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Manual of instructions for field workers
National population and housing census
January 9 and 10, 1970

Enumerators
Group leaders
Municipal census commissions
Provincial census commissions

[Pages 1-5 are not translated into English.]

p. 6

6. Rules for enumeration

[Section 6.1 is not translated into English.]

6.2 Closed dwelling. Procedure

It should be established, by all means possible, if the closed dwelling is found to be uninhabited by chance because the inhabitants are momentarily absent because of work or another similar reason. If this is the case, the neighbors should be consulted in order to establish the most appropriate time to repeat the visit. If contact is not established despite the previous instructions, all of the census information possible should be requested of the neighbors and the words "information obtained from neighbors" is written in column 7 of the "Control Sheet" (a document that is described below). If the neighbors are unable or unwilling to provide any information, only columns 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 of the Control Sheet are filled out. The words "closed dwelling" are recorded in this last column and a census form is not used.

6.3 Empty dwelling. Procedure

If it is established that one of the dwellings in the zone is empty or unoccupied, only columns 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 of the Control Sheet are filled out. The words "empty dwelling" are recorded in this last column. A census form is not used.

[Sections 7 and 8 are not translated into English.]

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9. Enumeration Control Sheet

9.1 Concept. When to fill out

This form is designed, fundamentally, to function as a means to control the enumeration work. It should contain the information of all of the structures (of any type) situated in the enumeration zone, whether or not they are meant to function as permanent or temporary dwellings or places of abode for the night of the census; that is, the night of January 8 and 9, 1970.

It is hoped that, due to the enumerator's sense of responsibility, the Control Sheet will contain information that is more complete and accurate than that of the Pre-census and that the enumeration will correct errors of omission from the Pre-census of Dwellings.

The Control Sheet should be filled out as the census route is carried out because it cannot be filled out correctly if it is left for last.

9.2 Sections [of the control sheet]

Two very different sections can be distinguished in this form: the first figure in the upper right-hand corner contains information relating to the province, municipality or municipal district, enumerator's number, and the number of the enumeration zone. The second is constituted of information related to the eight columns that occupy the rest of the form.

9.2.1 First section. This section contains three groups of information:

a) Geographic location. Information related to province, municipality or municipal district should not be difficult to provide. However, it is advised that, for the National District, the first box (Province) should be filled out with the words "National District"; and the second box (Municipality and Municipal District) should be filled out with the words "Santo Domingo" if referring to the zones located in the urban area of the capital; or the name of the corresponding Section if referring to the rural areas of the National District.
b) Enumerator's number. Each group leader will assign the enumerators a number: from 1 to 6, 1 to 7, or from 1 to 8, depending on the number of enumerators in the group. This number will be communicated to the enumerator when the census materials are assigned and should appear in this box of the Control Sheet.
c) Enumeration zone number. The enumeration zone number is recorded in the List of Dwellings received by the enumerator with the rest of census materials (only one number if a "sample zone" or two numbers if "zones outside of the sample"). In the second case, one control sheet is used for each zone outside of the sample and, therefore, only one number is recorded in this box for each control sheet.

9.2.2 Second section. This section is divided into eight columns. They are discussed below:

a) Census form number. The first column is meant for the number of each census form filled out by the enumerator. This number is correlative within each zone; that is, each enumerator will assign his first form the number 1,
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the second the number 2, etc., until the number corresponding to the last form used, which should be around 20 for both sample zones and zones outside of the sample. According to the above instructions, a form number is never repeated. This number is recorded in column 1 of the Control Sheet only when the enumerator is sure that an interview will take place; that is, when a census form is sure to be filled out. If, on the other hand, a census form will not be filled out for a structure or dwelling or if an interview does not take place, only the information relating to columns 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 (if possible), 7, and 8 is recorded. If an interview takes place at a later date, the line where the previous annotations were made is crossed out with a horizontal line and the annotations are made in all 8 columns in the first blank line available on the Control Sheet.
b) Location of the dwelling, building, or structure. Columns 2 through 5 are designed for recording the location of the dwelling, building, or structure visited. It is assumed that the use of these columns will not present any problems.
c) Use of dwelling, building, or structure. Column 6 is used to record the use of the dwelling, building, or structure. If it is used for more than one purpose, such as dwelling and butcher shop, post office and justice of the peace, dwelling and shoe store, etc., both or all uses are recorded if possible.
d) Condition impeding enumeration. Lastly, columns 7 and 8 are used to record the condition impeding the enumeration and the time indicated to return according to the information obtained by the enumerator. The most common conditions include: closed dwelling, empty dwelling, or a refusal to provide information. The procedures for dealing with the first two situations are found in sections 6.2 and 6.3 of this manual. The procedure for the third condition is explained in section 5.
e) Name of enumerator and group leader. It is very important that the complete name of the enumerator and of the group leader be recorded clearly in each Control Sheet.

10. The Census Form

10.1 Description

In order to facilitate the enumeration, the census form is presented in the form of a pamphlet. There are large and small census forms. The large forms are used exclusively for "sample zones" and the small forms are exclusively used for "zones outside of the sample". Therefore, each enumerator will only work with one type of form. It is necessary to point out, therefore, that both types of forms contain the same information except that the large forms include information that is not included in the small forms. Because of this, training can be the same for all enumerators. It has been declared in the bulletin #34 of October 30, 1969 that the most successful students be assigned as "sample zone" enumerators (only one zone; more or less 20 dwellings). Other students who complete the course are assigned as enumerators of "zones outside of the sample" (2 zones; more or less 40 dwellings). Given that the information requested in the small form is equivalent to almost half of the information requested in the large form, it can be concluded that this distribution of work constitutes a similar share of the effort for all enumerators.

In regards to the two types of forms mentioned, it is possible to distinguish three groups: a) forms with capacity to enumerate households of up to 6 persons, b) forms with capacity to enumerate up to 12 persons, and c) forms with capacity to enumerate up to 20 persons. In this way, it is hoped that all households, irrespective of size, can be enumerated using only one pamphlet. Of course, if a household of more than 20 persons is discovered, a second pamphlet of the same type (large or small according to the case) can and should be used to complete the enumeration of all household members. In this case, both pamphlets are part of the same census form and therefore the form number is the same for both. This is the only instance in which a form number may be repeated in two pamphlets.

All of the information necessary to individualize the form is recorded on the title page. The names of the enumerator and the group leader are also clearly recorded on the title page.

The first page of the form is used for the "Preliminary Official Information" which is the data allowing the total figures of population by sex, municipalities, and provinces to be obtained in advanced.

The second page of the form contains the data relating to the Housing Census and collects all of the data necessary to carry out studies on current housing conditions in the country and on the need for new dwellings.

The following page, titled "Persons forming the census household", is designed

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to allow the enumerator to concentrate on the investigation of the number of persons that form the census household and the relationship of each one to the head of household. In this way, it is hoped to avoid one of the most common population census errors: the omission of household members that are not declared because they were forgotten, because they are newborns, or for other, similar, reasons.

The subsequent pages of the form (differing in number, depending on capacity) contain the demographic data that should be requested of each and every person in the census household and whose names should appear on the page titled "Persons who form the census household".

10.2 Annotation system adopted

In order to facilitate the enumeration, a system of marks has been adopted, wherever possible, for the census form. The mark, an "X", should be made in the special box that is found to the side of each piece of information requested. The mark (X) is always positive, meaning that the information that corresponds to the answer is marked. For example, if the enumerated person is male, the box corresponding to sex is marked as follows:

1. X male
2. female

It is possible that, despite the care taken, it will be necessary to correct erroneous marks. Since the pen used during enumeration is not erasable, the procedure in these cases is to completely cover the erroneously-marked box and to write an "X" in the box corresponding to the correct information. Referring to the previous example, if the "female" box were marked by accident for a "male", the form should appear as follows in correcting the mistake: 1 X male 2 WW female.

