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Instruction Manual,
Ecuador, Population and Housing Censuses, 1962

[No page numbers appear in the original document. The page numbers listed in this translation are those that are assigned to the pages in the original language file of this document. Page 1 corresponds to the page with the header Generalidades (Generalities). The page numbers continue from there in the order of the original file.]

[Pages 1-3 were not translated into English.]

[p. 4]

Main definitions

Population Census. The population Census is a group of operations that have as their objective to collect, prepare and publish demographic, economic, and social data corresponding to all the inhabitants of a country or territory for a determined time or certain given periods.

Housing Census. This census involves collecting, preparing and publishing data related to the characteristics of the existent dwellings in the national territory for a determined date.

Geographic location. Is the location that corresponds to the population being enumerated according to the province, canton, and parish in which it is found at the time of the census.

[p. 5]

Populated area or locality. Is any populated place that can be identified clearly and precisely by its name and geographic location. As such, populated areas and localities are:

a) Cities, towns, villages and hamlets, however small they may be and even though they may only have a limited numbers of dwellings;

b) Large farms (haciendas), indigenous communities and groups of dwellings from small and medium-sized agricultural properties that are close to one another, without forming part of a city, village, or any other locality, provided that the place where they are located is known by a common geographic name. When the dwellings of these small agricultural properties are located adjacent to a locality, without having their own name, they should be considered part of the adjacent locality;

c) Factories, industrial establishments, work and military camps, that are isolated. Their conditions should be specified; and,

d) Isolated or spread out houses and dwellings that don't form part of any large farm
(fundo), agricultural plot or locality, should be considered separate localities and identified by the name of the place where they are located; so, for example: house on the Las Juntas bridge; house in Cerro Negro; house in Quebrada Miraflores [Miraflores Gully], etc.

Urban - Rural. Cities: provincial capitals and canton seats are classified as urban; and the remaining populated areas are classified as rural.

[p. 6]

Locality category. [Portions of the scan of the original document were illegible.] Category means the position that the locality occupies in the administrative political order (provincial capital, canton seat, parish seat, annex, municipality) or its nature (site, enclosure, mining camp, factory, ranch, inn, isolated dwe lling).

Total population. The entire national population at the time of the Census, including newborns, the elderly and disabled people.

The time of the National Population Census is considered to be 0:00 hours on Sunday, November 25, 1962. All data from the inhabitants should refer to this moment, and therefore those born after that zero hour and those who died before it are not included in the enumeration.

Census household. Is a person or group of people who live together in a dwelling. The census household is divided into census families and unrelated groups.

Census family. Is a group of people, generally related, who live together under a family system. It is made up in most cases by a Head of Family, their relatives (spouse or consensual union partner, children, grandchildren, etc.), close friends, guests, domestic servants and any occupant who lives in the same dwelling and shares the same food.

Any person who lives alone in a family dwelling also makes up a census family.

Unrelated group. Is a group of generally unrelated people who live together for reasons of discipline, health, teaching, religious or military life, work, or other reasons and who reside in non-family dwellings such as: [p. 7] hospitals, clinics, hotels, guesthouses, jails, reformatories, barracks, convents, etc.

Family relationship. Is the degree of kinship or relationship that the members of a census household have with respect to the Head of household.

Place of birth. Is the place in which each one of the people enumerated was born. This involves getting the name of the province for [Ecuadorian] nationals or the country for foreigners.

Place of previous residence. Refers to the Province and the city or rural parish where the people who were not born in the place in which they are enumerated lived previously. For foreigners, the name of the country will be noted.

Age. Age means the number of years the person being enumerated completed on their last birthday.

Highest grade passed. Means the last year or level passed by a person who has attended an educational establishment (primary, secondary, university, or special).

Marital status. Is the legal or de facto situation that people have, and they are classified as:

a) Single. Is any person who has never been married nor lives in a consensual union (de facto);

b) Married. Is a person who is legally united by a matrimonial bond;

c) Widowed. Is a person whose spouse/partner has died and who has not remarried nor lives in a consensual union (de facto);
[p. 8]
d) Divorced. Is a person who has legally obtained the dissolution of the matrimonial bond that united them and who has not remarried nor lives in a consensual union (de facto); and,

e) Consensual union (de facto). Is a marital union without a legal bond.

