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Area of population and housing census
Manual for Enumerators
10th National Population Census
6th National Housing Census

San José, Costa Rica
January 2010

National Institute of Statistics and Censuses

[Pages 2 to 4 were omitted from this translation as they simply collect the personal and contact information of the enumerator and outline the schedule for the 5 day orientation session for enumerators.]

[p. 5]

Introduction

The National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC) is a technical entity of the National Statistics System and coordinates the production of statistics of the country with the objective of responding to the different information needs.

Among the responsibilities of the INEC are the completion of the 10th National Population Census and the 6th National Housing Census to be carried out between May 30 and June 3 of 2011. The censuses correspond to programs specialized in the recompilation, elaboration, analysis, and diffusion of the statistic information about the demographic, social, and economic situation of the population, as well as its housing conditions.

The information that is derived from them constitutes the foundation for the elaboration of the national diagnosis in a given moment; likewise it permits the design, execution, and evaluation of the public policies among other uses, for which the census information is used regularly by different groups of users like: ministers, autonomous institutions, students, means of communication, international organisms, non-governmental organizations and by the population in general, each one of these users having different information needs and priorities.

The present Manual for Enumerators constitutes the technical guide for the enumerator to acquire the abilities necessary to complete the task of collecting information. The definitions, concepts, directions, and criteria contained in this manual will be studied and revised during the Capacitation Course for Enumerator which the INEC will dictate.

[p. 6]

This document has been organized in seven units: the first outlines the topic of the National Censuses, objectives, theme, and trajectory in addition to its legal basis; in the second, the organization of the census operations, in the third unit the use of the map and the process of touring the registered area are studied, the technique of the interview and its importance in the recollection of high quality statistics, as well as the structure of the census questionnaire and general completion instructions; in the fifth unit the content and completion of the questions of the Housing Census are covered, in the sixth unit the content and completion of the questions of the Population Census are covered, and lastly, in the seventh unit the process of turning in and returning the census material is explained.

The National Statistics and Census Institute especially recognizes the important collaboration and support offered by the teaching and administrative personnel of the Public Ministry of Education; its interest, cooperation and participation are factors essential for securing the quality and success of the 2011 census.

Index

Introduction 5
First Unit: The National Census 11

The 2011 Census: 10th National Population and 6th National Housing Census 13
The population census: trajectory and contents 13
The housing census: trajectory and contents 16
Legal Basis of the Census 17
Self-evaluation Exercises 19

Second Unit: Organization of the Census Operation 21

Operational Territorial Units 23
Structure of the Census Operations 24
Actors of the Census Operations 26
Functions of the Census Personnel 28
Self-evaluation exercises 31

Third Unit: The Map and Tour of the Registered Area 33

The Map of the Registered Area 35
Elements of the Map 35
Orientation Procedure in the Terrain with Help of the Map 39
The Procedure of the Tour of the Registered Area 40
Plan of the Tour of the Registered Area 41
Procedure of the Tour according to the Registered Area 42
Formula C1: Tour Sheet of the Minimum Geostatistical Unit 54
Situations that Can Be Presented during a Tour 61
Instructions for Completing the Control Forms (C2 and C3) 68
Formula C2 "Guide for the Minimal Geostatistical Unit (UGM)" 68
Formula C3 "Summary of the Registered Area (AE)" 70
Self-evaluation exercises 72

Fourth Unit: The Interview, the Census Questionnaire and Basic Concepts 77

The Interview and its Importance in the Recollection of Quality Data 79
The Technique of the Interview 79
Characteristics of the Personal Informant 82
Structure of the Census Questionnaire 82
Characteristics of the Census Questionnaire 82

Instructions for Completing the Census Questionnaire 84
General Instructions 84
Instructions for Formulating Questions 85
Form of Noting Responses on the Questionnaire 86
Basic Concepts 87
Self-evaluation Exercises 93

Fifth Unit. The National Housing Census 95

Completing the National Housing Census 97
Block I: Localization 97
Block II: Housing Characteristics 99
Self-evaluation Exercises 124

Sixth Unit. The National Population Census 127

Content of the National Population Census 129
Block III: Identification of People and Household Total 129
Block IV: Socioeconomic Characteristics 137
Back Cover of the Census Questionnaire 171
Self-evaluation Exercises 172

Seventh Unit. Submission and Return of Material Census 175

Submission of Material Census 177
Instructions for Returning Materials 181

Appendices 185

Solution of Self-evaluation Exercises 187
Evaluation of the Enumerator Capacitation 202
Notes 204

First Unit

The National Census

Objectives of this unit

Upon finishing this unit you should be able to:

Understand the importance of the national census to guide policy formation.