Annotations should be made in the most legible manner possible in the blank spaces provided when the requested information requires a written answer. Abbreviations cannot be used. If any incorrect information is recorded, attempts should not be made to erase. To correct the error, a line is crossed through the incorrect information and the correct information is written in above or below it. Even though it is expected that enumerators will be careful, some errors are inevitable.

Information requested in numbers should be recorded in numbers and not letters. E.g. "March 10, 1955" and not "March tenth of nineteen fifty-five".

If, according to the condition of the enumerated person, a certain piece of information is not obtained, e.g. "number of children" for "males", a dash is written in the space for this information to indicate that the information was not forgotten. This same procedure is used when, in spite of all efforts, an informant is unable or refuses to provide the information.

10.3 Order in which form should be filled out

Except for the "Preliminary Official Information", found on the first page of the census form and filled out after all other information is recorded, the form is filled out in the order of its pages: first the title page, then the housing questionnaire, then the "Persons who form the census household", and then the population questionnaire that occupies one page for each of the persons in the census household.

10.4 When the census form should be filled out

10.4.1 Definition of "building". The basic rule that is followed in the census route is to visit all of the buildings or structures found on the List and the others that form part of the zone, even if they are not found in the List and even though it is apparent that no one lives there. For the purposes of the census, a building is any type of construction; any independent structure that stands without support that has one or more parts or rooms. A building is covered by a roof and is normally surrounded by exterior or dividing walls that extend from the foundation to the roof. Therefore, also considered "buildings" are structures that consist of only a roof and a supporting structure; or a structure without walls. In some cases a roofless structure surrounded by walls can also be considered a "building".

10.4.2 Definition of "Dwelling". If the building or structure is inhabited or has been used as a temporary place of abode the night of January 8-9; that is, if the building has been used as a dwelling for one or more persons during the night mentioned above, the inhabitants should be interviewed and the corresponding census forms should be filled out. The same procedure is followed if the building has been only partially used as a place of abode or if it has been used as a temporary place of abode the night of January 8-9, 1970. In agreement with the above and for the purposes of the census, a dwelling (or habitation unit) is defined as any place of abode, permanent or temporary, structurally separate and independent. In other words, if a building is completely or partially used as a place of abode, it is called a "dwelling".

A dwelling is considered to be "separate" when it is surrounded by exterior walls or other buildings, partitions or fences and covered by a roof so that it permits a person or a group of persons to isolate themselves

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from others in order to sleep, prepare food, etc. A dwelling is "independent" if the occupants can enter and exit without passing through the inhabited spaces or rooms of other persons. According to the above definitions, a building can contain one or more dwellings.

10.4.3 Definition of "census household". The idea of census household corresponds, as a general rule, to the "family". It is made up of two or more persons who are usually associated through a family relationship (father, mother, children, cousins, nephews, grandchildren, etc.) and who commonly provide for their nutritional and other essential needs and who occupy all of a dwelling, part of a dwelling, or more than one dwelling. According to the above, it can be deduced that the terms "dwelling" and "household" are not synonymous since various households can share one dwelling and one household can occupy more than one dwelling. In other words, a "dwelling" is a concept that refers to the persons' place of abode; on the other hand, a "household" is a concept that refers to the persons and their family relationships or their usual relationships.

A census household can also be made up of: a) one person living alone who provides for his nutritional and other essential needs without any other person; b) a group of two or more persons who live together and in association in order to commonly provide for their nutritional and other essential needs; either related, unrelated, or made up of relatives and unrelated persons at the same time; and c) a group of two or more persons, usually not related, who share a dwelling (dwelling unit) for reasons of health, discipline, religion, punishment, education, etc. Such is the case with hospitals, barracks, convents, prisons, boarding schools, or other similar establishments. These are considered to be "households" only for the purposes of the census.

It is a fundamental rule that a census form be filled out for every person or group of persons that make up a census household in any of the defined forms.

10.4.4. Which persons in the "census household" should be recorded on the census form. Reference period. The data found in the form related to the population should be linked to a well defined "reference period". For most of the data and, especially, in determining which members of the census household should be enumerated, this period is a precise instant called the "census moment". In relation to the next National Population and Housing Census, this moment is midnight between January 8 and 9 of 1970. Therefore, unless a different rule is mentioned in the census form, all data collected should refer to this census moment, and all of the persons who were in the dwelling at this reference moment should be recorded in the form.

In dealing with the existence or non-existence of persons, the above principle is to be applied strictly and without exceptions. Therefore, for example, a household member who died before midnight of January 8-9 is not enumerated because, at the census moment, this person did not exist. On the other hand, if the death occurred after midnight (even a few minutes after), the person should be enumerated even though he will have passed away at the time of the visit. Following the same principle, a person born minutes before the census moment or who died after this moment should be recorded on the census form because, at midnight between January 8 and 9, the person legally existed. On the other hand, a person born minutes after the census moment is not enumerated even he is alive and present for the enumerator's visit because he did not exist at the census moment; that is, at midnight between January 8 and 9.

If the existence or non-existence of a person is not involved, the application of the above principle is more flexible and generally translates saying that all household members who spent the night of January 8-9 in the dwelling should be recorded in the census form. The following examples will help the enumerator to correctly apply this principle: a) a census household member goes to the movies and comes home after midnight, at 3:00, 4:00, or 5:00 AM. Even though this person did not technically spend the night in the dwelling occupied by the household, he should be enumerated there for practical reasons, otherwise it would be impossible to collect his information; b) a person usually leaves the home in the evening and does not return until morning because of work, as is the case for night watchmen (night security guards). This person should also be enumerated in the dwelling occupied by his household and not in the place of work for practical reasons.

It is especially emphasized that the above rules are applied to all household members, whether they are relatives or just friends or guests of the head of household. The latter can either be residents or persons who are passing through.

In spite of the above definition, the "reference period" or "census moment" does not necessarily have to be the same for all types of data. Sometimes it is a brief period of time before the census; e.g. from January 1-9, as will be seen in describing economic characteristics. Other times it will be a longer period of time; e.g. the period between 15 and 49 years of age for women, as will be explained in examining questions related to fertility.

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11. Rules for filling out the form

11.1 Title page

The geographical data needed to individualize the census form is recorded on the title page. The province and municipality or municipal district must be recorded on all forms. The name of the corresponding city, for urban areas, and the name of the section and of the rural location [paraje], for rural areas, is recorded also. "Urban areas" are considered to be the areas that correspond to the seats of municipalities or municipal districts and "rural areas" are the areas corresponding to the population of the sections of municipalities or municipal districts. The enumeration zone number, found in the List of Dwellings given to the enumerators is also recorded on the title page along with the form number assigned by the enumerator as the forms are filled out, starting with the number 1, for each zone. Also recorded on the title page is the corresponding control sheet number that is the same that is recorded in the "Enumerator's Number" box found on the control sheet and is assigned by the group leader. The complete names of the enumerator and of the group leader are also recorded on the title page. The other information requested on the title sheet, i.e. names of critic, encoder, transcriber, and evaluator as well as the spaces used for coding, will be used by the National Office of Statistics after enumeration. The upper right-hand corner of the title page contains the information relating to the number of persons fitting in the form. Therefore, before starting to use a certain form, the enumerator should carefully ask about the number of census household members in order to choose and use a census form with the appropriate capacity. If, in spite of this effort, it is discovered later that the number of census household members is other than what was previously thought, the correct procedure is to start over in a new pamphlet with the correct capacity and to simply return the unused form with the rest of the materials.

