Manual of instructions for field workers
National population and housing census
January 9 and 10, 1970
[Pages 1-5 are not translated into English.]
[Section 6.1 is not translated into English.]
It should be established, by all means possible, if the closed dwelling is found to be uninhabited by chance because the inhabitants are momentarily absent because of work or another similar reason. If this is the case, the neighbors should be consulted in order to establish the most appropriate time to repeat the visit. If contact is not established despite the previous instructions, all of the census information possible should be requested of the neighbors and the words "information obtained from neighbors" is written in column 7 of the "Control Sheet" (a document that is described below). If the neighbors are unable or unwilling to provide any information, only columns 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 of the Control Sheet are filled out. The words "closed dwelling" are recorded in this last column and a census form is not used.
If it is established that one of the dwellings in the zone is empty or unoccupied, only columns 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 of the Control Sheet are filled out. The words "empty dwelling" are recorded in this last column. A census form is not used.
[Sections 7 and 8 are not translated into English.]
This form is designed, fundamentally, to function as a means to control the enumeration work. It should contain the information of all of the structures (of any type) situated in the enumeration zone, whether or not they are meant to function as permanent or temporary dwellings or places of abode for the night of the census; that is, the night of January 8 and 9, 1970.
It is hoped that, due to the enumerator's sense of responsibility, the Control Sheet will contain information that is more complete and accurate than that of the Pre-census and that the enumeration will correct errors of omission from the Pre-census of Dwellings.
The Control Sheet should be filled out as the census route is carried out because it cannot be filled out correctly if it is left for last.
Two very different sections can be distinguished in this form: the first figure in the upper right-hand corner contains information relating to the province, municipality or municipal district, enumerator's number, and the number of the enumeration zone. The second is constituted of information related to the eight columns that occupy the rest of the form.
In order to facilitate the enumeration, the census form is presented in the form of a pamphlet. There are large and small census forms. The large forms are used exclusively for "sample zones" and the small forms are exclusively used for "zones outside of the sample". Therefore, each enumerator will only work with one type of form. It is necessary to point out, therefore, that both types of forms contain the same information except that the large forms include information that is not included in the small forms. Because of this, training can be the same for all enumerators. It has been declared in the bulletin #34 of October 30, 1969 that the most successful students be assigned as "sample zone" enumerators (only one zone; more or less 20 dwellings). Other students who complete the course are assigned as enumerators of "zones outside of the sample" (2 zones; more or less 40 dwellings). Given that the information requested in the small form is equivalent to almost half of the information requested in the large form, it can be concluded that this distribution of work constitutes a similar share of the effort for all enumerators.
In regards to the two types of forms mentioned, it is possible to distinguish three groups: a) forms with capacity to enumerate households of up to 6 persons, b) forms with capacity to enumerate up to 12 persons, and c) forms with capacity to enumerate up to 20 persons. In this way, it is hoped that all households, irrespective of size, can be enumerated using only one pamphlet. Of course, if a household of more than 20 persons is discovered, a second pamphlet of the same type (large or small according to the case) can and should be used to complete the enumeration of all household members. In this case, both pamphlets are part of the same census form and therefore the form number is the same for both. This is the only instance in which a form number may be repeated in two pamphlets.
The first page of the form is used for the "Preliminary Official Information" which is the data allowing the total figures of population by sex, municipalities, and provinces to be obtained in advanced.
The second page of the form contains the data relating to the Housing Census and collects all of the data necessary to carry out studies on current housing conditions in the country and on the need for new dwellings.
The following page, titled "Persons forming the census household", is designed
to allow the enumerator to concentrate on the investigation of the number of persons that form the census household and the relationship of each one to the head of household. In this way, it is hoped to avoid one of the most common population census errors: the omission of household members that are not declared because they were forgotten, because they are newborns, or for other, similar, reasons.
The subsequent pages of the form (differing in number, depending on capacity) contain the demographic data that should be requested of each and every person in the census household and whose names should appear on the page titled "Persons who form the census household".
In order to facilitate the enumeration, a system of marks has been adopted, wherever possible, for the census form. The mark, an "X", should be made in the special box that is found to the side of each piece of information requested. The mark (X) is always positive, meaning that the information that corresponds to the answer is marked. For example, if the enumerated person is male, the box corresponding to sex is marked as follows:
1. X male
It is possible that, despite the care taken, it will be necessary to correct erroneous marks. Since the pen used during enumeration is not erasable, the procedure in these cases is to completely cover the erroneously-marked box and to write an "X" in the box corresponding to the correct information. Referring to the previous example, if the "female" box were marked by accident for a "male", the form should appear as follows in correcting the mistake: 1 X male 2 WW female.
