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Enumerator's manual
IV Population Census and III Housing Census
Ecuador, 1982

[There are two different manuals in Spanish, one for rural and one for urban areas. Since the two documents are very similar except for a number of comments, they were integrated into one instruction manual, with the differences indicated in square-brackets. The page numbers in this document correspond to those of the original language Urban Manual.]

[Pages 1-16 were not translated into English.]

[p. 17]

II. Dwelling

In this chapter the characteristics of a dwelling where one or more people live will be recorded.

A dwelling is a housing premises meant for habitation, which even when it may not have been originally built for housing people, is being occupied as a dwelling at the time the Census is taken.

A place of habitation should be considered a dwelling when it is independent and separate.

Independent means that in order to arrive at their dwelling, the people don't have to pass through rooms belonging to other dwellings. They may have direct access from the street or by passing through common-use patios, hallways, stairs, etc.

Separate means, in general, surrounded by walls, partitions etc. and covered by a roof. In exceptional cases, any type of provisional construction, such as: barges, caves, tents, etc. should be considered a dwelling.

A dwelling can be: a room, an apartment, a house. Take into account that various dwellings can exist in one house. [This instruction exists in the rural manual; but not in the urban one.]

A dwelling is private if it is occupied by a person or group of persons who live under a family system. This dwelling can be a house, an apartment, a room, etc. Various dwellings can exist in one building.

A dwelling is collective when it is occupied by a group of people who share it for reasons of health, accommodation, discipline, religion, etc.

[p. 18]

Question 1. Type of dwelling

Private

You should identify the type of dwelling and mark with an X the appropriate box.

You will make an X in others when dealing with dwellings such as: barges, kiosks, booths (casetas), caves, boxcars, etc.

You will mark as Premises not intended for use as a dwelling those places that are inhabited and which have not been constructed as a dwelling, like granaries, wineries, garages, etc.

[Alongside these written instructions in the rural manual are drawings representing the eight different types of private dwellings from the enumeration form.]

Collective

If it is a collective dwelling, mark an X in the corresponding box and continue directly to the questions on population. In such cases the characteristics of the building are not of interest, only the data on the people that live in these dwellings.

Question 2. Occupancy condition of the dwelling

Mark box 1 if the members of the household are in the dwelling.

If there are only minors, return when there is an adult home.

Mark box 2 if you see that the dwelling is occupied but the residents are not present. If you find out that the absence is momentary, return to the dwelling to take the information.

[p. 19]

Mark box 3 in the case of dwellings which, because of being for rent, under repair, recently constructed, etc. are unoccupied.

Put an X in box 4 for dwellings that are in any stage of construction and which are not inhabited. If you mark box 3 or 4, don't take any more information.

You can fill in the questions corresponding to type of dwelling and occupancy condition of the dwelling just based on observation.

Question 3. Predominant materials in the dwelling.

Record the material used to construct the roof of the building (where the dwelling is found), the exterior walls, and the floor of the dwelling.

Question 4. Tenure of the dwelling.

The dwelling is?:

Ask if the dwelling is owned, rented, free, etc. and put an X in the appropriate box.

Question 5. The water supply in the dwelling is

Mark an X in the box that corresponds to the type of water supply.

[p. 20]

From a public network if the water arrives at the dwelling through pipes. In this case it can be:

Inside the dwelling,
Outside of the dwelling but in the building,
Outside of the building.

From other sources when the dwelling is supplied by a well or by spring-water, by a river or irrigation ditch, by a water truck, cistern, etc. [Rural manual: in the case of others, specify, ex.: rainwater.]

Question 6. What availability to toilet facilities does the dwelling have?

It is a toilet exclusively used by the dwelling if it is used only by the people in the dwelling being investigated.

Those used by members of more than one dwelling are common-use toilets.

A latrine is a hole that serves as a receptacle for excrement, generally covered by an outhouse.

Mark the box none if the dwelling doesn't have any of the facilities previously mentioned.

Question 7. The dwelling's system for wastewater elimination is?

Mark box 1 by sewer if the wastewater is eliminated by channeling.