Economically active population. Includes all people, of either sex, who provide the workforce for the production of economic goods or services. They are classified as employed, unemployed, and those who are seeking work for the first time.

Employed. Are people who practice a compensated or uncompensated occupation.

Unemployed. Are people who have had a job before, but who at the time of the Census are without work.

Seeking work for the first time. Are those people who have not worked previously and who are seeking work for the first time.

Population not economically active. Are all those people not included in the "Economically Active Population" and includes:

a) Domestic Duties. People who take care of the household (except those who are compensated);

b) Students. Those who devote themselves exclusively to studying and don't work;

c) Rentiers. People who, without working, receive income from pensions, retirement funds, benefits, etc.

d) Confined (Institutionalized). People who have permanent shelter in penal, religious, cloistered, hospitals, or charity institutions, etc.; and,
[p. 9]
e) Other condition. Are invalids, the elderly, disabled people, etc., who are not able to work and who are not classified in any of the previous groups and who live in a family dwelling.

Occupation. Is the profession, trade, or type of work that the person being enumerated, considered economically active, does or did.

Industry. Is the type of activity of the establishment, business, or company where the person being enumerated performs their job.

Occupational category. Is the position that the person being enumerated has in the establishment, business, or company where they work, and includes:

a) Owner. Is any person who runs their own economic enterprise or practices a profession or trade on their own, and has one or more compensated workers;

b) Own-Account. Is any person who runs their own economic enterprise, or who practices a profession or trade on their own but who does not have any compensated employees. Such a person can work by themselves or in association;

c) Employee. Is any person who generally performs an intellectual or administrative job and receives a biweekly or monthly salary or equivalent compensation;

d) Wage Earner. Is anyone who performs a manual job and receives a daily or weekly wage, as in the case of day laborers, manual laborers and unskilled laborers;

e) Unpaid. Are all people who practice an occupation in an establishment, business, or company without receiving any compensation in money or in kind, as in the case of apprentices and unpaid family workers; and,
[p. 10]
f) Others. Are those not classified in the previous categories, such as members of religious congregations and new workers.

Building. Is any permanent or temporary edification that serves as shelter or storage, for people, animals, or things.

Type of building. For the purposes of the census, we give the names:

a) House, to any building made of permanent materials, such as: concrete, brick, adobe, wood, etc., and which has a floor made of wood, stone tile or brick, and a ceiling;

b) Villa, to any building like the previous one and which has a garden at the entrance to the structure.

c) "Mediagua" (small construction with sloped roof), to any building of only one floor, with walls made of adobe or adobón, without a ceiling and with an earth floor.

d) Shack (covacha), to any building of only one floor, made of cane or a mixture of sticks, cane and mud, without a ceiling and with a floor made of cane or earth;

e) Rustic cabin (choza), to any building that has adobe or straw walls, an earth floor, and a straw roof;

f) Rancho, to a building that is generally raised off the ground with piles or posts, has a floor made of cane or logs, walls made of cane and covered by palm branches or by some other type of plant (bijao [tropical plant with leaves like those of a banana tree], cadi [a type of large Ecuadorian palm tree] or cade, cane leaves, etc); and

g) Other, is any lightweight building, different from those previously mentioned, such as shacks, tents, palm-tree huts, etc.
[p. 11]

Dwelling. Is any, fixed or mobile, structurally separate or independent premises or enclosure that has been built or made, converted or prepared for the purpose of permanently or temporarily housing a census household.

Family dwelling. Is made up of a room or group of rooms meant to be used as a dwelling or domicile by a census family.

Non-family dwelling. Is a room or group of rooms that are used as housing for a group of generally unrelated people who live together and who make up a non-family group, such as: reformatories, convents, hotels, orphanages, work camps, and other similar housing premises.

Room. Is each one of the rooms that are used for accommodation, such as: living room, dining room, bedroom, studies, recreation rooms, servants rooms, etc.

Excluded from the dwelling are bathrooms, the kitchen, porches and hallways, as well as rooms used exclusively for commercial, industrial, or service purposes, for example: stores, workshops, offices, etc.

Tenure. Is the title category under which a dwelling is occupied. For the purposes of the census, three categories are considered, namely:

a) Owned. When the dwelling is occupied by the owner of the building;

b) Rented. When it is occupied by a renter who periodically pays an amount of money; and,

c) Other. When it is occupied under another form of tenure that doesn't include either of the two previous forms, as in the case of the lending of services, loan-backed habitation contract, free of charge, etc.