Annotations should be made in the most legible manner possible in the blank spaces provided when the requested information requires a written answer. Abbreviations cannot be used. If any incorrect information is recorded, attempts should not be made to erase. To correct the error, a line is crossed through the incorrect information and the correct information is written in above or below it. Even though it is expected that enumerators will be careful, some errors are inevitable.
Information requested in numbers should be recorded in numbers and not letters. E.g. "March 10, 1955" and not "March tenth of nineteen fifty-five".
If, according to the condition of the enumerated person, a certain piece of information is not obtained, e.g. "number of children" for "males", a dash is written in the space for this information to indicate that the information was not forgotten. This same procedure is used when, in spite of all efforts, an informant is unable or refuses to provide the information.
Except for the "Preliminary Official Information", found on the first page of the census form and filled out after all other information is recorded, the form is filled out in the order of its pages: first the title page, then the housing questionnaire, then the "Persons who form the census household", and then the population questionnaire that occupies one page for each of the persons in the census household.
10.4.1 Definition of "building". The basic rule that is followed in the census route is to visit all of the buildings or structures found on the List and the others that form part of the zone, even if they are not found in the List and even though it is apparent that no one lives there. For the purposes of the census, a building is any type of construction; any independent structure that stands without support that has one or more parts or rooms. A building is covered by a roof and is normally surrounded by exterior or dividing walls that extend from the foundation to the roof. Therefore, also considered "buildings" are structures that consist of only a roof and a supporting structure; or a structure without walls. In some cases a roofless structure surrounded by walls can also be considered a "building".
10.4.2 Definition of "Dwelling". If the building or structure is inhabited or has been used as a temporary place of abode the night of January 8-9; that is, if the building has been used as a dwelling for one or more persons during the night mentioned above, the inhabitants should be interviewed and the corresponding census forms should be filled out. The same procedure is followed if the building has been only partially used as a place of abode or if it has been used as a temporary place of abode the night of January 8-9, 1970. In agreement with the above and for the purposes of the census, a dwelling (or habitation unit) is defined as any place of abode, permanent or temporary, structurally separate and independent. In other words, if a building is completely or partially used as a place of abode, it is called a "dwelling".
A dwelling is considered to be "separate" when it is surrounded by exterior walls or other buildings, partitions or fences and covered by a roof so that it permits a person or a group of persons to isolate themselves
from others in order to sleep, prepare food, etc. A dwelling is "independent" if the occupants can enter and exit without passing through the inhabited spaces or rooms of other persons. According to the above definitions, a building can contain one or more dwellings.
10.4.3 Definition of "census household". The idea of census household corresponds, as a general rule, to the "family". It is made up of two or more persons who are usually associated through a family relationship (father, mother, children, cousins, nephews, grandchildren, etc.) and who commonly provide for their nutritional and other essential needs and who occupy all of a dwelling, part of a dwelling, or more than one dwelling. According to the above, it can be deduced that the terms "dwelling" and "household" are not synonymous since various households can share one dwelling and one household can occupy more than one dwelling. In other words, a "dwelling" is a concept that refers to the persons' place of abode; on the other hand, a "household" is a concept that refers to the persons and their family relationships or their usual relationships.
A census household can also be made up of: a) one person living alone who provides for his nutritional and other essential needs without any other person; b) a group of two or more persons who live together and in association in order to commonly provide for their nutritional and other essential needs; either related, unrelated, or made up of relatives and unrelated persons at the same time; and c) a group of two or more persons, usually not related, who share a dwelling (dwelling unit) for reasons of health, discipline, religion, punishment, education, etc. Such is the case with hospitals, barracks, convents, prisons, boarding schools, or other similar establishments. These are considered to be "households" only for the purposes of the census.
It is a fundamental rule that a census form be filled out for every person or group of persons that make up a census household in any of the defined forms.
10.4.4. Which persons in the "census household" should be recorded on the census form. Reference period. The data found in the form related to the population should be linked to a well defined "reference period". For most of the data and, especially, in determining which members of the census household should be enumerated, this period is a precise instant called the "census moment". In relation to the next National Population and Housing Census, this moment is midnight between January 8 and 9 of 1970. Therefore, unless a different rule is mentioned in the census form, all data collected should refer to this census moment, and all of the persons who were in the dwelling at this reference moment should be recorded in the form.
In dealing with the existence or non-existence of persons, the above principle is to be applied strictly and without exceptions. Therefore, for example, a household member who died before midnight of January 8-9 is not enumerated because, at the census moment, this person did not exist. On the other hand, if the death occurred after midnight (even a few minutes after), the person should be enumerated even though he will have passed away at the time of the visit. Following the same principle, a person born minutes before the census moment or who died after this moment should be recorded on the census form because, at midnight between January 8 and 9, the person legally existed. On the other hand, a person born minutes after the census moment is not enumerated even he is alive and present for the enumerator's visit because he did not exist at the census moment; that is, at midnight between January 8 and 9.