Manifest a professional, social, and ethical commitment with regards to the execution of the 2011 census.

Analyze the legal basis of the census

[p. 13]

A. The 2011 Census: 10th National Population and 6th National Housing Census

The 2011 Census has as its main objective to facilitate the necessary, detailed, sufficient and up to date statistical information about the specific characteristics of the population residing in the country (national and foreign) and about the dwellings or human settlements that allow the identification and analysis of the demographic and social situation for the formulation, follow up, and evaluation of policies, plans, and programs in different fields, for the use of the population and public and private institutions.

The population censuses: trajectory and contents

In Costa Rica nine population censuses have been taken, in the years shown in the figure below: [1864, 1883, 1892, 1927, 1950, 1963, 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011].

[p. 14]

These censuses have offered basic information about the inhabitants of the country, the quantity and geographic distribution of the population, sex, age, kinship between the members of the household, migration, disability, ethnicity, social security coverage, employment, occupation group, activity branch, occupation category, unemployment, inactivity, basic unsatisfied needs, education level, attendance to general education, literacy, fertility, and mortality.

The 2011 Population Census will allow, in addition, the investigation of new topics such as the receiving and sending of remittances on the part of the household, emigrant population, attendance of minors to daycare centers, attendance of the elderly to day centers, classification of the education centers and centers of public and private care, possession of a diploma of general education and geographic location of the place of work.

The information collected will be the base for the generation of truer public policies in diverse fields, like the following:

Demographic: this allows us to evaluate and analyze the structure of the population by sex and age, tendencies and demographic changes, population density and life expectancy, in the distinct census periods. Likewise, it permits us to evaluate and elaborate the new population projections at the national, provincial, and canton level, of great utility for the creation of new districts and cantons, as well as for the administration of voter registration lists.

This information is the base for determining the number of municipal councils of representatives. In addition it allows us to evaluate the administrative records of births and deaths.

Migration: this information allows us to analyze the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the population, in addition to evaluating the internal migratory phenomena of the population.

[p. 15]

Social: this information will allow for the study of the living conditions of the habitants especially of vulnerable populations like children, adolescents, and the elderly. It will also allow for an elaboration and evaluation of the indices and goals of social development according to international agreements and perspectives.

Gender: the census statistics contain a focus of gender equality, which allows for an evaluation of the policies and achievements in the field of equality of opportunities.

Education: It will be possible to carry out studies about the student population, to plan the needs of teacher formation and its spatial distribution, required education infrastructure, equipment, projection of students, classrooms and teachers; such as the elaboration and evaluation of the indicators of education coverage, the levels of formal schooling, falling behind, drop outs, and literacy of the population.

Economic: this allows us to analyze and evaluate the structure and characterization of the labor force in the distinct economic sectors, such as the policy of eradication of child labor, projection of the work positions in distinct economic sectors; as well as carrying out studies about the quality and formality of employment.

Health and social security: studies about the level of coverage and the social security and profile of those assured, the demand of the health centers, infrastructure and equipment, hospitals, quantity of personnel, such as the elaboration of plans and policies of social and actuarial security. In addition, it provides information about the situation of the disabled population.

Local planning: the information obtained will support and strengthen the management capabilities of the local governments with a useful base of information for making decisions.

[p. 16]

The censuses of the dwelling: trajectory and contents

In the country there have been 5 housing censuses, in the years that are shown in the following figure: [1949, 1963, 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011].

These censuses have produced statistics about the situation and housing conditions of the population in terms of the type of dwelling, number of rooms, type and state of the construction materials, availability of basic services: water source, possession of in household water, possession of electric lights, fuel used to cook, possession and type of sanitary service, and housing equipment, among others.

The 2011 Housing Census also allows the investigation of new variables such as: the identification of the indigenous dwelling, identification of bunkhouses, classification of the collective dwellings like jails, barracks for workers, homes for the elderly, infant shelters; the forms of eliminating solid waste, garbage separation, possession of and access to information and communication technologies, among others.