Mark box 2 septic tank in the case of a hole in the ground, generally covered by an outhouse.

When no elimination system exists, mark box 3.

[p. 21]

Question 8. The electrical service that the dwelling has is?

Mark box 1 when the dwelling has electric lighting that comes from a public service network.

Mark box 2 when the electric lighting comes from a private plant.

If the dwelling doesn't have electrical service, mark box 3, none.

Question 9. How many total rooms does the dwelling have?

Record the number of rooms in the dwelling without counting kitchens or bathrooms.

Question 10. Of these, how many are used solely for sleeping?

On the corresponding line, record the number of rooms that are used as bedrooms.

Question 11. Does the dwelling have a separate kitchen?

Mark the yesbox even if the kitchen is also used as a dining room.

[p. 22]

Question 12. What is the main fuel used for cooking?

Mark an X in the appropriate box.

If the dwelling uses no fuel or doesn't cook, mark box 6. [This phrase exists in the rural manual, but not in the urban one.]

Question 13. Is part of the dwelling used for handicrafts, small industry, business or other activities?

Note if part of the dwelling is used for one of the alternatives listed or if it is only a dwelling.

Population summary

Complete this box once the investigation of both dwelling and population has been completed.

Record the number of men, the number of women, and the sum of both in their respective spaces (people who spent the night prior to the day of the Census in the dwelling).

[p. 23]

Record on these lines any incident that happens during the interview or any doubts that come up about the questions.

III. Population

The questions in this chapter are meant for everyone who spent the night prior to the day of the Census in each dwelling, regardless of whether they live there permanently or are only there temporarily.

Enumerate:

Everyone who spent the night prior to the day of the census in the dwelling, including those in domestic service who spent the night in the dwelling.
Everyone who temporarily, for some special reason was absent the night prior to the day of the census, as can be the case with doctors, security guards, telephone operators, military personnel on duty, fisherman at sea, etc.
Everyone younger than one year of age, including those children who were born before twelve at night.
Everyone who died after twelve at night.
[p. 24]

Don't Enumerate:

People who live in the dwelling but who were lodged in another house, boarding house or hotel the night prior to the day of the census.
Members of the family who are hospitalized, incarcerated or interned, because these people are enumerated in the place where they spent the night prior to the day of the census.
Those who were born after twelve at night.
Those who died before twelve at night.

[Instructions for the rural manual:] Open the form. Within this chapter are questions meant for people who spent the night of the 13th to the 14th of November in the dwelling and who make up the household that is being investigated.

A household can be made up of a single person or a group of people, related or unrelated, as long as they share a dwelling.

In the case of collective dwellings you should not fill in the first column, corresponding to the head of household, and in no case should you make notations for question 2, which refers to family relationship with the head of household. [End of the instructions for the rural manual.]

[Page 25 is not translated into English.]

[p. 26]

A. General characteristics

The first 8 questions correspond to general characteristics and should be asked of everyone in the household.

The household can be made up of a single person or a group of people, related or unrelated, as long as they share a dwelling.

Question 1. What are the first and last names of each one of the people who spent the night of November 13th to the 14th in this household?

On the first line of each column, record the first and last name of the people who spent the night prior to the Census in the dwelling that you are investigating.

Complete all of the names horizontally, beginning with the head of household, then the partner, single children from oldest to youngest, married children, son- or daughter-in-law, grandchildren, parents or parents-in-law, other relatives, other non-relatives and [female] domestic servant.

If there are more than 9 people, continue recording on another form beginning with the 2nd column.

Don't forget to record on this form the same dwelling no. (visitation order) that appears on the first form and on the lines under dwelling no., record the corresponding order number.

Don't forget to record newborns.

[p. 27]

Question 2. What family or other relationship do you have to the head of household?

Beginning with this question, you should record the information vertically, with one column for each member of the household.

The first column is for the head of household.

In the following columns, mark an X in the box corresponding to the family or other relationship that each of the people has to the head of household.

If it is a partner, put the X in box 1; if it is a son or daughter, put the X in box 2, etc.

In the case of collective dwellings, eliminate the first column corresponding to the head of household, using a vertical line.