[p. 12]

Monthly rent. Is the value in money that is paid monthly for renting all of the rooms that make up a dwelling.

Predominant construction materials. Is the material that predominates in the construction of exterior walls and in the floors of the rooms that make up the dwelling.

Water supply. Corresponds to the water supply provided by pipes that come from public distribution networks or from other sources.

It is of exclusive use when only one family uses the supply.
It is of common use when two or more families in the same building use the supply.

Outside of the building is when the building does not have a water supply and the families are provided for by a public or private faucet; and,

When the building doesn't have any of the services previously mentioned, record the supply by marking an "X" in the appropriate box (runoff, well, irrigation ditch, river, or cistern).

Toilet facilities. Includes the facilities (toilet) for the elimination of fecal matter, by means of channeled water under pressure, with the fecal matter being dragged to a sewer, septic tank, or drain. These facilities can be for the exclusive use of a census household (a dwelling) or for common use by two or more census households (two or more dwellings), in the building.

Latrine or pit toilet. Is a shallow hole, located outside of a dwelling, that is used for the elimination of fecal matter, but not by means of channeled water under pressure.

[Pages 13-14 were not translated into English.]

[p. 15]

C. Population

In the part that refers to the Characteristics of the Population, there are twelve lines or items, each of which corresponds to the information from one person. Enumerate in each dwelling all people present at the time of the Census, either because they live there permanently or because they live there temporarily and spent the night prior to the day of the Census in the dwelling that you are enumerating. In a rural area, even when the enumeration is prolonged to several days, the information should refer to the date of the Census.

As such, the following should be enumerated:

a) Everyone who spent the night prior to the day of the Census in the dwelling that you are enumerating;

b) Everyone who lives in the dwelling and those who temporarily, for some special reason, was absent the night prior to the day of the Census, as is the case with nurses, doctors, night watchmen, telephone operators, military personnel, etc.;

c) Everyone less than one year old, including newborns;
[p. 16]
d) All people in domestic or foreign vessels anchored in territorial ports or waters the night prior to the day of the Census; and,

e) All foreigners, including the approved Consular and Military Service in our country.

Don't enumerate people who live in the dwelling but who stayed in another house, guesthouse and hotel the night prior to the day of the Census, or those members of the family who are hospitalized, confined, or institutionalized, because these people are enumerated in the place in which they slept the night prior to the day of the Census.

Column 1: First and last names. Record on the first line of this column the first names and last names, paternal and maternal, of the person that is recognized as Head by the members of the Census Household, whether it be a man or a woman.

Below, write the first and last names of this person's family members, in order of proximity (wife, children, mother, grandmother, sons- and daughters-in-law, etc.) and then all people who are not related to the Head of the Census Household, like guests, servants, servants' children, etc. When there are people who have the same first and last names, they are differentiated by adding I, II, III, etc.

Column 2: Relationship to the head of the census household. In this column indicate the type of kinship, relationship, or other bond or link that each person being enumerated has with the Head of Family, for example: [female] spouse or wife, son, stepson, father, nephew, uncle, boarder, guest, servant, etc.

When it is a non-family group, record as its Head the highest ranking person who spent the night prior to the day of the Census in the dwelling and, then, [p. 17] the administrative personnel along with the rank or position of each person, and the rest of the people who form part of the non-family group. So, for example: Head, nurse, patient, doorman, guest, etc.

Column 3: Sex. Record "H" for men and "M" for women.

Columns 4 and 5: Place of birth. For all Ecuadorians, record the name of the province where they were born in column "4", and for foreigners record the name of the country.

In column 5, write the name of the city or rural parish where the person you are enumerating was born. In case the person gives you the name of the town, village, hamlet, municipality, hacienda, etc. where they were born, record the name of the parish to which that town, village, hamlet, municipality, hacienda, etc. belongs. For foreigners, draw a horizontal line.

Columns 6 and 7: Place of previous residence. When the person being enumerated wasn't born in the locality where they are being enumerated, record in column "6" the name of the province where they had their last domicile. In the case of foreigners, write the name of the country.

For column "7," write the name of the city or rural parish where the person being enumerated had their last domicile. In case the person gives you the name of the town, village, hamlet, municipality, hacienda, etc. as the location of their last domicile or residence, record the name of the parish to which that town, village, hamlet, municipality, hacienda, etc. belongs. For foreigners, draw a horizontal line.