[p. 17]

The collected information will:

Evaluate the housing conditions and the access to the basic services that all habitants of the country have for defining policies and projects oriented toward satisfying the needs of the dwelling and the basic services of the population.

Analyze and evaluate the levels of poverty in the country, by geographic zone, such as elaborating the poverty maps.

Carrying out studies about the possession of property and the contrasts of real estate housing development: condominiums, precarious dwellings, shanties and bunkhouses, as well as analyzing the situation of crowding of the people in the dwellings.

Contribute to the orientation of policies and resources for programs of indigenous dwellings and the preservation of cultural diversity.

Track the environment indicators: waste elimination practices, separation of solid waste, access to quality water, elimination of excrement, among others.

Analyze and evaluate the access that the population has to information and communication technologies as well as the demand of electricity and telecommunication services.

B. Legal basis of the census

The National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC) is the entity designated by Law No. 7839 since November 4th, 1998 by the National Statistics System (SEN), as the unit responsible for carrying out the National Population and Housing Censuses.

In addition, the law establishes that the information administered by the population is of confidential character.

Below some paragraphs contained in the Law of the SEN will be offered.

[p. 18]

Article 4: "...the information obtained according to this Law will be strictly confidential...The information coming from private physical or legal people cannot be published individually, but rather as part of global rates, that will correspond to three or more physical and legal persons...they also cannot be provided for fiscal or other purposes."

Article 5: "The SEN can solicit information relative to the activity of all the physical and legal residents in Costa Rica."

Article 15: "…the National Institute of Statistics and Census must carry out the national statistics of the Population and Housing Census every ten years."

Given the importance of the national censuses, the 2011 Census has been declared a "project of public interest" through the Executive Decree No. 35461 MP PLAN MEP, from which an extract is presented below:

Article 1: Declare as a public interest the preparation, organization, enumeration, procedure, publication, and diffusion of the 10th National Population and the 6th National Housing Census, corresponding to the year 2011, directed and coordinated by the National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC).

Article 3: The Government of the Republic will finance the preparation, execution, and publication of the national population and housing censuses of the year 2011 in conformity with the dispositions contained in article 33 of the Law of National Statistics Systems.

Article 4: The organisms, entities, and public businesses will collaborate with the INEC in carrying out the national population and housing censuses of the year 2011, providing human and material resources, technically and financially, according to the necessities and requirements of the census labors in their diverse stages, for which the corresponding agreements of international co operations can be celebrated, in conformity

[p. 19]

with the dispositions contained in the articles 35, 36, and 37 of the National Law of Statistics Systems.

Article 5: The Ministry of Public Education will authorize administrative functionaries and instructors of education centers to participate in the organization, execution, and supervision of the enumeration labors of the national population and housing censuses of the year 2011, in accordance with the INEC.

Also, on August 6, 2010 the INEC signed an agreement in cooperation with the Ministry of Public Education to carry out the National Population and Housing Censuses. This document can be found at the webpage of the INEC: www.inec.go.cr or on the webpage of the MEP: www.mep.go.cr.

Second Unit

Organization of the Census Operation

Objectives of this unit:

At the end of this unit you should be able to:

Recognize the structure of the organization of the census operation and its role.

Identify and adequately apply the functions of the enumerator, according to the organization of the census operation.

[p 23]

A. Operational Territorial Units

In order to guarantee the coverage of all the operational national territory different operational territorial units were created to distribute the task: the Minimum Geostatistical Unit, Registered Area, Section, Zone, Circuit, and Region. These are described below:

Minimum Geostatistical Unit (UGM):

The minimum territorial division of the country, developed exclusively for statistic purposes has a polygonal shape of variable surface are and is equivalent to what we commonly call blocks. This is composed of a group of dwellings, buildings, premises, lots, or terrains.

Registered Area (AE)

A grouping of a determined number of dwellings that must be interviewed by an enumerator during the week of the Census. These dwellings are concentrated in Minimum Geostatistical Units (UGMs).

The Registered Area corresponds to the gray area of the map, just as shown in the following figure

Figure 3: Registered Area.

[p 24]

Section

Grouping of approximately five AE [Registered Areas] and corresponds to the work area of the Section Supervisor.

Zone

Grouping of five sections (approximately twenty five AE) and corresponds to the work area of the Zone boss.

