and also restroom with flush, then restroom with flush will be selected and recorded in the column. If the house has a toilet which is out of order as a result of waste overflow, or breakage beyond recovery then the house is considered as having no toilet.

1 = None
2 = Flush toilet, private
3 = Flush toilet, shared
4 = Pit, private
5 = Pit, shared

Column 58: What source of lighting facility does the house have?
The source of light the house has will be asked and based on the response one of the options given below is identified and circled. The code selected will be entered in column 58 card column 50.

1 = Electricity (Meter, private)
2 = Electricity (Meter, shared)
3 = Masho (storm lantern)
4 = Lantern
5 = Kerosene lamp
6 = Other (Specify) ____

Column 59: Is there a radio in the house?

Residents of the house will be asked if they have radio based on the response one of the options given below is identified and circled. The code selected will be entered in column 59 card column 51.

1 = Yes
2 = No

Column 60: Is there a telephone in the house?

Residents of the house will be asked if they have telephone and based on the response one of the options given below is identified and circled. The code selected will be entered in column 60 card column 52.

1 = Yes
2 = No

Column 61: Is there a television in the house?

Residents of the house will be asked if they have television and based on the response one of the options given below is identified and circled. The code selected will be entered in column 60 card column 52.

1 = Yes
2 = No

Column 62: How many households live in the house?

In this column number of households residing in the house is recorded. If number of households residing in the house is "1" or "2" then either of these numbers will be entered in column 62 card column 54.

Column 63: How many members of a household(s) live in the house?

In this column number of members of the household (s) residing in the house will be recorded in column 63 card columns 55-60 disaggregated by gender. In card columns 55 and 56, number of male members and in card columns 5 and 58, and total of members in card columns 59 and 60 will be entered.

Column 64: Name signature and date

This column is for the enumerator and supervisor to put their respective names, signatures and the date the enumeration and supervision were conducted to confirm the enumeration was executed correctly. Thus after completing each questionnaire for every household, enumerators are required to put their names, signatures and record the date the questionnaire was administered to verify the population and housing census was executed correctly. Additionally the supervisors have to record their names and sign to witness that the enumeration was executed in accordance with the enumeration manual and also put the date they perform the supervision.

Detail Information on Residential Housing Units -- Rural form

Columns 42 - 45: What is the main building material of the housing unit?

The main building material of the house's wall and roof will be asked and the given response will be identified from the following code list and circled and this same code will be entered in column 40 card column 30. If the answer is code 8, then the main building material will be specified in the blank space provided.

0 = Wall from wood and grass and roof from grass
1 = Wall from wood and mud and roof from grass
2 = Wall from wood and mud and roof from wood and mud
3 = Wall from wood and mud and roof from iron sheet.
4 = Wall from stone and roof from grass
5 = Wall from stone and roof from iron sheet
6 = Wall from stone and roof from wood, mud and grass
7 = Wall from stone and roof from wood, stone, mud and grass
8 = Other /specify/ ____

Column 43: How many rooms does the house have?

A room is a space inscribed by wall from floor level up to the height of the ceiling or the roof or surrounded by a wall having a height of 2 meters that has an area of at least four square meters having enough space to accommodate a bed for an adult. Number of rooms includes living room, dining room, bedroom, kitchen, service quarters and rooms for other purposes. Although bath rooms, hallways and porches are unlikely to be found in rural areas they are not considered as rooms if encountered.

Number of rooms will be entered in the space provided in column 41 card columns 31 and 32. If a household has more than one housing unit then the total number of rooms of the house is determined by summing all rooms in the entire housing units and recorded in the space provided. If the household has prayer room, room for guests and private mosque they are considered as part of the household's residential unit and each counted as a room. If there is a room for the cattle outside of the house, it is not considered as a house and will not be given a house number.

Column 44: Status of the House Kitchen

A question will be asked if the house has a separate room as a kitchen or if residents of the house use a room as a kitchen in addition to other purposes or if the house does not have kitchen and the response will be entered in the column accordingly. A house is said to have no kitchen if the house does not have a separate room as a kitchen or if the residents do not use other room as a kitchen in addition to using the room for other purposes and if the household prepares its food outside of the house in the field or under tree, etc.
Hence status of the house kitchen will be asked and the response given will be identified among the list of codes given below and circled. Then the code will be entered in column 42 card column 33.

1 = Has no kitchen
2 = Has separate room as a kitchen
3 = Use the room they pass the night as kitchen
4 = Use the place for the cattle as kitchen

Column 45: Do cattle pass the night in a place where the household passes the night?

The household will be asked if the cattle stay the night in the place the household passes the night and the response will be identified and circled from the list of codes given below and the code will be entered in column 43 card column 34.

1 = Yes
2 = No

[Starting from here, the instructions for urban and rural area are similar. Differences between them will be noted.]

[p.78-83]

Instruction for filling Summary Form for Enumeration Area /Form 4/

This form is used to summarize number of residential housing units, households, population size by gender, number of births, deaths, literates, illiterates and number of people by ethnic group in the enumeration area. The raw data are found in the population and housing census enumeration questionnaire. After verifying the census questionnaire is completed date to be transferred to the summary form will be transferred.

The summary form is to be filled on a daily basis as of the date the census enumeration begins until the enumeration is completed in the enumeration area.

Part 1 Area Identification
This part is used to register the address of the enumeration area the enumeration is being conducted in.

Columns 1 - 3: Region, District and Wereda

Column 1: Region
Names of the region, district and wereda where the enumeration area is located is entered in columns 1 - 3.