11.2 Preliminary official information

As explained on the census form, this information cannot be filled out until after the interview is completed, i.e. after having received all of the information on the form. It should also be noticed that this page is detachable so that its information can be processed separately and given to the Central Electoral Council (Junta Central Electoral) before March 1, 1970. Both enumerators and group leaders are responsible for correcting the information on this page because it contains official data that is turned in before the date indicated and later corrections are not possible.

11.3 Housing questionnaire

Information is gathered in this section of the census form concerning the buildings and structures of each zone that are either entirely or partially used as places of abode as well as those buildings not designed for this purpose but that have been used as a place of abode during the night of the census; i.e. the night of January 8-9, 1970. Census forms are not created for buildings used for other purposes but they should be recorded in the Enumeration Control Sheet, following the instructions found in section 9 of this manual.

Two parts can be identified in the housing questionnaire: the first refers to the "characteristics of the dwelling" and is made up of questions 1-9; the second refers to the "forms of tenure of the dwelling". It is particularly noted that the first part, i.e. the questions relating to characteristics of the dwelling (1-9), should be only be asked once for each dwelling in cases of dwellings occupied by two or more households. On the other hand, the information relating to tenure is necessarily requested separately for each of the households sharing the dwelling.

Below, a brief comment is made about each question in the housing questionnaire in order to facilitate their comprehension and correct application.

11.3.1 Question 1 a) Number of dwellings in building. The definitions of "building" and "dwelling", found respectively in numbers 10.4.1 and 10.4.2, should be applied and kept mind in order to correctly obtain this data.

11.3.2 Question 1 b) Number of households sharing dwelling. The definitions of "dwelling" and "household", found respectively in numbers 10.4.2 and 10.4.3, should be applied and related in order to correctly obtain this data.

11.3.3. Question 1 c) Total number of rooms in dwelling. This question is designed to determine the number of spaces or rooms, as defined in number 10.4.2 of this manual in each dwelling. A space or room is understood to be the space situated within a dwelling, enclosed by walls reaching from the floor to the roof or at least to a height of two meters above the floor. Its surface area includes room for an adult-sized bed; or at least four square meters.

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11.3.4 Question 1 d) Number of rooms normally used for sleeping. This question is designed to determine the number of spaces or rooms, in a dwelling, that are normally used for sleeping; that is, that are used as bedrooms. A bedroom is defined as room that is principally used for sleeping and whose surface area is at least four square meters. If a room is used for two distinct purposes, e.g. a kitchen, office, or professional studio that is normally used for sleeping at night, it is always classified and counted as a bedroom.

11.3.5 Questions 2 and 3. Classification of dwellings by type. This question classifies dwellings into two types: private and collective. These types are generally distinguished into twelve different classes. Each class is defined below:

[The original paragraph is broken up into the following smaller paragraphs, corresponding to each dwelling class]

a) Regular house (casa habitación). A common house is a building or structure that is isolated from others and that contains only one family dwelling. Included, therefore, are chalets, bungalows, wall homes ["casa paredes"] (that have a common dividing wall) and other type of similar structure. Also classified in this group are Tenements which are units of habitation made up of small, independent houses, separated by walls or dividers and used by humble families. Tenements generally only have three rooms, one of which is usually used as a kitchen. Sometimes, they are also made up of a space for a toilet, even though this space is occasionally shared for two or three [families].
b) Apartment (flat). An apartment is a complete and independent family dwelling comprised of one or more rooms, kitchen or kitchenette, and a bathroom located in a building of two or more floors. An apartment shares some services such as hallways, incinerators, elevators, stairways, etc.
c) Mobile home (mobile dwelling). A mobile home is defined as any type of shelter built to be transported (e.g. a tent) or that is made up of a mobile unit (e.g. ship, boat, sailboat, barge, railcar, motor home [R/V], trailer, yacht, etc.) used as a place of abode at the time of the census.
d) Common rustic dwelling. This is characterized by usually being located in rural areas and being constructed of local and natural materials such as: palm leaves, cane, royal palm, wood, "tejamanil" [a type of tile used on the roof of some rural houses], or other comparable organic materials. It can be expected that they have a limited duration (from a few months to 10 years) even though they can last longer at times. They are, in any case, the traditional and typical dwellings of the rural zones of the country.
e) Provisional (improvised) dwelling. Provisional dwellings are usually located in the areas bordering cities, including all independent and temporary shelters or structures that are made of waste materials with no preconceived plan. They are used as a place of abode for one or more households. This type of dwelling, also called "marginal dwelling", makes up what is commonly called the poverty belt around cities.
f) Permanent building not designed for habitation. All dwellings (located in permanent buildings) that have not been built, adapted, or transformed to be used for human habitation but that, at the census moment, are being used as places of abode are classified in this category. Included in this category are stables, granaries, factories, garages, warehouses or swimming pools (for lifeguards or janitors); casetas (hut), etc.
g) Other structure not meant for habitation. Included in this group are all of the other structures that cannot be classified in the previous groups. This especially includes those places of abode situated in provisional structures that have not been built, adapted, or transformed to be used for human habitation but that, at the census moment, are being used for this purpose.
h) Hotel, hostel, or other guest house. Included in this group are permanent buildings that are designed to provide shelter for a payment. In order for a private dwelling to be classified as a guest house or a hostel, it must have four or more rooms meant to receive guests. These rooms can be occupied or unoccupied at the census moment. As a practical criterion, the judgment in classification can be based on elements such as: the publicly assigned name of the establishment, the type of operation permit paid and the guests' statement.
i) Institutions (barracks, regiment, jail, boarding school, hospital, clinic, religious congregation, etc.). Included in this category is every group of structures located in one or more permanent buildings meant to house (usually large) groups of individuals together for a shared public interest or for a shared personal interest. In this group of places of abode, inhabitants of the same sex tend to share rooms. Special rules of enumeration are given at the end of this manual for this type of institution and the dwellings mentioned above in "h)".
j) "Batey". A "batey" is a place of abode usually constructed in the coastal style (surplus pine) with a corrugated iron ["zinc"] or asbestos roof, dirt or stone (limestone) floor, and usually in the form of a rectangular barracks with two opposite fronts and a dividing wall in the center. Each barracks contains approximately 20 dwellings with 2 rooms each (bedroom and living room), without a kitchen, bathroom, or running water in the rooms. A "batey" will sometimes have electric lighting, depending on the proximity of the sugar plantation that has constructed it. It has two or three latrines for common use. The kitchen is a stove on the patio, shared by two or three dwellings. As far as a shower facility, the only facility is provided by a close-by stream or river. This type of place of abode is generally found in rural areas because it serves sugar companies in housing workers who participate in the harvest.
k) Encampment. An encampment is a group of buildings designed to be temporarily occupied by individuals who have common activities or interests. E.g. military encampments, refugee camps, camps established to house mine workers, field workers, public works workers, and other types of industries.
l) Other collective dwelling. This residual category is comprised of
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any other place of abode that cannot be categorized as any of the dwellings defined above in the group of collective dwellings.

11.3.6 Question 4. Principal construction materials. This question attempts to investigate the materials of construction used in the exterior walls; that is, the walls seen from the outside, without entering the dwelling. Also investigated are the principal materials in the roofs and floors. In each case, the form mentions the name of the most commonly used materials. It is permissible to mark two of the materials if it is difficult to determine which of the two is principal. In all cases, in order to decide, the enumerator should not only base the judgment on the informant's claim, but also by personal assessment.