If the existence or non-existence of a person is not involved, the application of the above principle is more flexible and generally translates saying that all household members who spent the night of January 8-9 in the dwelling should be recorded in the census form. The following examples will help the enumerator to correctly apply this principle: a) a census household member goes to the movies and comes home after midnight, at 3:00, 4:00, or 5:00 AM. Even though this person did not technically spend the night in the dwelling occupied by the household, he should be enumerated there for practical reasons, otherwise it would be impossible to collect his information; b) a person usually leaves the home in the evening and does not return until morning because of work, as is the case for night watchmen (night security guards). This person should also be enumerated in the dwelling occupied by his household and not in the place of work for practical reasons.
It is especially emphasized that the above rules are applied to all household members, whether they are relatives or just friends or guests of the head of household. The latter can either be residents or persons who are passing through.
In spite of the above definition, the "reference period" or "census moment" does not necessarily have to be the same for all types of data. Sometimes it is a brief period of time before the census; e.g. from January 1-9, as will be seen in describing economic characteristics. Other times it will be a longer period of time; e.g. the period between 15 and 49 years of age for women, as will be explained in examining questions related to fertility.
The geographical data needed to individualize the census form is recorded on the title page. The province and municipality or municipal district must be recorded on all forms. The name of the corresponding city, for urban areas, and the name of the section and of the rural location [paraje], for rural areas, is recorded also. "Urban areas" are considered to be the areas that correspond to the seats of municipalities or municipal districts and "rural areas" are the areas corresponding to the population of the sections of municipalities or municipal districts. The enumeration zone number, found in the List of Dwellings given to the enumerators is also recorded on the title page along with the form number assigned by the enumerator as the forms are filled out, starting with the number 1, for each zone. Also recorded on the title page is the corresponding control sheet number that is the same that is recorded in the "Enumerator's Number" box found on the control sheet and is assigned by the group leader. The complete names of the enumerator and of the group leader are also recorded on the title page. The other information requested on the title sheet, i.e. names of critic, encoder, transcriber, and evaluator as well as the spaces used for coding, will be used by the National Office of Statistics after enumeration. The upper right-hand corner of the title page contains the information relating to the number of persons fitting in the form. Therefore, before starting to use a certain form, the enumerator should carefully ask about the number of census household members in order to choose and use a census form with the appropriate capacity. If, in spite of this effort, it is discovered later that the number of census household members is other than what was previously thought, the correct procedure is to start over in a new pamphlet with the correct capacity and to simply return the unused form with the rest of the materials.
As explained on the census form, this information cannot be filled out until after the interview is completed, i.e. after having received all of the information on the form. It should also be noticed that this page is detachable so that its information can be processed separately and given to the Central Electoral Council (Junta Central Electoral) before March 1, 1970. Both enumerators and group leaders are responsible for correcting the information on this page because it contains official data that is turned in before the date indicated and later corrections are not possible.
Information is gathered in this section of the census form concerning the buildings and structures of each zone that are either entirely or partially used as places of abode as well as those buildings not designed for this purpose but that have been used as a place of abode during the night of the census; i.e. the night of January 8-9, 1970. Census forms are not created for buildings used for other purposes but they should be recorded in the Enumeration Control Sheet, following the instructions found in section 9 of this manual.
Two parts can be identified in the housing questionnaire: the first refers to the "characteristics of the dwelling" and is made up of questions 1-9; the second refers to the "forms of tenure of the dwelling". It is particularly noted that the first part, i.e. the questions relating to characteristics of the dwelling (1-9), should be only be asked once for each dwelling in cases of dwellings occupied by two or more households. On the other hand, the information relating to tenure is necessarily requested separately for each of the households sharing the dwelling.
Below, a brief comment is made about each question in the housing questionnaire in order to facilitate their comprehension and correct application.
11.3.1 Question 1 a) Number of dwellings in building. The definitions of "building" and "dwelling", found respectively in numbers 10.4.1 and 10.4.2, should be applied and kept mind in order to correctly obtain this data.
11.3.2 Question 1 b) Number of households sharing dwelling. The definitions of "dwelling" and "household", found respectively in numbers 10.4.2 and 10.4.3, should be applied and related in order to correctly obtain this data.
11.3.3. Question 1 c) Total number of rooms in dwelling. This question is designed to determine the number of spaces or rooms, as defined in number 10.4.2 of this manual in each dwelling. A space or room is understood to be the space situated within a dwelling, enclosed by walls reaching from the floor to the roof or at least to a height of two meters above the floor. Its surface area includes room for an adult-sized bed; or at least four square meters.
11.3.4 Question 1 d) Number of rooms normally used for sleeping. This question is designed to determine the number of spaces or rooms, in a dwelling, that are normally used for sleeping; that is, that are used as bedrooms. A bedroom is defined as room that is principally used for sleeping and whose surface area is at least four square meters. If a room is used for two distinct purposes, e.g. a kitchen, office, or professional studio that is normally used for sleeping at night, it is always classified and counted as a bedroom.