Circuit

Second level of administrative territorial division of the Ministry of Public Education (MEP). This is composed by a variable number of districts. At the national level there are 168 circuits, of these approximately 150 correspond to Operational Centers of the Census, these are under the command of the Operational Center Coordinator.

Region

First level of the administrative territorial division of the Ministry of Public Education (MEP). It is composed by a variable number of circuits. The national territory is constituted by 27 regions. For the effects of the coordinator of census development each one of them will be administered by a Census Agency and Regional Director.

B. Structure of the Census Operation

The census operation distinguishes between three large phases which are: the pre census phase (planning of the census); the census phase that corresponds to the collection of information, which will be carried out in the whole country simultaneously in a period of five days; and the post census phase (synthesizing of the census material, processing and diffusion of results).

[Pages 25 to 32 were omitted from this translation as they deal strictly with administrative hierarchies and responsibilities of the enumerator not crucial for the understanding of the questionnaire and its variables].

Third Unit

The map and the route of the Registered Area

Objectives of this unit

Upon completion of this unit you will be able to

Locate the terrain on the map of your Registered Area

Adequately apply the procedures for covering the area and registering the census information of all the dwellings and people.

[Pages 34 to 55 were omitted from the translation as they contain instructions for the enumerator to thoroughly cover his/her registered area].

[p. 56]

Instructions for filling out the C1 Form: Route Sheet for Minimum Geostatistical Unit

The C1 Form should be completed for each UGM [Minimum Geostatistical Unit], according to the completion procedures outlined below:

1. Use the census pencil, which is contained in the folder that will be handed out to complete your census task.

2. Before starting your route you must note the number of the AE and UGM in the spaces "Registered Area" and "Minimum Geostatistical Unit" respectively, such as the information requested in the section of Geographic Identification; this information is obtained from the label on the folder.

The section called "Summary of the Minimal Geostatistical Unit" must be completed, once you finish the route of the UGM and have all the information requested.

3. Following is the "List of Dwellings, Households, and People" where you can note the information referring to the dwelling that you are visiting in each line, in such a way, that each line or column corresponds to a household and the number of the dwelling must be repeated. For each one of the dwellings you must complete the information requested in the columns as corresponds.

Below the way to complete each one of the columns of the form is described.

Column 1: "Order no. of the dwelling in the Minimum Geostatistical Unit"

In this column write the number that corresponds to each dwelling or building in which there are habitual residents, according to the order in which the UGM was covered.

[p. 57]

The numeration must be consecutive, starting with 01, 02, 03...until finalizing the route.

Column 2: Household No. within the Dwelling

Note in ascending and consecutive form (starting with 1) the number of households that are found in the dwelling.

If you are registering the information of a dwelling in which two or more households reside, you must repeat the number of the dwelling in Column 1 for each one of these households. Only household 1 should have the information referring to the dwelling, that's to say, 4, 5, and 6 should be left blank in the case of the second and subsequent households.

Each time the dwelling changes, the numeration of the households should start with 1.

Column 3: Name of the Head of the Household of the Collective Dwelling.

In this column write the complete name of the head of the household or in the case of a collective dwelling write the name of this dwelling.

Columns 4 to 6: Dwellings

In these columns register the occupation state of the dwelling, that's to say, if it is found occupied with present residents, occupied with absent residents, or unoccupied. For these purposes, you must mark with an X the option that corresponds. Keep in mind that Column 4: Occupied with Present Residents must remain blank when the following situations occur:

2, 3, or more households
Homeless persons
[p. 58]

In the case of the Column 5: Occupied with Absent Residents you must mark each option only when your supervisor indicates so.

In the case of Column 6: Unoccupied you must count on the information from columns 1 and 6.
Columns 7 to 9: People

In these columns the information referring to the quantity of people, men, and women that live in the dwelling are registered. This information must be noted on the census questionnaire, specifically in Block III, question 5, in the case of individual dwellings and question 6 in the case of collective dwellings.

Column 7: Men

In this column record the total number of men in the household or the collective dwelling.

Column 8: Women

Record the total number of women in the household or collective dwelling.

Column 9: Total People

Record the total number of members of the household or collective dwelling. With the objective of verifying the information, proceed to sum the information of column 7 and 8 in such a way that they coincide with the data registered on the questionnaire.