Columns 4-5: Town and Higher
Name of the town where the enumeration area is located is recorded in column 4 and code of higher in column 5 card columns 9 and 10. If the town does not have higher "____" will be entered in card columns9 and 10.
[In the rural instruction, section on Town and Higher is slightly different. It says "These columns are left blank".]

Column 6: Supervisory Area
Code number of the supervisory area where the enumeration area is located is entered in column 6 card columns 11-12.

Column 7: Kebele
Name of the kebele where the enumeration area is located is entered in column 7 and its code in card columns 13-15.

Column 8: Enumeration Area
Code number of the Enumeration Area where the enumeration is being conducted is entered in column 8 and card columns 16-17.

Part 2 Summaries of Basic Population Characteristics

This part is used to record summary of numbers on residents of the enumeration area, including total number of residents residing in the enumeration area by gender, number of births in the last 12 months in the household, deaths in the household in the last 12 months, number of literates and illiterates, and also number of people by ethnic group.

Column 9 House Serial number

House serial numbers are filled in column 10 on the population and housing census questionnaire. This serial number will be transferred to column 9 card columns 18 - 20 of Form 4 to the corresponding household.

Column 10 Type of Resident

Type of resident that was filled in Column 9 card column 23 will be copied to column 10 card column 21 of Form 4.

Column 11 Serial number of type of Resident

In this column serial numbers, 001, 002, 003, etc. will be entered for names of head of households, names of the hotels or hostels and names of the places homeless pass the night registered in column 12.

Column 12 Name

In this column names of head of households, names of the hotels or hostels and names of other collective quarters and the names of the places homeless pass the night will be recorded in line with the code for resident type in column 10 serial number of resident type in column 11.

Column 13 Number of persons

Total number of regular household members by gender and sum male and female will be registered in the card columns provided for each of the heads of the households registered in column 12. For hotels, hostels or other collective quarters registered in column 12 the respective total number of residents by gender and the sum of male and female will be registered accordingly. Also for a place name registered in column 12 as a place where homeless stay, total number of the homeless by gender and sum of male and female will be registered.

The total number of persons to be registered in this column is obtained by taking members registered in column 15 with reference to the column 15 of part 2 of the population and housing census questionnaire. Note here that number of persons includes only regular household members, not guests.

Columns 14 - 15 Number of Births and deaths in the last 12 months

Number of live births in the household, hotel, hostel, or other collective quarters in the last 12 months will be registered in column14 corresponding to their names as recorded column 12. This is obtained by summing up the children registered in Column 40 card column of Part 2 of the population and housing census questionnaire. Number of deaths in the household, hotel, hostel, or other collective quarters in the last 12 months will be registered in column15 corresponding to their names as recorded column 12. This is obtained by summing up the number of death in the last 12 months registered in Column 41 Part 3 of the population and housing census questionnaire.74

Column 16 Number of Literates and Illiterates

Five years old and over household members of the registered in column 15 of the population and housing census questionnaire and those who are assigned code "00" in column 30 of this questionnaire are counted and their number is entered in column 16 under "Illiterate". Also those assigned codes 01-24 will be counted and their number will be recorded under "Literate".

Column 17 Ethnicity

In column 17 under "Ethnicity", a space is provided to accommodate names of fifteen ethnic groups. In the space names of ethnic groups will be recorded. Number of persons by ethnic group will be counted out of those listed in column 15 based on the names and codes of ethnic groups given in column 21 of the census questionnaire and the number for each group will be recorded under the name of the ethnic group. Similarly number of people under each ethnic group will be added and the sum will be put under the name of the ethnic group and the code. If there are over 15 ethnic groups in the enumeration area then the additional ethnic groups have to be recorded on extra paper.

Total
Over one page of the summary form is required in a single enumeration area. On each page of the summary form page totals for columns 13 to 17 will have to be entered on the space under "Total" at the bottom of the page. It has to be noted that each page has to be added separately.

Grand Total
The Grand Total under columns 13 to 17 is filled after the population and housing is completed in the enumeration area and verifying that the necessary data are transcribed into the summary form. The grand total is obtained by summing up all the page totals. The grand total for each column will be entered in the spaces provided at the bottom of the form.

Note

It is very important to verify that data from the census questionnaire are transferred correctly to the summary form.

Column 18 Total number of households

After the enumeration is completed in the enumeration area total number of households in the enumeration area will be recorded in the space provided in column 18 of the summary form. The total is obtained from Part 2 Column 16 in Housing Household and establishment Listing Form by taking the last serial number. The total number of households from the listing form has to be crosschecked with those the census questionnaire was administered for. If there is discrepancy between the two the summary form has to be revisited for correct compilation.

Column 19 Total numbers of residential and residential-establishment housing units

Once the enumeration is completed in the enumeration area total numbers of residential housing units and also housing units partly residential and partly establishment will be recorded in column 19 of the summary form of the enumeration area. The total is obtained by counting residential housing units for which the population and housing census questionnaire was administered in the enumeration area. This total must agree with the those found from Column 12 in the Housing Household and Establishment Listing Form (Form 1) by taking housing units that are assigned in column 12 code "1" (residential housing unit) and code "2" (partly residential and partly establishment).

Column 20 Name and signature of enumerator and supervisor and date

Finally, the enumerator and supervisor will write their names, sign and put the date in the space provided to testify that the summary form of the enumeration area is correctly and completely done.

[Pages 84-86 containing instruction on how to use maps of enumeration areas is omitted here.]