11.3.7 Question 5. Water supply. In order to obtain information that is complete and correct, it is suggested that the informant be asked, first, if the dwelling is supplied its water via plumbing or in another way; that is, without plumbing. Given the answer to this first question, it is recommended that the three alternative answers found on the census form be read to the informant before any mark is made. E.g. if the first answer is that the dwelling obtains water via plumbing, alternatives 1, 2, and 3 of question 5 are read, it is not necessary to read the others. As is done for question 4, the enumerator should use a personal assessment in order to mark the corresponding answers.

11.3.8 Question 6. Lighting. This question deals only with finding out the type of lighting used in the dwelling. If there is an electric lighting system installed, "1 X electric" is marked. This option is marked even if electrical service is interrupted temporarily. If it is declared that no type of artificial lighting is used in the dwelling, "4 X other" is marked and then the word "none" is recorded.

11.3.9 Question 7. Bathroom. The term bathroom is understood to mean the place in the dwelling used for personal hygiene. If such a room does not exist, "3 X Without bathroom" is marked, even if the dwelling is supplied with some personal hygiene artifacts. It is also investigated, in this question, if the bathroom is used by one or by two or more census households. Obviously, it is not necessary to ask this question if the dwelling has no bathroom.

11.3.10 Question 8. Toilet. As in the previous question, it is desired to find out if the dwelling is equipped with a system to eliminate sewage. If so, it is desired to know if the system is used by one census household or by two or more census households. It is necessary to clarify that a latrine or a septic tank is a rudimentary elimination system that is made up of a hole in the ground, designed to receive the sewage.

11.3.11 Question 9. Cooking installations. For this topic, the census form investigates three aspects: if the dwelling has a kitchen, which appliances are used, and what [cooking] fuel is used. A kitchen is understood to be a room in the dwelling that is used exclusively for food preparation. Since other items included on the census form are considered to be self-explanatory, only the kitchen appliances are defined here: a stove is a metallic appliance of complex assembly that has various burners and sometimes an oven that works with electricity, liquid gas, or kerosene. An hornillo is a complex burner made of materials such as tile or ceramic and has grates on which the fuel, normally charcoal, is placed so that the ashes can slip out through channels that facilitate their elimination. The pots or pans are placed on the fuel. A portable stove (anafe) is an iron or tinplate appliance whose circular or rectangular base is smaller than the mouth that makes up the upper part where the fuel, usually charcoal, is placed. It has an opening close to the base that facilitates combustion. A fire pit/firebox (fogón) is usually formed by three irregularly shaped rocks that are of a similar height. The rocks are placed on the ground and the fuel, usually wood, is burned in between them. The pots or pans are placed on these rocks. Sometimes a "fogón" is made up of a small raised platform made of mud or other solid non-flammable material on the surface of which there are one or more cracks or holes where the fuel, usually wood, is placed. The pots or pans are placed above these cracks.

11.3.12 Tenure Note that the above information is only collected once for each dwelling. This means that if the dwelling is shared by two or more households, it should only appear on the census form of the first household interviewed. Regarding tenure, on the other hand, the information should be obtained from each individual household, even when multiple households share only one dwelling. Tenure is understood to be the arrangements under which occupants can make use of the dwelling; that is, the contract or agreement that has permitted the household members to occupy the dwelling. The census form distinguishes the following forms of tenure: owner, renter or lessee, sublessor or sub-renter, and usufructuary (house given for free). An owner has tenure if the dwelling belongs to the head of household or to any of the household members who live there. A renter or lessee has tenure if the household occupies the dwelling by virtue of a contract or agreement, usually between the owner and the head of household who pays a monthly rent payment for the right to occupy the dwelling. A sublessor or sub-renter has tenure if the household occupies the dwelling by virtue of a contract or agreement between the head of household and another person who has rented the property.

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The sublessor also pays a periodic rent payment. A usufructuary (given for free) has tenure if the household occupies the dwelling with the permission of the owner, without paying rent of any kind. Other types of tenure that do not correspond to the above definitions are also placed under this category. Regarding lessees and sublessors, the number of rooms occupied in the dwelling by each household and the amount of monthly rent paid by each is requested and recorded.

11.4 Persons who form the census household

As stated in section 10.1 of this manual, the purpose of this page of the census form is to give the enumerator the opportunity to concentrate his attention to the investigation of the number of persons that form the census household. For this purpose, the name of each person, starting with the head of household, and the relationship that each person has with the head, is recorded. Family relationship is understood to be the link of blood relationship or kinship that unites two or more persons. A census household member can also be related to the head of household without being a relative, such as the case of friends, arrimados, allegados, [both are terms for 'guest' – can be staying in the dwelling at no cost or for a fee] or domestic employees, etc. The head of household is the person recognized as such by the other members that make up the census household and can be either a man or a woman. Regarding this point, the enumerator should accept the declaration given by the informant because, for the purposes of the census, the reference to a head of household is only important for determining the composition of the census household through the relationship that each household member has with the head.

Special care should be taken in recording, on this page, the names and information of every person who spent the night of January 8-9, 1970 in the dwelling. This is done even if some of these are only passing through. The next national census will be a "de facto" census that will proceed to enumerate each person in the place in which they are found at the "census moment".

Regarding each census household member, the names and surnames provided by the informant are recorded, even if not all [names] are known. If any of these persons is also known by another name or a nickname, it is written in parenthesis in order to avoid confusion. If enumerating a minor who has not yet been named, the annotation is made as "without name" and then the parent's surnames are added, if possible. In case there is resistance in providing names of some household members, the informant should be reminded that the names are necessary to understand the household composition, but that the National Office of Statistics is legally prohibited from publishing or using individual names.

Before making any annotations on this page, the enumerator should form a clear idea of the relationship that each person who spent the night in the dwelling on the night of reference has with the head of the household. In this way, the persons can be recorded in a logical order; such as:
[The current paragraph has been broken into a list for readability]

Head of household (male)
Spouse (or head of household and partner)
Unmarried children
Married children
Grandchildren (of the head)
Parents (of the head)
Son or daughter-in-law (of the head), i.e. the husband or wife of the daughter or son of the head, respectively
Father or mother-in-law (of the head), i.e. the father or mother of the head's spouse
Nephews [or nieces] (of the head)
Siblings (of the head)
Brothers or sisters-in-law (of the head)
Friends (of the head)
Domestic employees
etc.

If during the interview, however it is discovered that the name of a household member should be added higher in the list, according to the logical order listed above, the name should simply be added without making any other corrections. Most importantly, all household members be enumerated and that they appear (in any order) on the list.

The following are examples of non-related persons living together that might cause some confusion: a) a man and a woman who are not married to each other. The first is listed as the "head" and the second is listed as the "companion". B) Two or more unrelated men or two or more unrelated women living together. The "head of household" is the person considered to be such by the informant and the others are marked as "friends".

Once the actual number of household members is determined and the informant's (defined in section 4 of this manual) declarations concerning the total number of household members and their relationship to the head are verified, the collection of each person's data can begin (using the following pages of the census form).

A mark (X) is made on this page of the census form over the number corresponding to the household member who acted as the informant. If more than one person acted as informant, the same mark should appear over the corresponding numbers of all of them.

[The last paragraph on page 14 is omitted because it refers to an agricultural census question]

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Again, all of the information contained in the "Population Questionnaire" (pages following the form) should be collected for each person listed on the page titled "Persons who form the census household".

11.5 Population questionnaire

The final pages of the census form have been reserved for this questionnaire. Each page is reserved for one enumerated person and should be filled out vertically in order to collect all of the information for one person without interruptions. The head of household's information should be collected on the first page of this "population" questionnaire followed by the other household members in the same order in which they are listed on the page titled "Persons who form the census household". The questions to be presented are already listed on the census form and the enumerator should limit himself to reading them. Clarifying questions can be made, however, if the informant needs additional help. In order to avoid confusion, the questions in this questionnaire are briefly explained.