Column 10: Interview Finalized

Mark an X when the interview was completed, but if it could not be done, you must leave this box blank and continue to complete the information required in box 11. In such a case only the columns 1 and 11 should contain information. Nonetheless, given that you should investigate with the neighbors the most opportune time to return to this interview, you can investigate the name of the

[p. 59]

head of the household, information used to complete columns 2 and 3.

Column 11: Pending

This space of observation must be used in the case of dwellings that have an interview pending. In it, you must schedule the date to carry out the new interview at this dwelling, noting the date and hour of the interview, according to the information indicated on the Form called "Interview Request" that will be studied further on, as well as reference elements that will help you locate the dwelling.

[The rest of page 59 and all of page 60 were omitted from the translation as they indicate the order in which to sum and complete columns as well as provide a visual example].

[p. 61]

C. Situations that can arise during the route

In the process of covering the territory you as enumerator can be presented with difficult situations, below some examples will be presented and the way to deal with each one.

In your AE there is an apartment or condominium building.

You must carry out the route as indicated below:

1. Start with the highest level and the apartment that, on each floor, is immediately found at the left of the stairs. You must locate it in such a way that your left side is alongside the wall and initiate the route with the first apartment that is found in this direction, as shown in the following image.

Building used as a dwelling but not constructed with such intention.

It is important to clearly recognize that the objective of the census is to capture all the people and dwellings of the country, even though there are situations in which the people are found in constructions not explicitly designed as dwellings such as: small stores, warehouses, garages, churches, structures such as old bodies of trailers or trucks, or in the places least expected.
[p. 62]

Because of this, in order to guarantee an adequate coverage or complete registration, when you find these types of buildings, you must carry out an exhaustive investigation that allows you to determine if people reside there habitually and proceed to interview them.

Dwellings in a condominium building in which for security reasons does not allow free access for the interview.

In this case you must try to speak with the administrator of the place to explain the importance of providing this information and request permission to enter in order to interview. If you do not receive a positive response you must immediately report this situation to your section supervisor to find a solution.

Collective dwellings

If in your enumeration area you find a collective dwelling, register it, following the procedure studied previously. In the case of a dwelling with more than 15 habitual residents, immediately inform your section supervisor so he/she can indicate the way to proceed.

Dwellings in which no one answers

If you find a dwelling in which no one answers, you must investigate with the neighbors or security guards about the most opportune moment to return to register it and inform your section supervisor of this situation.

In order to do this you must fill out an Interview Request Form, through which the person will understand that his house was already visited and no one was found, and that

[p. 63]
you are requesting a date to carry out the census interview. On this sheet you must indicate the day and time that you will return, as well as the name and telephone number in which they can contact you or a person in charge, in case the informant has some doubt or problem with the date and time assigned.

You must return to the dwelling the times necessary in order to carry out the interview and collect the information.

[The Interview Request Form (page 64). Omitted from this instruction form].

[p. 65]

People without a dwelling

If you find a person or group of people without a dwelling when you complete the route of the AE, you should proceed to interview them, according to the procedure that will be studied further on and proceed to register it in the C1 Form: Route Sheet of Minimum Geostatistical Unit, as detailed below.

[The rest of page 65 and pages 66 to 76 were omitted from this translation as they focus on the proper completion of the forms].


Fourth Unit

The Interview, the Census Interview, and Basic Concepts

Objectives of this unit

Upon completion of this unit you will be able to:

Appreciate the ethical components of the interview process related to the information request and the interaction with the informant.

Develop attitudes of tolerance, respect, and consideration for the conditions of the informants.

Identify the parts of the questionnaire and their importance in the process of data collection.

Master the concepts of the census.

[p. 79]

A. The interview and your role in the collection of high quality data

Census data are collected through a structured interview, which is directed at the residents of the dwelling that is visited.

During the interview, the most important thing to keep in mind is that the information collected should be complete and of a high quality. For these purposes, it is vital to have complete command of the census form and its implementation.

As it was analyzed in the previous unit, the information obtained through the census is highly relevant to the country; the quality and accuracy of the information hugely depends on the work you do as an enumerator.

Interview technique

The interview technique involves obtaining information regarding the household members in the dwelling you are enumerating by asking a series of structured questions listed on the census form. For these purposes, the informant may be one or more household members.