When the people that you are enumerating were born in the city or rural parish where you are enumerating, draw a horizontal line from column "6" through column "9."

[p. 18]

Column 8: Residence or Transient. --Record "R" when the person being enumerated reports that they have their domicile or residence in the city or rural parish where you are enumerating.

Write "T" when the person that is being enumerated indicates that they are passing through the city or rural parish where you are carrying out the enumeration because they have their domicile in another locality.

Column 9: How many years have you lived in this locality?. Indicate the number of years that the person being enumerated has been living in the city or rural parish that you are enumerating.

Column 10: Age. Write down the number of years completed on the last birthday. For those younger than one year old, record "0". When the person being enumerated doesn't know their age or their year of birth, try to help them and, if you are not able to, estimate their age.

Column 11: Do you attend an educational establishment?
Ask this question only of people 6 and older, and record "Yes" when they are regularly attending an educational establishment, and, if not, record "No."

Column 12: Do you know how to read and write?. Ask this question of all people 7 and up, and record "Yes" when the person being enumerated expresses that they know how to read and write in any language. Otherwise, write "no."

Column 13: Highest grade or year of teaching passed.
For people 7 and older, indicate the highest grade or year of instruction that they have passed, accompanied by the first letter corresponding to the level of instruction. For example: 3P (third grade of primary); 5S (fifth year of secondary); 0U (college preparatory); 2U (second year of college); 4E (fourth year of special).

[p. 19]

Special instruction corresponds to the instruction received in schools and academies, for example: business academies, graphic arts schools, trade or technical school, radiotelegraphy schools, and other similar schools.

Column 14: Marital status. In this column record the information for people 12 years old and up, according to the marital status stated by the person being enumerated, that is: single, married, divorced, widowed, consensual union (de facto), in accordance with the definitions given on this subject.

Column 15: Type. Write down the type of activity performed by the person being enumerated, in accordance with the following classifications:

a) Employed. When the person states that they are working;

b) Unemployed. When the person being enumerated indicates that they have had a previous job, but that at the time of the Census they are out of work;

c) Seeking work for the first time. When the person being enumerated reports not having worked previously and is looking for work for the first time.

d) Domestic Duties. When the person is dedicated to household chores and doesn't receive any salary or wage.

e) Student. When the majority of time is dedicated to studying and the person doesn't work. If the person studies and work, record them as employed;

f) Rentier. When, without working, the person receives some regular income or pension, as in the case of pensioners, retirees, moneylenders, etc.;
[p. 20]
g) Confined. When the person being enumerated is living in a permanent or stable condition in medical or assistance facilities (shelter, mental hospital, leper colony, etc.), or also in penal institutions, religious institutions, cloistered institutions, etc.; and

h) Other. When the person isn't categorized in any of the previous types, as in the case of invalids, the elderly, disabled people, etc., who don't work and who form part of the census household.

Column 16: Occupation. Record the type of job that the person being enumerated performs or performed, for those classified in column 15 as employed, unemployed, or seeking work for the first time. In all other cases, draw a horizontal line through to column 18.

For those who stated employed, record the type of job that they do.

For those unemployed, record the last job that they had.

When the person is seeking work for the first time, record the profession or trade of the person being enumerated. If the person doesn't have a profession or trade, record this as "new worker."

Pay special attention to clearly specifying their occupation, indicating the type of work the person performs or performed, for example: carpenter, rancher, washerwoman, cook, typist, cashier, attorney, counter employee, vendor, agricultural day-laborer, construction day-laborer, etc. Avoid general titles such as: manual laborer, unskilled laborer, official employee [these may in fact be two separate entries-employee and official-although there is no comma between them in the original], agent, etc. In the case of apprentices or assistants, record: apprentice in mechanics, blacksmith's apprentice, mason's assistant, etc. If a person has two or more jobs at the same time, indicate the one that produces greater income. If they had two or more jobs simultaneously, record the last job. In the case of members of religious orders, indicate the activity that each of them performs, such as professor, nurse, chauffeur, etc., and when they are dedicated solely to religious activity, write: Priest, Nun (except those who are cloistered and belong to the economically inactive population), Pastor, etc.