11.5.1 Personal characteristics. The first five questions dealing with personal characteristics are presented to persons of all ages, from newborns to the very oldest persons. The last question, relating to de facto conjugal status, is only presented to those 15 years of age and older.

a) Question 1. Names and surnames of the enumerated person. The names previously recorded on the census form page titled "Persons who form the census household" should be copied here unless this information can be completed or improved; however, if this is the case, these names should be corrected on the previous page. It should be noted that the first line is reserved for the names and the second line the surnames. Nicknames, if they exist, should always be recorded in parenthesis, preferably in the first line.

b) Question 2. Sex. The gender of the person should always be requested instead of being guided by the names only since some names are used for both males and females.
c) Question 3. Age. The age in years completed or in complete years is recorded for each enumerated person. The number of months completed is only requested if the enumerated person is younger than one year of age. The annotations should be made using numbers and not words.

Some informants cannot give an exact age or have doubts about their age but they remember, however, that the birth of the enumerated person is related to an important national or regional historical event. In these cases, the list of events given below can be used and the corresponding ages recorded:

Event: During the "Moya" revolution
Approximate age in years: 83

Event: When Lilís died
Approximate age in years: 70

Event: On the 23rd of March
Approximate age in years: 67

Event: The fire of San Carlos
Approximate age in years: 67

Event: The time of "the comet"
Approximate age in years: 60

Event: During the Los Quiquises War
Approximate age in years:57

Event: During Cambelén
Approximate age in years: 54

Event: When the Americans came
Approximate age in years: 53

Event: During the influenza [outbreak]
Approximate age in years: 51

Event: During the smallpox [outbreak]
Approximate age in years: 48

Event: At the time of the coronation of the Virgin
Approximate age in years: 48

Event: During San Zenón
Approximate age in years: 39

Event: During the Centennial
Approximate age in years: 26

Event: At the time of the earthquake
Approximate age in years: 24

Event: At the time of the Constanza, Maimón, and Estero Hondo Invasion
Approximate age in years: 11

Event: When Trujillo fell [from power]
Approximate age in years: 9

Event: At the time of Palma Sola massacre
Approximate age in years: 8

Event: The 27th of February encampment explosion
Approximate age in years: 6

Event: The April Revolution
Approximate age in years: 5

Event: At the time of Hurricane Flora that damaged the South
Approximate age in years: 4

Event: At the time of Hurricane Inés that damaged Barahona and Enriquillo
Approximate age in years: no age given

Event: When Balaguer was taken
Approximate age in years: 4

d) Question 4. Relationship to the head of household. It is pointed out again that the assessment of relationship should be based on the relation of each enumerated person
p. 16
to the head of household. Spouse is understood to be the wife or the woman legally married to the enumerated person. A companion is the woman who lives conjugally with the enumerated person without being married to him, whichever the marital status. "Other relationship" is marked for any other relative of the head of household. "Non-relative" is marked for any other household member that is not linked to the head by a blood relationship; such as friends or guests, etc.

e) Question 5. Legal marital status. On the census form, the legal marital status or the de facto conjugal status is requested separately of all enumerated persons. Question 5 refers exclusively to the legal marital status of the enumerated person. In order to avoid confusion, each of the states appearing on the census form are defined below: i) unmarried: one who has never been married; ii) married: one who has entered into a valid and lawful marriage and who maintains that status at the time of the census. Included in this group are those persons in de facto separation because this circumstance does not affect the validity of their marriage. A de facto separation is one that takes place through the initiative or agreement of both parties, without legal intervention. iii) widowed: a married person whose spouse had passed away by the time of the census and who has not remarried. iv) divorced: a person who has obtained a legal separation from his/her spouse and who is legally authorized to remarry. v) legally separated: a married person who lives separated from his spouse due to a legal judgment and who cannot remarry. This definition excludes those in a de facto separation. vi) annulled: a person whose marriage was declared null or invalid by a legal judgment.

f) Question 6. De facto conjugal status. Independent of the information obtained on the legal marital status; that is, irrespective of the marital status declared [in the previous question], it should be asked if any of the enumerated persons live in a consensual union with another person. This question should be asked in a discreet manner so as not to offend the informant. If, and only if, the answer is affirmative, the duration of the union is requested, in completed years. For example, a person who declared, for the legal marital status, to be married or widowed may or may not be living in a consensual union with another person in the same way an unmarried person would. Therefore, it is established that the answers received concerning the legal marital status and the de facto conjugal status are independent from each other.

11.5.2. Educational characteristics. Questions 7-10, referring to the enumerated person's educational characteristics, are presented to those 5 years of age and older.

a) Question 7. Literacy. In order to mark "1 X yes", it is necessary that the enumerated person know how to read and write. It is not sufficient that the person only know how to read or write.

b) Question 8. Level of education. The levels of education that exist in the country are found printed on the census form. In order to avoid erroneous answers from the informant, who might not know all of them [levels of education], the levels are read out loud. Whenever possible, the enumerator should also judge the veracity of the answers according to the level of sophistication of the interviewee or enumerated person if present. Vocational studies (commercial, industrial, and normal) or studies carried out in agricultural institutes are classified as "5 X Secondary".

c) Question 9. Last year completed. Once the level of education is determined, the highest grade completed in that level is requested. Note that the last grade studied is not marked; rather the last year actually completed is recorded.

d) Question 10. School attendance. In order to complete the educational information, it is necessary to find out if the enumerated person is registered and attending (studying) in any school, secondary school, or university. In order that the affirmative answer be marked, it is necessary to confirm that the enumerated person is registered and accepted as a student in any educational establishment.

11.5.3 Place of birth. Questions 11a and 11b are directed towards persons of all ages, including newborns. It should first be found out if the person was born in the Dominican Republic or abroad. For those born in the country, only the name of the municipality or district of birth is recorded. For those born abroad, only the name of the birth country is recorded.

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11.5.4 Economic characteristics. Questions 12-16 are presented only to those 10 years of age and older. It is also pointed out that questions 13-16 are only presented to those who were classified in either of the first two groups of question 12: "employed" or "unemployed".

a) Question 12. Economic activity of the enumerated person. For this question, the "census moment" is the period of January 1-9, 1970; that is, the employment status of the enumerated person during this period is requested. In order to obtain a correct answer, it is strictly necessary that all of the classification found in the census form opposite the question be read to the enumerated person. Each of the alternatives is explained below:

[The following paragraph has been broken into smaller paragraphs.]
i) Had work of any kind (with pay or earnings). Those who were occupied (or who had an occupation) from January 1-9
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are classified into this group. One who is occupied worked for pay, salary, or any other type of remuneration during the indicated time period. Also included in this group are those who are employed or have work but who are temporarily absent because of an illness, accident, labor conflict, vacation, leave, etc.
ii) Without work (unemployed). This category includes those who did not have a paid occupation or job from January 1-9 but who had been previously employed and who are looking for work. Also included are those who are not looking for work because they have found employment that will start after January 9
iii) Looked for work for the first time. This includes those who have never worked before and who had been looking for their first employment between January 1-9.
iv) Household duties. This refers to those who carry out household duties, without remuneration, in their own homes. Also included are those who, besides their household duties, carry out a paid activity during a period of time less than one-third of the normal working day [less than 1/3 time]. For the purposes of the census (only for the purposes of the census), the normal working day is understood to be nine hours per day. Therefore, a person who carries out domestic duties and also a remunerated activity can be classified in this group if the activity is carried out for less than three hours per day.
v) Student. This comprises all those who are exclusively dedicated to studying and those who, besides studying, carry out a paid activity during a period of time less than one-third of the normal working day [less than 1/3 time].
vi) Rentier. Included in this category are those who do not carry out a remunerated activity and who live from the product of their capital; such as interest, dividends, or income coming from stocks, bonds, houses, or other real estate properties.
vii) Retired or pensioned. This includes those, usually of an advanced age, who do not carry out a paid activity and who receive a periodic income, normally called a retirement or pension, because they had been previously employed. Included in this category are those who receive a "pensión de gracia" [#tr probably a welfare check]. Those pensioned or retired persons carrying out a remunerated activity for less than one-third of the normal laboral working day, they are placed in this category.
viii) Invalid or prisoner or recluse. This includes those who cannot carry out a paid activity because of a physical or mental disability or because of adopting a cloistered life (as is the case for certain religious orders) or because of a judicial sentence (prisoners). If the disability is temporary or accidental and the occupation is guaranteed or reserved, they are classified in the first group "1 X Had work of any king (with pay or earnings)".
ix) Other. Included in this group are all those whose situations cannot be fit into the previous classifications; e.g. minors who do not attend school, elderly with no economic resources, prisoners who carry out a paid activity for more than three hours per day, etc.

b) Question 13. Occupation of the enumerated person. The occupation held by each enumerated person between January 1-9 is investigated and recorded in the most precise manner possible. Therefore, for example, it is not sufficient to record a person's occupation as "professor", rather "elementary school teacher", "secondary education teacher", or "university professor". In other words, it is necessary to define each occupation in the most precise possible way. For those who are "unemployed"; that is, those without a current occupation, the last job held is recorded.

c) Question 14. Industry. Along with the occupation, it is necessary to establish and record the type of activity or industry practiced by the establishment, business, industry, office, or farm where the enumerated person works. As in the previous category, it is necessary to define the "industry" of these establishments in the most precise manner possible. Other examples, besides those mentioned on the census form, would be: livestock farm [ranch], doors and windows industry, metallurgic industry, vehicle sales and repair, etc.

d) Question 15. Employment status. Within each occupation there are various categories or positions. This question attempts to find out which of these is held by the enumerated person. This is the information that allows this question to be answered. In order to obtain a correct response, it is indispensable that the four categories found in the census form be read to the informant. These categories are defined below: i) Employer (owner). This is the person who directs his own economic enterprise or who carries out a profession or trade by and for himself and who has one or more employees or workers who receive a salary or wage. This excludes domestic employees.; ii) Own-account worker. This is the person who operates his own economic enterprise or who carries out a profession or trade by and for himself and who does not have any employees or workers receiving a salary or wage.; iii) Employee with a salary or wage (including domestic employees and paid family workers). This category includes, therefore, three groups: employees, paid family workers, and domestic employees. An employee is a person who works for a public or private employer (owner) and who receives remuneration in the form of salary, wage, tips, commissions, pay for piecework (for units of work), or pay in-kind. It does not matter, therefore, if the work is predominantly intellectual or physical in nature, or vice versa. A paid family worker is a person who works for pay or earnings, for less than three hours per day, in an economic enterprise operated by a relative, only if they live in the same household. A Domestic employee is a person who works for a public or private employer (owner) and who carries out activities related to household service (servant, butler, cook, doorman, nanny, washerwoman, etc.) and who receives a basic remuneration in the form of a salary and normally some additional perks (housing, food, etc.).;
p. 18
iv) Unpaid family worker. This is a person who works, without pay or earnings, in an economic enterprise operated by a relative for at least three hours per day; only if they live in the same household.

e) Question 16. Usual occupation. In developing countries, where specialized work is not the rule, workers frequently change occupations. Because of this, this question refers to the normal occupation carried out by the enumerated person during the last year. Normal occupation is understood to be the occupation held for the longest period of time during the year previous to the census; that is, during 1969.

11.5.5. Fertility. This question is presented to women, irrespective of their legal marital status or de facto conjugal status. Three distinct aspects of fertility are investigated on the census form. For the first two, letters a) and b), the reference period is, practically, all of the fertile life of the woman; that is, these two aspects should be investigated for all women 15 years of age and older. The third aspect, letter c), however, has a more limited reference period; that is, it is only investigated for women from 15 to 49 years of age.

Letter a) of question 17 refers to the total number of children born alive to each enumerated woman 15 years of age and older. Not taken into account is whether they are alive or not at the time of the census or the age of death. A child born alive is any child that had shown any sign of life (cry, scream, breathing) after the complete separation from the mother's body. It is not necessary to consider the duration of the pregnancy or the amount of time the child was alive; it is sufficient that the child had survived for an instant after the separation from the mother. It is also not necessary for the umbilical cord (bellybutton cord) to have been cut; it is sufficient for the entire body of the child to have been expelled or extracted from the womb. Therefore, children born without life (dead), abortions, or miscarriages are not counted.

Letter b) of question 17 refers to the total number of children alive at the time of the census; that is, those that are alive at midnight of January 8-9 of 1970. Therefore, those who passed away before and those born after the "census moment" are excluded.

Letter c) of question 17 refers to the children born alive between the January 1 and December 31 of 1969 to all of the enumerated women from 15 to 49 years of age.

It is important that the questions be presented carefully in order to avoid erroneous answers.

12. Special rules for enumerating institutions and certain collective dwellings.

12.1 Justification

There are several reasons for special rules in the enumeration of collective dwellings which comprise groups 8 and 9 in the Housing Questionnaire. Among these reasons is the application of sampling techniques in census enumeration, the special nature of these dwellings themselves and the relationships between the persons that live therein, and the usually large number of these persons.

12.2 Enumeration

The rules given below will apply obligatorily to the following institutions and collective dwellings: police stations and prisons; military, naval, and air force units; boarding schools; public and private hospitals and clinics; religious congregations; hotels; hostels and other types of guest houses; and merchant vessels anchored in national ports and bays the night of January 8-9 of 1970.

Both the Provincial Census Commissions and the Municipal Census Commissions, in their respective jurisdictional territories, will make the necessary contacts as soon as they receive these instructions for the delivery and return of the census materials and to assure the correct and complete enumeration of those who live in, are imprisoned, or admitted in the institutions and other collective dwellings mentioned through the strict compliance with these special rules. For its part, the National Office of Statistics will adopt the pertinent measures with within the limits of the National District and will request that the authorities in charge of theses entities impart instructions to their government employees so that they collaborate with the Provincial and Municipal Census Commissions and facilitate their work.

For the purposes of enumeration, the above mentioned institutions and collective dwellings can be divided into six groups, taking into account their common elements. The special rules applicable to each group are presented below.

p. 19

12.3 First group. Hotels, hostels and guest houses with capacity for fewer than twenty persons, including personnel.

12.3.1 Census form used. In this matter, the general rules should be followed; that is, if a dwelling in this group is located in a "sample zone", the large forms are used for all persons. If the dwelling is in a "zone outside of the sample", the small forms are used for all persons.

12.3.2 Who should enumerate. In this aspect, the general rules should also be followed; that is, when a dwelling from this list if found as part of this group, the persons in the dwelling are enumerated by the enumerator as they would be any other type of common dwelling.