In the interview process, friendliness, respect and understanding are indispensable elements for creating a trusting environment that facilitates the work of the census. Therefore, at all times you must promote an environment that enables the informant to overcome barriers such as prejudices, inhibitions, fear or disinterest that might eventually result in the rejection of the interview.

General guidelines for carrying out the interview

1. Address the informant cordially and respectfully as all times.

2. Explain the objective, interest and utility of the census, the importance of the accuracy of the information collected, and the confidential nature of the information as many times and in as many ways that are necessary.

3. Ask the questions in the order they appear on the census form. Frequently, when responding to a question, the informant will bring up a topic addressed in another questions. You might be tempted to jump to this question. Do not adopt this practice. It can cause confusion and the omission of information. Thus, ask the questions using the exact words that appear on the census form. If the question is not clear to the informant, read the question again more slowly.

4. Do not anticipate responses. You should not guide the informant towards a particular response by, for example, suggesting one of the possible options.

5. Never invent answers. You must ask every question, one by one.

6. Carefully follow ever instruction given with the question.

7. Do not engage with discussions with the informant. Maintain an objective attitude at all times. Do not take sides or express opinions about the household or its members.

8. Display sincere interest in the informant's responses.

9. Keep in mind that every interview is different, either due to the conditions in which it is held, the type of persons in the household, or their social or psychological situation. Therefore, you will need to use your intuition and ability to adapt to each interview.

Introduction and presentation

Upon making contact with someone in the dwelling, introduce yourself to whoever answers the door. If you are dealing with someone under the age of 15 or another person that is clearly unable to participate in the interview, you should greet them cordially, give a brief introduction, and ask to speak with someone in the household who can answer the census questions.

When you meet the informant, greet them, and then show then your credentials and explain the reason for your visit, the importance and confidentiality of the information being collected, with the intention of sparking interest and the desire to participate.

It is important that you be prepared to give any explanation that is necessary and that you gain the trust of the informant. Upon introducing yourself, you should say, for example:

[Sample introduction omitted]

Once the informant has agreed to the interview, proceed to administer the census form and remember that you should avoid conversations about politics, religion, or other topics of this nature. Your job is delicate and therefore it is necessary that you act with caution to be successful.

Upon finishing the interview, do not forget to thank the informant for their cooperation and reiterate the confidentiality of the data that were provided.

Characteristics of the informant

The person that responds to the census questions should be a member of the household, older than 15 years, and with sufficient knowledge of the characteristics of all the persons in the household. You should not accept as an informant a domestic employee or lodger, who can only provide information that applies to themselves, in the case that they are habitual residents in the dwelling.

How to proceed when the informant refuses to answer

In the case that the informant refuses to give the required information, keep in mind the following recommendations

Maintain a polite and conciliatory attitude at all times.
Indicate that the data are collected for every household in Costa Rica and reiterate that the information is confidential.
Try to begin the interview and if the informant permits it, continue with the questions in the order they appear on the form,

If the person continues to resist, immediately inform your supervisor so he or she can direct you on how to proceed.

B. Structure of the census form

Characteristics of the census form

The census form is the instrument through which the housing and population census information is collected. It is made up of a series of questions contained in four blocks:

Block I "Location": Records information about the geographical location of the dwelling, the dwelling number, the household number, the address and the district.

Block II "Characteristics of the dwelling": The set of questions corresponding to this

block allows for the collection of the housing characteristics of the population.

Block III "Identification of all persons and households": allows for the collection of information about the number of persons and households in each dwelling.

Additionally, it is used to register the first and last names of the persons in each household, and obtain the total number of persons by sex.

Similarly, it allows for the identification of persons in the household that have gone to live in another country and the identification of households that have sent or received remittances, as well as those that engaged in agricultural activities.

Block IV "Socioeconomic characteristics"

Collects information about all household members according to age, socio demographic and economic characteristics of the population.
Back cover: contains information about Law 7830 of the National Statistics System, such as the list of provinces and cantons of the country and certain guides to help with the work of the census.

Finally, there is space designated for observations where you can make notes you consider necessary.

[The end of section B which describes the the size of the census form and section C which gives instructions for filling in the census form are omitted here]

[p. 87]

D. Basic Concepts: To clearly and completely finish your work you must keep in mind some concepts that will be useful at the moment of the census.