11.3.5 Questions 2 and 3. Classification of dwellings by type. This question classifies dwellings into two types: private and collective. These types are generally distinguished into twelve different classes. Each class is defined below:
[The original paragraph is broken up into the following smaller paragraphs, corresponding to each dwelling class]
11.3.6 Question 4. Principal construction materials. This question attempts to investigate the materials of construction used in the exterior walls; that is, the walls seen from the outside, without entering the dwelling. Also investigated are the principal materials in the roofs and floors. In each case, the form mentions the name of the most commonly used materials. It is permissible to mark two of the materials if it is difficult to determine which of the two is principal. In all cases, in order to decide, the enumerator should not only base the judgment on the informant's claim, but also by personal assessment.
11.3.7 Question 5. Water supply. In order to obtain information that is complete and correct, it is suggested that the informant be asked, first, if the dwelling is supplied its water via plumbing or in another way; that is, without plumbing. Given the answer to this first question, it is recommended that the three alternative answers found on the census form be read to the informant before any mark is made. E.g. if the first answer is that the dwelling obtains water via plumbing, alternatives 1, 2, and 3 of question 5 are read, it is not necessary to read the others. As is done for question 4, the enumerator should use a personal assessment in order to mark the corresponding answers.
11.3.8 Question 6. Lighting. This question deals only with finding out the type of lighting used in the dwelling. If there is an electric lighting system installed, "1 X electric" is marked. This option is marked even if electrical service is interrupted temporarily. If it is declared that no type of artificial lighting is used in the dwelling, "4 X other" is marked and then the word "none" is recorded.
11.3.9 Question 7. Bathroom. The term bathroom is understood to mean the place in the dwelling used for personal hygiene. If such a room does not exist, "3 X Without bathroom" is marked, even if the dwelling is supplied with some personal hygiene artifacts. It is also investigated, in this question, if the bathroom is used by one or by two or more census households. Obviously, it is not necessary to ask this question if the dwelling has no bathroom.
11.3.10 Question 8. Toilet. As in the previous question, it is desired to find out if the dwelling is equipped with a system to eliminate sewage. If so, it is desired to know if the system is used by one census household or by two or more census households. It is necessary to clarify that a latrine or a septic tank is a rudimentary elimination system that is made up of a hole in the ground, designed to receive the sewage.
11.3.11 Question 9. Cooking installations. For this topic, the census form investigates three aspects: if the dwelling has a kitchen, which appliances are used, and what [cooking] fuel is used. A kitchen is understood to be a room in the dwelling that is used exclusively for food preparation. Since other items included on the census form are considered to be self-explanatory, only the kitchen appliances are defined here: a stove is a metallic appliance of complex assembly that has various burners and sometimes an oven that works with electricity, liquid gas, or kerosene. An hornillo is a complex burner made of materials such as tile or ceramic and has grates on which the fuel, normally charcoal, is placed so that the ashes can slip out through channels that facilitate their elimination. The pots or pans are placed on the fuel. A portable stove (anafe) is an iron or tinplate appliance whose circular or rectangular base is smaller than the mouth that makes up the upper part where the fuel, usually charcoal, is placed. It has an opening close to the base that facilitates combustion. A fire pit/firebox (fogón) is usually formed by three irregularly shaped rocks that are of a similar height. The rocks are placed on the ground and the fuel, usually wood, is burned in between them. The pots or pans are placed on these rocks. Sometimes a "fogón" is made up of a small raised platform made of mud or other solid non-flammable material on the surface of which there are one or more cracks or holes where the fuel, usually wood, is placed. The pots or pans are placed above these cracks.
11.3.12 Tenure Note that the above information is only collected once for each dwelling. This means that if the dwelling is shared by two or more households, it should only appear on the census form of the first household interviewed. Regarding tenure, on the other hand, the information should be obtained from each individual household, even when multiple households share only one dwelling. Tenure is understood to be the arrangements under which occupants can make use of the dwelling; that is, the contract or agreement that has permitted the household members to occupy the dwelling. The census form distinguishes the following forms of tenure: owner, renter or lessee, sublessor or sub-renter, and usufructuary (house given for free). An owner has tenure if the dwelling belongs to the head of household or to any of the household members who live there. A renter or lessee has tenure if the household occupies the dwelling by virtue of a contract or agreement, usually between the owner and the head of household who pays a monthly rent payment for the right to occupy the dwelling. A sublessor or sub-renter has tenure if the household occupies the dwelling by virtue of a contract or agreement between the head of household and another person who has rented the property.