12.3.3 Who is enumerated. Procedure. [The original paragraph has been divided for readability]

a) In the first place, the owner, manager or administrator who lives in the premises, alone or with family and domestic employees, is enumerated if they spent the night of January 8-9 of 1970 there. The domestic employees included here exclusively serve the owner/administrator and do not service the hotel, hostel, or guest house. If they do not exclusively serve them, then they are considered to be domestic employees of the dwelling. In order to decide the number of forms to be filled out (one for each census household), the definition of "census household" found in number 10.4.3 of this manual is used. In order to tell who "spent the night" of January 8-9 of 1970, the rules found in number 10.4.4 of this manual are applied.

b) Also enumerated is each traveler living alone and every group of travelers living together, only if they had spent the night of January 8-9 of 1970 in the building. Each traveler living alone constitutes a one-person census household and, therefore, will require a separate form. In this case the traveler is recorded as the "head" of household. Each group of travelers living together is considered to be a multi-person census household and requires a separate form. In this case the "head" is the person declared as such by the informant. As a practical criteria, travelers who live together and who generally form a census household are those who pay only one bill.

c) The personnel (servants, cooks, waiters, washerwomen, etc.) who live in this type of dwelling are also enumerated if they spent the night of January 8-9 of 1970 in the building. For the purposes of enumeration, workers who live alone are equated to travelers that live alone and the rules given in letter b), above, are applied. Workers living with family members are equated to travelers living together in a group and the same rules apply to them.

12.3.4 Time and opportunity of enumeration. Persons who use this type of dwelling are commonly only available at certain times, principally the first hours of the morning, mealtime, and at night. In order to carry out all of the interviews, the interviews should preferentially take place at the times indicated. It should also be noted that some travelers can permanently abandon these dwellings during the first hours of January 9 or 10, 1970, before the enumerator's visit. In order to anticipate omissions of this type, it is considered very important that these dwellings be visited on January 8 and that the travelers with the intention of leaving in the early morning of January 9 or 10 be enumerated as if they had spent the night of the census there.

12.4 Second group. Hotels, hostels and guest houses with capacity for more than 20 persons, including personnel

12.4.1 Census form used. In the collective dwellings of this type, both types of census form, large and small, are used for enumeration. Enumeration will be initiated using a large census form for the first census household and will continue alternating between a small form, a large form, a small form and so on successively. In this way half of the census households will end up being enumerated with the large census form and the other half with the small form. This rule is to be applied strictly in the manner described above; that is, alternating between both forms. The enumeration of the first half of the household with one type and the second half with the other is an erroneous and unacceptable practice.

12.4.2 Who should enumerate. The Municipal Census Commission, upon finding out the usual number of travelers in these dwellings will assign one or more enumerators to cover them exclusively. Therefore, enumerators whose Lists of Dwellings have dwellings of this group will be instructed to avoid visiting them because special enumerators will carry out the corresponding interviews and will be exclusively dedicated to this activity.

12.4.3 Who should be enumerated. Procedure. The same persons and groups of persons are enumerated following the same procedures and rules as mentioned in number 12.3.3, above.

12.4.4 Time and opportunity of enumeration. The concepts in number 12.3.4, above, are equally applicable to this group. This includes both in the necessity of adapting the work hours to the way of life of the persons who occupy this type of dwellings and the necessity to visit the dwellings on January 8 to

p. 20

enumerate the travelers who intend to travel during the early morning hours of January 9 or 10.

12.5 Third group. Boarding schools

12.5.1 Census form used. All of the information in number 12.4.1, above, is applicable in all of its parts for the director, professors, inspectors, assistants, servants, custodians, cooks, washerwomen, and other administrative personnel in this group. The students will be enumerated alone and only with the small forms.

12.5.2 Who should enumerate. All of the information in number 12.4.2, above, is applicable in all of its parts for this group. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary that the Municipal Census Commission find out beforehand the number of professors, the number of the persons who make up the administrative staff of the establishment, and the number of students who live in the boarding schools in their jurisdiction. This is necessary so that one or two enumerators can be assigned exclusively to these boarding schools.

12.5.3 Who should be enumerated. Procedure.
[The original paragraph has been divided for readability]

a) First, the director, the professors, and the administrative staff (inspectors, assistants, servants, custodians, cooks, washerwomen, etc.) who live in the building; alone or with their families and domestic employees, forming one or more census households are enumerated. This applies only if they spent the night of January 8-9, 1970. Domestic employees included here work exclusively for the family and do not work for the boarding school. If they do not serve the family exclusively, they should be considered to be domestic employees of the boarding school. To decide how many census forms to use (one for each census household), the definition of "census household" found in number 10.4.3 should be applied. Similarly, to decide which persons "spent the night" in the building, the rules found in 10.4.4 of this manual are applied.
b) The students. For the students, only the small census form is used in which all will be classified as "student" in the census form page titled "Persons who form the census household" and none are classified as "head of household". They are also classified as "9 X non-relative" in answer to question #4 of the Population Questionnaire. Therefore, only one census form is used for all of the students, using the same form number even in the cases where, because of the number of students, multiple census forms have to be filled out. In the form, as is obvious, each student should occupy one page of the Population Questionnaire. In order to avoid omissions in the enumeration that can easily occur in establishments where many persons live, the list of students, by class, should be requested of the boarding school officials. The enumeration should be completed for each class before starting the next one, starting with the upper classes. The Municipal Census Commission will make sure to notify boarding school directors that the students and other personnel who spend the night of January 8-9 of 1970 cannot leave the boarding school without having been enumerated, even if classes have been adjourned.

12.5.4 Time and opportunity of enumeration. The school authorities will be requested to place, in an orderly fashion, the students and other personnel at the disposition of the enumerator in order to work full time and to ensure the completion of enumeration during the days meant for this purpose. Because of the organization and the fact that the enumerator will not have to travel from house to house, more production than the common [enumerator] will be allowed. The Municipal Census Commission can calculate one enumerator for every 200 students for the two days of enumeration.

12.6 Fourth group. Police stations, prisons, military, naval, and air force units and religious congregations

12.6.1 Census form used. The small census form is used for this group of collective dwellings. As an exception, the large census form will always be used for detainees, inmates, and prisoners in prisons and police stations.

12.6.2 Who should enumerate. In light of the fact that these institutions are governed by special rules, the National Office of Statistics has informed the officers of these organizations that the enumeration of their respective populations can be carried out by personnel from their own institution when they have completed the Training Course delivered by the provincial census commissions in the interior of the country and by the National Office of Statistics in Santo Domingo. These authorities will deliver the corresponding instructions to their personnel. In agreement with the above information, the provincial and municipal commissions should contact this group's institutions in their jurisdiction as soon as the present instructions are received in order to communicate the date of the training course and to find out if they will provide personnel to function as enumerators. It is pointed out that if any of these institutions does not show interest as indicated above, the enumeration should, nevertheless, be carried out during the days of January 9-10, 1970 by enumerators assigned by the Municipal Census Commission. The law obliges all inhabitants of the Republic, without distinction of any kind, to provide the census information.

12.6.3. Who should be enumerated. Procedure.
The original paragraph has been divided for readability]

a) All of the members and employees of the respective institution should be enumerated, irrespective of their
p. 21
employment status and the work carried out therein. These persons are enumerated only if they live in the building and have spent the night of January 8-9 of 1970 there. All of these persons are enumerated with only one census form. According to the case, the ranking officer, rector, director, or the leader of the congregation is listed as the "head of household" in the page titled "Persons who form the census household". The other persons are recorded by their rank, in military units, and as "members", in religious congregations. Also, as the answer to question 4 of the population questionnaire both groups are classified as "9 X non-relatives". Therefore, only one census form is used for the head and all others in the respective institution; using the same form number even in the case where, because of the number of persons, various pamphlets need to be filled out. On the form, as is obvious, the head and others should each occupy one page of the population questionnaire. In order to avoid omissions in the enumeration that can easily occur in establishments with numerous persons, the enumerator should request the complete personnel lists from the respective authorities. This will allow an orderly enumeration, beginning with those of the highest rank.
b) In the case of police stations and jails of any type, all of the persons who are found there as detainees, inmates, or prisoners should be enumerated only if they spent the night of January 8-9, 1970 there. Only one census form is used for all of these persons, using the same form number even in the case where, because of the number of detainees, inmates, or prisoners, various pamphlets need to be filled out. As an exception, on the page titled "Persons who form the census household" of these forms, all are classified as "detainees, inmates, or prisoners" according to the case and nobody will be classified as the "head of household". Therefore, as the answer to question 4 of the population questionnaire all are classified as "9 X non-relatives". On the form, as is obvious, each detainee, inmate, or prisoner should occupy one page of the population questionnaire. For the same reason given in letter a) above, the enumerator should request a complete list of the persons who should be enumerated before beginning the enumeration.