Census moment

The census moment is the instant that serves as a reference to determine the inclusion or not of a person in the Census. For the 2011 National Census, the Census Moment is "zero hours, zero minutes on Monday May 30th," or in other words, "twenty four hours [twelve at night] of the previous day." Keep in mind that the census is a photograph of the population with all its characteristics and, as with any family photo, it does not include the person that arrived later nor came earlier.

You should survey all the people that were alive at midnight on the 29th of May, including the newborns, even if they had died after this moment.

You must not survey the people that were born after midnight on the 29th of May or that died before this moment.

For example:

You arrive to a dwelling on Monday May 30, the informant tells you that among the members of the household today there is a girl that was born on Monday at 2 in the morning. You should not collect the information of the girl; that's to say she should not be included in the census questionnaire.

This same Monday May 30 you should visit another dwelling and the informant will indicate that a man of 80 years recently passed away at 10 in the morning that Monday. You should collect the information of the deceased; that's to say he should be included in the census questionnaire.

[p. 88]

Census Class

This is a de jure or de derecho census, which means that each person should be interviewed in his/her dwelling or place of habitual residence, even if the person is not found present at the moment of the census interview.

Place of habitual residence

The place of habitual residence is the house, building, commercial premises, or other places that have been set up so that people can reside therein.

Habitual resident of the dwelling

A habitual resident is a person that normally lives in the dwelling visited, provided that at the moment of the census he/she has been living there at least six months.

Nonetheless if the person has less time living or staying in the dwelling, and does not live in another place, and has intentions of staying there, he/she will also be considered a habitual resident.

Habitual residents of the dwelling are also persons that, because of circumstantial reasons like studies, work, or travels, find themselves temporarily absent from the dwelling, but whose absence will not exceed six months.

To clarify the aforementioned, keep in mind the following cases:

[p. 89]

Persons that are found absent from the household for special reasons (travel, studies, work, imprisonment, hospitalization, etc.), providing that the absence is shorter than six months.

Person should be interviewed in the private dwelling that is visited.

Persons that have been absent from the household for more than six months for special reasons (travel, studies, work, imprisonment, hospitalization, etc.) without returning during that time to the habitual residency of their family.

Person should be interviewed in the private dwelling that is visited.

Persons that have been absent from the household for more than six months for special reasons (travel, studies, work, imprisonment, hospitalization, etc.) without returning during that time to the habitual residency of their family.

Person should not be interviewed in the dwelling that is visited.

Persons that have been living in the dwelling six months or less and do not intend to stay there for more time, since they have another place to live.

Person should not be interviewed in the dwelling that is visited.

Persons detained for six months or more (or that habitually live) in hospitals, prisons, convents, or any other health institution, social, work, or study center.

Person should be interviewed in the collective dwelling that is visited.

Guests that reside in hotels or pensions for periods longer than six months; whether alone or together with their families; considering them in a group and not family context.

Person should be interviewed in the collective dwelling that is visited.

Guests that reside in hotels or pensions for periods longer than six months; whether alone or together with their families; considering them in a group and not family context.

Person should be interviewed in the collective dwelling that is visited.

Visitors, friends, or relatives of a family or household found spending a season in a dwelling that you register, provided that the visit is no longer than six months.

Person should not be interviewed in the dwelling that is visited.

Foreigners and their family members with less than six months staying in the country that do not intend to stay in the country longer than six months, independent of migration status.

Person should not be interviewed in the dwelling that is visited.

Employees, chauffeurs, gardeners, laborers, etc. that are employees of the household, and eat, sleep, and are habitual residents of the dwelling.

Person should be interviewed in the private dwelling that is visited
[p. 90]

Foreigners, including of international organization officials (not diplomatic), that have been in the country for six months or more, using as a reference the census moment, that intend to remain six months or more in the country. It does not matter if they have a residency permit or if they completed the paperwork to obtain it.

Person should be interviewed in the private dwelling that is visited.

Diplomats, their family members, and accompanying embassy employees.

Person should not be interviewed in the dwelling that is visited.

People contracted in this country by foreign diplomatic representations, and that have lived in the embassy for six months or more. In this case you can find two situations:

1. These people reside within the enclosure of the diplomatic representation, in which case only the population questionnaire should be completed and the respective observation made.
2. These people reside within the terrains of the diplomatic representation but in a dwelling independent to that of the diplomats; then the dwelling and population questionnaires must be completed.