The sublessor also pays a periodic rent payment. A usufructuary (given for free) has tenure if the household occupies the dwelling with the permission of the owner, without paying rent of any kind. Other types of tenure that do not correspond to the above definitions are also placed under this category. Regarding lessees and sublessors, the number of rooms occupied in the dwelling by each household and the amount of monthly rent paid by each is requested and recorded.
As stated in section 10.1 of this manual, the purpose of this page of the census form is to give the enumerator the opportunity to concentrate his attention to the investigation of the number of persons that form the census household. For this purpose, the name of each person, starting with the head of household, and the relationship that each person has with the head, is recorded. Family relationship is understood to be the link of blood relationship or kinship that unites two or more persons. A census household member can also be related to the head of household without being a relative, such as the case of friends, arrimados, allegados, [both are terms for 'guest' can be staying in the dwelling at no cost or for a fee] or domestic employees, etc. The head of household is the person recognized as such by the other members that make up the census household and can be either a man or a woman. Regarding this point, the enumerator should accept the declaration given by the informant because, for the purposes of the census, the reference to a head of household is only important for determining the composition of the census household through the relationship that each household member has with the head.
Special care should be taken in recording, on this page, the names and information of every person who spent the night of January 8-9, 1970 in the dwelling. This is done even if some of these are only passing through. The next national census will be a "de facto" census that will proceed to enumerate each person in the place in which they are found at the "census moment".
Regarding each census household member, the names and surnames provided by the informant are recorded, even if not all [names] are known. If any of these persons is also known by another name or a nickname, it is written in parenthesis in order to avoid confusion. If enumerating a minor who has not yet been named, the annotation is made as "without name" and then the parent's surnames are added, if possible. In case there is resistance in providing names of some household members, the informant should be reminded that the names are necessary to understand the household composition, but that the National Office of Statistics is legally prohibited from publishing or using individual names.
Before making any annotations on this page, the enumerator should form a clear idea of the relationship that each person who spent the night in the dwelling on the night of reference has with the head of the household. In this way, the persons can be recorded in a logical order; such as:
[The current paragraph has been broken into a list for readability]
Spouse (or head of household and partner)
Grandchildren (of the head)
Parents (of the head)
Son or daughter-in-law (of the head), i.e. the husband or wife of the daughter or son of the head, respectively
Father or mother-in-law (of the head), i.e. the father or mother of the head's spouse
Nephews [or nieces] (of the head)
Siblings (of the head)
Brothers or sisters-in-law (of the head)
Friends (of the head)
If during the interview, however it is discovered that the name of a household member should be added higher in the list, according to the logical order listed above, the name should simply be added without making any other corrections. Most importantly, all household members be enumerated and that they appear (in any order) on the list.
The following are examples of non-related persons living together that might cause some confusion: a) a man and a woman who are not married to each other. The first is listed as the "head" and the second is listed as the "companion". B) Two or more unrelated men or two or more unrelated women living together. The "head of household" is the person considered to be such by the informant and the others are marked as "friends".
Once the actual number of household members is determined and the informant's (defined in section 4 of this manual) declarations concerning the total number of household members and their relationship to the head are verified, the collection of each person's data can begin (using the following pages of the census form).
A mark (X) is made on this page of the census form over the number corresponding to the household member who acted as the informant. If more than one person acted as informant, the same mark should appear over the corresponding numbers of all of them.
[The last paragraph on page 14 is omitted because it refers to an agricultural census question]
Again, all of the information contained in the "Population Questionnaire" (pages following the form) should be collected for each person listed on the page titled "Persons who form the census household".
The final pages of the census form have been reserved for this questionnaire. Each page is reserved for one enumerated person and should be filled out vertically in order to collect all of the information for one person without interruptions. The head of household's information should be collected on the first page of this "population" questionnaire followed by the other household members in the same order in which they are listed on the page titled "Persons who form the census household". The questions to be presented are already listed on the census form and the enumerator should limit himself to reading them. Clarifying questions can be made, however, if the informant needs additional help. In order to avoid confusion, the questions in this questionnaire are briefly explained.
11.5.1 Personal characteristics. The first five questions dealing with personal characteristics are presented to persons of all ages, from newborns to the very oldest persons. The last question, relating to de facto conjugal status, is only presented to those 15 years of age and older.