12.6.4 Time and opportunity of enumeration. The information found in 12.5.4 above is applicable in all of its parts for this type of establishment.

12.7 Fifth group. Public and private hospitals and clinics

12.7.1 Census form used. Both types of census forms, large and small, will be used in the enumeration of this group of collective dwellings. The enumerator will always begin the enumeration using a large form and will continue, alternating, using a small form, a large form, a small form and so on successively. In this way, when the enumeration is finished, half of the enumerated persons will be recorded on the large forms and the other half will be on the small forms. In these establishments (hospitals and clinics), only forms with the capacity for one to six persons will be used, either large or small. These rules should be followed strictly in the form explained; that is, alternatively using both forms, all with capacity for up to six persons. The enumeration of the first half of the persons with one type of form (large or small) and the second half with the other type is an error and unacceptable.

12.7.2 Who should enumerate. In light of the fact that these institutions are governed by special rules imposing certain limitations on the actions of outside persons, the National Office of Statistics has informed the State Secretary of Public Health and Social Welfare that the enumeration in public hospitals and clinics can be carried out by personnel from their own institution when they have completed the Training Course delivered by the provincial census commissions in the interior of the country and by the National Office of Statistics in Santo Domingo. These authorities will deliver the corresponding instructions to their personnel. In agreement with the above information, the provincial and municipal commissions should contact this group's institutions in their jurisdiction as soon as the present instructions are received in order to communicate the date of the training course and to find out if they will provide personnel to function as enumerators. It is pointed out that if any of these institutions does not show interest as indicated above, the enumeration should nevertheless be carried out during the days of January 9-10, 1970 by enumerators assigned by the Municipal Census Commission. The law obliges all inhabitants of the Republic, without distinction of any kind, to provide the census information.

12.7.3. Who should be enumerated. Procedure.
[The original paragraph has been divided for readability]

a) In the first place, all of the functionaries and employees of the respective institution should be enumerated, irrespective of their employment status and the work carried out therein. These persons are enumerated only if they live in the building and have spent the night of January 8-9 of 1970 there. All of these persons are enumerated with only one census form. According to the case, the director or administrator is listed as the "head of household" in the page titled "Persons who form the census household". The other persons are classified by their rank or position in the respective institution. Also, as the answer to question 4 of the population questionnaire both groups are classified as "9 X non-relatives".
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Therefore, only one census form is used for the head and all others in the respective institution; using the same form number even in the case where, because of the number of persons, various pamphlets need to be filled out. On the form, as is obvious, the head and others should each occupy one page of the population questionnaire. In order to avoid omissions in the enumeration that can easily occur in establishments with numerous persons, the enumerator should request the complete personnel lists from the respective authorities. This will allow an orderly enumeration, beginning with those of the highest rank.
b) All of the patients admitted to the respective hospital or clinic [are enumerated] if they spent the night of January 8-9 of 1970 there. Only one census form is used for all of these persons, using the same form number even in the case where, because of the number of patients, various pamphlets need to be filled out. As an exception, on the page titled "Persons who form the census household" of these forms, all are classified as "patients" according to the case and none will be classified as the "head of household". Therefore, as the answer to question 4 of the population questionnaire both groups are classified as "9 X non-relatives". On the form, as is obvious, each patient should occupy one page of the population questionnaire. For the same reason given in letter a) above, the enumerator should request a complete list of the persons who should be enumerated before beginning the enumeration.

12.7.4 Time and opportunity of enumeration. The information found in 12.5.4 above is applicable in all of its parts for this type of establishment.

12.8 Sixth group. Merchant vessels

12.8.1. Census form used. The small census form is used for the enumeration of the crew of merchant vessels and the large form is used for the passengers.

12.8.2 Who should enumerate. To facilitate the enumeration, within the norms governing the stay of merchant vessels in the ports and bays of the Country, the National Office of Statistics has informed the General Directorate of Customs that this process can be carried out by employees of the directorate's office when they have completed the Training Course delivered by the provincial census commissions in the interior of the country and by the National Office of Statistics in Santo Domingo. These authorities will deliver the corresponding instructions to their personnel. In agreement with the above information, the provincial and municipal commissions should contact the agencies of the General Directorate in their jurisdiction as soon as the present instructions are received in order to communicate the date of the training course and to find out if they will provide personnel to function as enumerators. It is pointed out that if any of these agencies does not show interest as indicated above, the enumeration should, nevertheless, be carried out during the days of January 9-10, 1970 by enumerators assigned by the Municipal Census Commission. The law obliges all inhabitants of the Republic, without distinction of any kind, to provide the census information.

12.8.3 Who should be enumerated. Procedure. All of the crew and passengers of merchant vessels anchored in national ports and bays should be enumerated if they spent the night of January 8-9, 1970 aboard. One small census form in used for all of the crew. The highest ranking officer is listed as the "head of census household" on the page titled "Persons who form the census household". The rest of the crew is recorded according to their rank in descending order. All of the passengers are enumerated on a separate large form in which, by exception, all are classified as "passengers" on the page titled "Persons who form the census household" and none are classified as the "head of household". The same form number is used on the respective census forms for both the crew and the passengers, even when various pamphlets are used due to the number of crew and passengers, respectively. Therefore, for both groups, as the answer to question 4 of the population questionnaire both groups are classified as "9 X non-relatives". On the form, as is obvious, each crew member and passenger should occupy one page of the population questionnaire. In order to avoid omissions in the enumeration that can easily occur in establishments with numerous persons, the enumerator should request the complete list of crew and passengers who spent the night of January 8-9, 1970 aboard before beginning the enumeration.

12.8.4 Time and opportunity of enumeration. The time of enumeration should be adjusted, with the agreement of the captain or other competent officer, to a time available before the vessel departs and before the conclusion of enumeration. The most convenient schedule should also be taken into account in order to facilitate contact with the enumerated persons. Concerning the number of enumerators to be trained, this should be determined by the General Directorate of Customs or its agencies in the interior of the country, taking into account the number of vessels expected to be anchored the night of January 8-9, 1970, in national ports or bays, the number of persons making up the crew and the number of passengers, as is the case, and also the expected date of departure. Because the enumerator should not have to travel from house to house, it is possible to estimate that one enumerator for each 100 crew members and one for every 50 passengers will be needed.

12.9 Observation common to all groups

The complete name of the institution or other collective dwelling is always recorded on the title page of the forms for each and every one of the six groups subject to special rules of enumeration. Examples: "Hotel Jaragua"; "Cuartel de la Policia Nacional o Destacamiento de la Policia Nacional" [National Police Station]; "Fortaleza San Luis" [Fort San Luis]; "Internado de la Inmaculada Concepción" [Boarding School of the Immaculate Conception]; "Barco Mercante Ozama" [Merchant Vessel Ozama], etc.