[p. 21]

For members of the Armed Forces, record Military, and for civilians working in military settings, the type of occupation that they have: doctor, typist, attorney, chauffeur, mechanic, etc.

Column 17: Industry. Record the type of business, office, company or industry that the person being enumerated, and who reported their occupation in the previous column, works in, for example: cotton fabric factory, leather shoe industry, hardware store, grocery store, footwear sales, Municipality, Government, Ministry of Economy, etc. Don't write generic concepts such as factory, industry, business, office, etc. When a company or business has more than one activity, indicate the most important one.

Column 18: Employment status. Write down one of the 6 categories specified below, for each of the people who provided data en columns 16 and 17:

a) Owner. For any person who runs their own company or business and who has one or more paid workers;

b) Own-Account. For any person who performs an activity, profession or trade independently and who doesn't have any paid workers in their charge;

c) Employee. For any person who generally does an intellectual or administrative job and receives a twice-monthly or monthly salary;

d) Wage-earner. For the person who does manual labor and receives a wage, daily or monthly, as in the case of a day-laborer, manual laborer, or unskilled laborer;

e) Unpaid. For any person who doesn't receive a salary or wage, paid either monetarily or in kind [p. 22], as in the case of apprentices or an unpaid relative.

f) Other. For any person who can't be classified in one of the previous categories, as in the case of members of religious organizations.

D. Dwelling

We indicate below the characteristics of a dwelling, which should be studied for the purposes of the Census.

About the building.

I. Family. According to the type of building where the dwelling is located, mark an "X" in the box corresponding to: house, villa, mediagua (small construction with sloped roof, shack (covacha), rustic cabin (choza), rancho. Precarious buildings such as caves, tents, huts, etc., and also those premises not built as dwellings but utilized for this purpose, as for example: granaries, warehouses, garages, etc., should be recorded on the line corresponding to "other."

II. Non-family. In the cases of "Non-Family Dwellings," indicate with an "X" one of the named boxes, such as: hotel, guesthouse, hospital, convent, jail, barracks, etc.

III. Predominant materials in the construction of the dwelling. Put an "X" in the box that corresponds to the predominant material in the exterior walls and floors of the dwelling.

IV. Water supply. Mark box (1) with an "X" when the dwelling has a piped water supply for the exclusive use of the occupants of the dwelling.

[p. 23]

Mark box (2) when the building has a piped water supply for the use of two or more dwellings.

Mark box (3) when the building doesn't have this service and the people that live in it have their water supplied by a public faucet in a neighboring house.

In cases where the dwelling doesn't have any of the previous services, record the source of the supply, which can be from runoff, a well, an irrigation ditch or river, cistern.

V. Toilet facilities. Investigate whether the toilet facilities are for the exclusive use of the dwelling that you are enumerating or for the common use of two or more dwellings in the building. For the first situation, make a "X" in box (1); and, in the second, mark box (2).

When the building doesn't have a toilet, but rather a latrine or pit toilet, whether it is for exclusive or common use, mark box (3).

When the building doesn't have any of the previous facilities, mark box (4).

VI. Electric lighting. Put and "X" in box (1) when the dwelling has electric lighting. Otherwise, mark box (2).

VII. Tenure. According to the condition under which the dwelling is occupied, put an "X" in the corresponding box:

a) Owned. When the owner occupies the building;

b) Rented. When occupied by a renter; and,

c) Other. When occupied under a condition different from the two previous, such as without charge, share-cropping, in exchange for services, etc., (specify).

[p. 24]

VIII. Monthly Rent. Only in cases involving a rented dwelling, record in numbers the quantity that the renter pays for the dwelling.

IX. Number of Rooms. Write the total number of rooms that make up the dwelling, except those that are used exclusively as a kitchen or for commercial or industrial purposes, such as: stores, workshops, offices, etc. Furthermore, exclude porches, hallways, and toilet facilities.

X. Kitchen. Mark box (1) when the dwelling has a room used exclusively as a kitchen, otherwise mark box (2).

Office. Don't make any notes in this box.

Number of Occupants. Once the enumeration is finished in a dwelling, record the number of men and women and calculate the total number of people that occupy that dwelling.

Observations. When the dwelling is closed and there is nobody to provide the information, indicate this fact, and also do this when you obtain the information by reference, additionally recording the name of the informant.

[Pages 25-39 were not translated into English.]