Some informants cannot give an exact age or have doubts about their age but they remember, however, that the birth of the enumerated person is related to an important national or regional historical event. In these cases, the list of events given below can be used and the corresponding ages recorded:
Event: During the "Moya" revolution
Approximate age in years: 83
Event: When Lilís died
Approximate age in years: 70
Event: On the 23rd of March
Approximate age in years: 67
Event: The fire of San Carlos
Approximate age in years: 67
Event: The time of "the comet"
Approximate age in years: 60
Event: During the Los Quiquises War
Approximate age in years:57
Event: During Cambelén
Approximate age in years: 54
Event: When the Americans came
Approximate age in years: 53
Event: During the influenza [outbreak]
Approximate age in years: 51
Event: During the smallpox [outbreak]
Approximate age in years: 48
Event: At the time of the coronation of the Virgin
Approximate age in years: 48
Event: During San Zenón
Approximate age in years: 39
Event: During the Centennial
Approximate age in years: 26
Event: At the time of the earthquake
Approximate age in years: 24
Event: At the time of the Constanza, Maimón, and Estero Hondo Invasion
Approximate age in years: 11
Event: When Trujillo fell [from power]
Approximate age in years: 9
Event: At the time of Palma Sola massacre
Approximate age in years: 8
Event: The 27th of February encampment explosion
Approximate age in years: 6
Event: The April Revolution
Approximate age in years: 5
Event: At the time of Hurricane Flora that damaged the South
Approximate age in years: 4
Event: At the time of Hurricane Inés that damaged Barahona and Enriquillo
Approximate age in years: no age given
Event: When Balaguer was taken
Approximate age in years: 4
11.5.3 Place of birth. Questions 11a and 11b are directed towards persons of all ages, including newborns. It should first be found out if the person was born in the Dominican Republic or abroad. For those born in the country, only the name of the municipality or district of birth is recorded. For those born abroad, only the name of the birth country is recorded.
11.5.4 Economic characteristics. Questions 12-16 are presented only to those 10 years of age and older. It is also pointed out that questions 13-16 are only presented to those who were classified in either of the first two groups of question 12: "employed" or "unemployed".
[The following paragraph has been broken into smaller paragraphs.]
11.5.5. Fertility. This question is presented to women, irrespective of their legal marital status or de facto conjugal status. Three distinct aspects of fertility are investigated on the census form. For the first two, letters a) and b), the reference period is, practically, all of the fertile life of the woman; that is, these two aspects should be investigated for all women 15 years of age and older. The third aspect, letter c), however, has a more limited reference period; that is, it is only investigated for women from 15 to 49 years of age.
Letter a) of question 17 refers to the total number of children born alive to each enumerated woman 15 years of age and older. Not taken into account is whether they are alive or not at the time of the census or the age of death. A child born alive is any child that had shown any sign of life (cry, scream, breathing) after the complete separation from the mother's body. It is not necessary to consider the duration of the pregnancy or the amount of time the child was alive; it is sufficient that the child had survived for an instant after the separation from the mother. It is also not necessary for the umbilical cord (bellybutton cord) to have been cut; it is sufficient for the entire body of the child to have been expelled or extracted from the womb. Therefore, children born without life (dead), abortions, or miscarriages are not counted.
Letter b) of question 17 refers to the total number of children alive at the time of the census; that is, those that are alive at midnight of January 8-9 of 1970. Therefore, those who passed away before and those born after the "census moment" are excluded.
Letter c) of question 17 refers to the children born alive between the January 1 and December 31 of 1969 to all of the enumerated women from 15 to 49 years of age.
It is important that the questions be presented carefully in order to avoid erroneous answers.
There are several reasons for special rules in the enumeration of collective dwellings which comprise groups 8 and 9 in the Housing Questionnaire. Among these reasons is the application of sampling techniques in census enumeration, the special nature of these dwellings themselves and the relationships between the persons that live therein, and the usually large number of these persons.
The rules given below will apply obligatorily to the following institutions and collective dwellings: police stations and prisons; military, naval, and air force units; boarding schools; public and private hospitals and clinics; religious congregations; hotels; hostels and other types of guest houses; and merchant vessels anchored in national ports and bays the night of January 8-9 of 1970.
Both the Provincial Census Commissions and the Municipal Census Commissions, in their respective jurisdictional territories, will make the necessary contacts as soon as they receive these instructions for the delivery and return of the census materials and to assure the correct and complete enumeration of those who live in, are imprisoned, or admitted in the institutions and other collective dwellings mentioned through the strict compliance with these special rules. For its part, the National Office of Statistics will adopt the pertinent measures with within the limits of the National District and will request that the authorities in charge of theses entities impart instructions to their government employees so that they collaborate with the Provincial and Municipal Census Commissions and facilitate their work.
For the purposes of enumeration, the above mentioned institutions and collective dwellings can be divided into six groups, taking into account their common elements. The special rules applicable to each group are presented below.
12.3.1 Census form used. In this matter, the general rules should be followed; that is, if a dwelling in this group is located in a "sample zone", the large forms are used for all persons. If the dwelling is in a "zone outside of the sample", the small forms are used for all persons.