[p. 28]

Question 3. Are you a man or a woman?

Mark with an X the box corresponding to the sex of the person you are interviewing.

Question 4. How old are you in completed years?

Record on the corresponding line the number of completed years as of the last birthday, and not the number of years that the person is going to complete.

For those less than one year old, record 00.

Question 5. Where were you born?

Mark here if the person was born in the rural parish or city where they are being enumerated.

Otherwise, write the name of the rural parish or city and province where the person was born.

If they were born abroad, record only the name of the country.

[p. 29]

Question 6. In what rural parish or city do you usually live?

Mark the box here if the place where the person usually lives is the rural parish or city where they are enumerated.

Otherwise, record the name of the rural parish or city and province where they live.

If the person lives abroad, record only the country.

Question 7. How long have you lived in the place indicated?

Mark the box always with an X when the person being enumerated has always lived in the place indicated in the previous question.

In this case, continue directly to question 9.

If the person doesn't report always or all of the time, record on the appropriate line the number of years that the informant reports; if it is less than 1 year, record 00.

Question 8. In what rural parish or city did you live before?

Don't ask this question of those who answered always to the previous question.

If this is not the case, record on the respective lines the name of the rural parish or city and province where the person lived before.

If the person lived abroad, record only the country.

[p. 30]

B. Educational characteristics

Questions 9, 10 and 11 on Educational characteristics should be asked of all people 6 and older.

Question 9. Do you know how to read and write?

If the person knows how to read and write, mark the yes box.

If the person only reads or only writes, mark the no box.

If the person doesn't know how to read and write, mark the no box.

Question 10. Do you attend any regular instructional establishment, literacy center, primary, secondary, or post-secondary [school]?

Mark the box that corresponds to the answer that the informant gives. Don't take into account short courses and correspondence courses.

Question 11. What is the last grade, level, or year that you passed in the literacy center, primary, secondary, or post-secondary [school]?

On the line corresponding to the level, record the number of the highest grade or year that the person passed, and not the one that they are in. Don't take into account short courses and correspondence courses.

[p. 31]

C. Economic characteristics

Questions 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 on Economic characteristics should be asked of all people 12 and older.

Question 12. Are you or were you a member of Social Security?

[This paragraph is in the rural manual] Any person who at one time made and/or is making contributions to Social Security is considered a member. A member can be an employee or manual laborer in a public or a private company, or a worker who voluntarily contributes and heads of family covered by municipalities that are part of rural Social Security. If the member pays on their own or knows that his contributions are being deducted, the person is considered to be currently contributing.

If the person is or was a member, put an X in box 1.

If the person has never been a member, mark box 2.

If the person responds that they are or were a member, ask: Do you currently contribute? and when the answer is affirmative, mark box 3; when the response is negative, mark box 4.

Question 13. What did you do the majority of the days between the 7th and the 13th of November?

When asking the question, read the options in the order indicated. Did you work?, Did you not work but had a job?, and thus successively until you get an answer; then, mark the appropriate box and follow the directions that appear next to it and which indicate to you the question with which to continue.

[The following instructions are in the rural manual, on pages 36 and 37.] In this question, it's important to take special care with the following aspects:

As much as possible, ask those 12 and older directly. Pay a lot of attention when enumerating women. In rural areas, at the same time that they carry out domestic tasks in the household, women generally do work with agriculture/livestock, handicrafts or business that they frequently don't report because they consider it to be part of their domestic activity. In these circumstances, it is necessary to determine what the person did the majority of the week prior to the Census, in order to establish the questions that should be asked next. When people 12 years and older, especially women, report that they performed household duties, find out if they were done in their household or if it was a compensated activity in another place, in which case you should mark box 0, which corresponds to the option: Did you work?.

[p. 32]

Question 14. What is the occupation that provided you with the greatest income during the days between the 7th and 13th of November or what was your last occupation if you were unemployed?

This question, as well as numbers 15 and 16, should only be asked of those people who responded with 0, 1, or 2 to question 13.

If the answer that the informant gives is ambiguous or not very clear, ask them to describe in some detail the work that they do and record what they report.

[The information below appears in a table in the original document.]