12.3.2 Who should enumerate. In this aspect, the general rules should also be followed; that is, when a dwelling from this list if found as part of this group, the persons in the dwelling are enumerated by the enumerator as they would be any other type of common dwelling.
a) In the first place, the owner, manager or administrator who lives in the premises, alone or with family and domestic employees, is enumerated if they spent the night of January 8-9 of 1970 there. The domestic employees included here exclusively serve the owner/administrator and do not service the hotel, hostel, or guest house. If they do not exclusively serve them, then they are considered to be domestic employees of the dwelling. In order to decide the number of forms to be filled out (one for each census household), the definition of "census household" found in number 10.4.3 of this manual is used. In order to tell who "spent the night" of January 8-9 of 1970, the rules found in number 10.4.4 of this manual are applied.
b) Also enumerated is each traveler living alone and every group of travelers living together, only if they had spent the night of January 8-9 of 1970 in the building. Each traveler living alone constitutes a one-person census household and, therefore, will require a separate form. In this case the traveler is recorded as the "head" of household. Each group of travelers living together is considered to be a multi-person census household and requires a separate form. In this case the "head" is the person declared as such by the informant. As a practical criteria, travelers who live together and who generally form a census household are those who pay only one bill.
c) The personnel (servants, cooks, waiters, washerwomen, etc.) who live in this type of dwelling are also enumerated if they spent the night of January 8-9 of 1970 in the building. For the purposes of enumeration, workers who live alone are equated to travelers that live alone and the rules given in letter b), above, are applied. Workers living with family members are equated to travelers living together in a group and the same rules apply to them.
12.3.4 Time and opportunity of enumeration. Persons who use this type of dwelling are commonly only available at certain times, principally the first hours of the morning, mealtime, and at night. In order to carry out all of the interviews, the interviews should preferentially take place at the times indicated. It should also be noted that some travelers can permanently abandon these dwellings during the first hours of January 9 or 10, 1970, before the enumerator's visit. In order to anticipate omissions of this type, it is considered very important that these dwellings be visited on January 8 and that the travelers with the intention of leaving in the early morning of January 9 or 10 be enumerated as if they had spent the night of the census there.
12.4.1 Census form used. In the collective dwellings of this type, both types of census form, large and small, are used for enumeration. Enumeration will be initiated using a large census form for the first census household and will continue alternating between a small form, a large form, a small form and so on successively. In this way half of the census households will end up being enumerated with the large census form and the other half with the small form. This rule is to be applied strictly in the manner described above; that is, alternating between both forms. The enumeration of the first half of the household with one type and the second half with the other is an erroneous and unacceptable practice.
12.4.2 Who should enumerate. The Municipal Census Commission, upon finding out the usual number of travelers in these dwellings will assign one or more enumerators to cover them exclusively. Therefore, enumerators whose Lists of Dwellings have dwellings of this group will be instructed to avoid visiting them because special enumerators will carry out the corresponding interviews and will be exclusively dedicated to this activity.
12.4.4 Time and opportunity of enumeration. The concepts in number 12.3.4, above, are equally applicable to this group. This includes both in the necessity of adapting the work hours to the way of life of the persons who occupy this type of dwellings and the necessity to visit the dwellings on January 8 to
enumerate the travelers who intend to travel during the early morning hours of January 9 or 10.
12.5.1 Census form used. All of the information in number 12.4.1, above, is applicable in all of its parts for the director, professors, inspectors, assistants, servants, custodians, cooks, washerwomen, and other administrative personnel in this group. The students will be enumerated alone and only with the small forms.
12.5.2 Who should enumerate. All of the information in number 12.4.2, above, is applicable in all of its parts for this group. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary that the Municipal Census Commission find out beforehand the number of professors, the number of the persons who make up the administrative staff of the establishment, and the number of students who live in the boarding schools in their jurisdiction. This is necessary so that one or two enumerators can be assigned exclusively to these boarding schools.
12.5.4 Time and opportunity of enumeration. The school authorities will be requested to place, in an orderly fashion, the students and other personnel at the disposition of the enumerator in order to work full time and to ensure the completion of enumeration during the days meant for this purpose. Because of the organization and the fact that the enumerator will not have to travel from house to house, more production than the common [enumerator] will be allowed. The Municipal Census Commission can calculate one enumerator for every 200 students for the two days of enumeration.
12.6.1 Census form used. The small census form is used for this group of collective dwellings. As an exception, the large census form will always be used for detainees, inmates, and prisoners in prisons and police stations.
12.6.2 Who should enumerate. In light of the fact that these institutions are governed by special rules, the National Office of Statistics has informed the officers of these organizations that the enumeration of their respective populations can be carried out by personnel from their own institution when they have completed the Training Course delivered by the provincial census commissions in the interior of the country and by the National Office of Statistics in Santo Domingo. These authorities will deliver the corresponding instructions to their personnel. In agreement with the above information, the provincial and municipal commissions should contact this group's institutions in their jurisdiction as soon as the present instructions are received in order to communicate the date of the training course and to find out if they will provide personnel to function as enumerators. It is pointed out that if any of these institutions does not show interest as indicated above, the enumeration should, nevertheless, be carried out during the days of January 9-10, 1970 by enumerators assigned by the Municipal Census Commission. The law obliges all inhabitants of the Republic, without distinction of any kind, to provide the census information.
12.7.1 Census form used. Both types of census forms, large and small, will be used in the enumeration of this group of collective dwellings. The enumerator will always begin the enumeration using a large form and will continue, alternating, using a small form, a large form, a small form and so on successively. In this way, when the enumeration is finished, half of the enumerated persons will be recorded on the large forms and the other half will be on the small forms. In these establishments (hospitals and clinics), only forms with the capacity for one to six persons will be used, either large or small. These rules should be followed strictly in the form explained; that is, alternatively using both forms, all with capacity for up to six persons. The enumeration of the first half of the persons with one type of form (large or small) and the second half with the other type is an error and unacceptable.
12.7.2 Who should enumerate. In light of the fact that these institutions are governed by special rules imposing certain limitations on the actions of outside persons, the National Office of Statistics has informed the State Secretary of Public Health and Social Welfare that the enumeration in public hospitals and clinics can be carried out by personnel from their own institution when they have completed the Training Course delivered by the provincial census commissions in the interior of the country and by the National Office of Statistics in Santo Domingo. These authorities will deliver the corresponding instructions to their personnel. In agreement with the above information, the provincial and municipal commissions should contact this group's institutions in their jurisdiction as soon as the present instructions are received in order to communicate the date of the training course and to find out if they will provide personnel to function as enumerators. It is pointed out that if any of these institutions does not show interest as indicated above, the enumeration should nevertheless be carried out during the days of January 9-10, 1970 by enumerators assigned by the Municipal Census Commission. The law obliges all inhabitants of the Republic, without distinction of any kind, to provide the census information.
12.8.2 Who should enumerate. To facilitate the enumeration, within the norms governing the stay of merchant vessels in the ports and bays of the Country, the National Office of Statistics has informed the General Directorate of Customs that this process can be carried out by employees of the directorate's office when they have completed the Training Course delivered by the provincial census commissions in the interior of the country and by the National Office of Statistics in Santo Domingo. These authorities will deliver the corresponding instructions to their personnel. In agreement with the above information, the provincial and municipal commissions should contact the agencies of the General Directorate in their jurisdiction as soon as the present instructions are received in order to communicate the date of the training course and to find out if they will provide personnel to function as enumerators. It is pointed out that if any of these agencies does not show interest as indicated above, the enumeration should, nevertheless, be carried out during the days of January 9-10, 1970 by enumerators assigned by the Municipal Census Commission. The law obliges all inhabitants of the Republic, without distinction of any kind, to provide the census information.
12.8.3 Who should be enumerated. Procedure. All of the crew and passengers of merchant vessels anchored in national ports and bays should be enumerated if they spent the night of January 8-9, 1970 aboard. One small census form in used for all of the crew. The highest ranking officer is listed as the "head of census household" on the page titled "Persons who form the census household". The rest of the crew is recorded according to their rank in descending order. All of the passengers are enumerated on a separate large form in which, by exception, all are classified as "passengers" on the page titled "Persons who form the census household" and none are classified as the "head of household". The same form number is used on the respective census forms for both the crew and the passengers, even when various pamphlets are used due to the number of crew and passengers, respectively. Therefore, for both groups, as the answer to question 4 of the population questionnaire both groups are classified as "9 X non-relatives". On the form, as is obvious, each crew member and passenger should occupy one page of the population questionnaire. In order to avoid omissions in the enumeration that can easily occur in establishments with numerous persons, the enumerator should request the complete list of crew and passengers who spent the night of January 8-9, 1970 aboard before beginning the enumeration.
12.8.4 Time and opportunity of enumeration. The time of enumeration should be adjusted, with the agreement of the captain or other competent officer, to a time available before the vessel departs and before the conclusion of enumeration. The most convenient schedule should also be taken into account in order to facilitate contact with the enumerated persons. Concerning the number of enumerators to be trained, this should be determined by the General Directorate of Customs or its agencies in the interior of the country, taking into account the number of vessels expected to be anchored the night of January 8-9, 1970, in national ports or bays, the number of persons making up the crew and the number of passengers, as is the case, and also the expected date of departure. Because the enumerator should not have to travel from house to house, it is possible to estimate that one enumerator for each 100 crew members and one for every 50 passengers will be needed.
The complete name of the institution or other collective dwelling is always recorded on the title page of the forms for each and every one of the six groups subject to special rules of enumeration. Examples: "Hotel Jaragua"; "Cuartel de la Policia Nacional o Destacamiento de la Policia Nacional" [National Police Station]; "Fortaleza San Luis" [Fort San Luis]; "Internado de la Inmaculada Concepción" [Boarding School of the Immaculate Conception]; "Barco Mercante Ozama" [Merchant Vessel Ozama], etc.