Incorrect recording: Teacher
Correct recording: Primary school teacher, high school teacher, music teacher

Incorrect recording: Craftsman
Correct recording: Radio technician, carpenter, potter

Incorrect recording: Seller
Correct recording: Pharmaceutical salesman, department store salesclerk, ticket and fare agent, life insurance salesman

Incorrect recording: Laborer, day-laborer or unskilled laborer
Correct recording: Unskilled farm worker, stevedore or dock worker, caretaker of vehicles

Incorrect recording: Mechanic
Correct recording: Auto mechanic, precision mechanic, dental technician

[The following is in the rural manual] Don't record manual laborer, unskilled laborer, mechanic, seller. Insist that the information be more precise, for example: construction worker, unskilled farm worker, milker, etc.

[p.33]

Question 15. What does the establishment where you performed the indicated occupation primarily do?

If the answer is given in vague or imprecise terms, insist that the informant give you greater details. Don't accept information such as factory or workshop; you should indicate exactly what type of activity is done in the establishment.

Examples of how to record:

Primary education
Doctor's office
Textile factory
Carpentry
Livestock ranch
Restaurant
Shoe store
Insurance company
Automotive mechanics workshop
Furniture factory
Beauty salon
Government ministry
Bakery
Poultry farm

Question 16. What was your category or position in the occupation you indicated?

After asking the question, clearly read each of the options in the order that they appear and, upon receiving a response, mark the corresponding box.

[p. 34]

Mark box 1 when it is an owner or active partner.

Owner. Is a person who runs their own company or business, or who practices a profession or trade and who has one or more paid employees. Ex: the owner of a factory.

Active partner. Is a person who invests by their work, or through capital and work, in a given company.

Mark box 2, own-account, if the person runs their own company or business, or practices a profession or trade on their own, but does not have paid employees. Ex: street vendor [In the rural manual: ex: a farmer who works land on their own property, a spinner, etc.]

Mark box 3, public employee or wage-earner, when the person being enumerated is an official, employee, or manual laborer for the National Government, Sectional Government, or Autonomous Sector, who receives remuneration, a salary, a wage or piecework pay(pago a destajo), under appointment, contract, or a daily wage.

[This paragraph as follows in the rural manual:] Mark box 3, public employee or wage-earner, when the person being enumerated is an official, employee, or manual laborer who receives remuneration, a salary, a wage or piecework pay (pago a destajo), under appointment, contract, or a daily wage from the National Government, e.g., a sheriff ( Teniente PolĂ­tico), Post Office employee, etc.; Sectional Government such as Municipalities, Provincial Councils, etc; or Autonomous Sector, institutions like the National Development Bank (Banco de Fomento), etc.

Private sector employee or wage earner. Mark box 4 for an official, employee, or manual laborer who works in a private company and receives remuneration, a salary, a wage, commission, tips, piecework pay (pago a destajo) or payment in kind.

Unpaid family worker. Mark box 5 if the person being enumerated performs an unpaid occupation in the company or business of a family member during the majority of the week.

[p. 35]

D. Fertility and death characteristics

Questions 17, 18, 19 and 20, which refer to fertility and death characteristics, should be asked only of women 15 years of age and older.

Question 17. How many children born alive have you had in all?

It is imperative to emphasize the question in the sense that it refers to all children born alive, and does not distinguish between those that may have died and those that are currently alive.

Take into account the fact that informants tend to omit those children who died shortly after birth.

If the answer to this question is none, continue directly to question no. 21.

Question 18. How many of those children are currently alive?

In this question you will record the number of live children that the informant currently has, including those who don't live in the household.

[p. 36]

Question 19. On what date did you have your last child born alive?

Record the month and year in which the last child of the person being interviewed was born. If she doesn't remember the month, record only the year.

Question 20. Is your last child alive?

Indicate the appropriate box, according to the response that the informant gives.

E. Marital or conjugal status

This question is for men and women 12 years of age and older.

Question 21. Are you in a consensual union, single, married, divorced, widowed or separated?

Read the question as it is written. Mark the box corresponding to the answer given.

[Pages 37-39 were not translated into English.]