Private dwelling

This is a structurally separate and independent enclosure designed to house one or more private households. In addition, by extension, included are private dwellings that were not originally intended for housing but at the time of the census serve as the habitual residence of one or more persons.

[p. 91]

A private dwelling possesses the following characteristics:

Separate: enclosed by walls and covered by a roof.

Built, transformed, arranged, or available for the housing of people, or, even if it was not designed for this purpose, it is inhabited by people at the time of the census.

Independent: with entrances and direct access from the street or hallway, stairs, patio, corridor, public or communal terrain, etc., so that persons do not have to pass through the interior of other dwellings in order to enter or leave the dwelling.

Private household

For the census, a private household can be composed of one person or a group of people with or without family ties that consume and share a common budget to buy food.

Examples of private households are:

Family households composed of a father, mother, sons, daughters.

Family households composed of a father, mother, grandmother, and aunts/uncles.

A single person.

A couple without children.

A group of students or friends that rent an apartment.

Collective dwelling

This is any building designed to be inhabited by people, usually without family ties that live together for reasons of health, education, religion, work, or other causes. Usually, in collective dwellings there are not family ties and a third person imposes cohabitation rules that the residents must respect.

[p. 92]

Collective dwellings house collective households. A special consideration that must be kept in mind is that private households, made up of the people that lead a separate life and live there for reasons different from those that justify the existence of the said dwelling such as owners, administrators, guards (and their family members), can reside in collective dwellings. You can find these persons in two situations:

Persons that live in a dwelling with an independent entrance within the facilities of the collective dwelling. These persons should be counted as a private household residing in an individual dwelling, in a separate questionnaire.

Persons that reside in one or several of the rooms of the collective dwelling. These persons should be counted as a private household where the rooms are considered an individual dwelling, in a separate questionnaire.

Collective household

This is the group of people without family ties that lives together for reasons of discipline, health, education, religious life, work, etc., that are habitual residents of a collective dwelling.

Examples of collective households are:

A group of priests, monks, or nuns that habitually reside in a convent.

The students of a boarding school.

Guests that have been living 6 months ore more in a hotel or pension.

A group of elderly persons that reside in a collective dwelling.

The inmates of a jail or prisons.

All persons that are habitual residents of the collective dwelling will compose a single collective household.

[The practice activity from pages 93 to 94 was omitted from this translation].

Fifth Unit

The National Housing Census

Objectives of this unit

Upon completion of this unit you will be able to

Explain the objectives, conceptual contents, and procedure for filling out each block of questions that compose the National Dwelling Census.

Explain the importance of the information derived from the questions of the Dwelling Census for the socioeconomic characterization of the population and the definition of public policies.

[Pages 97 to 99 were omitted from this translation. These pages contain reminders to fill out certain blocks of the census.]

[p. 100]

Question 1: Dwelling type

1. Observe, investigate, and mark the type of dwelling:

Private
[] 1 Independent house
[] 2 Independent house in condominium
[] 3 Apartment building
[] 4 Apartment building in condominium
[] 5 Traditional indigenous dwelling (tipi or ranch)
[] 6 Room in bunkhouse
[] 7 Shanty
[] 8 Other (premise, mobile home, boat, truck)
Collective

[] 9 barracks for workers
[] 10 children's shelter
[] 11 home for the elderly
[] 12 prison
[] 13 other (guesthouse, convent)
[] 14 Person without dwelling (go to Block IV)

The record of the Type of Dwelling is completed by direct observation and investigation with the informant.

The different types of dwellings are described below:

Independent house

An independent house is a structure that contains a single dwelling that has a direct exit to the street, public walkway, plot, or highway. It can be a structure that has a multi-level dwelling provided that the structure is composed of a single dwelling

[p. 101]

Independent house in condominium

An independent house in condominium possesses the same characteristics of the previous category (independent house), except that, differently than the independent house, these are part of a condominium, that's to say, the owner of the dwelling is part of an assembly of condominiums and is co-owner of the common areas of the site, such as the gardens, recreation spaces, pools, and others.

You should investigate whether or not it is part of a condominium, as there are closed neighborhoods that could be confused with this category.

Apartment building

Dwellings in apartment buildings are dwellings that form part of a building of two or more floors that have access to a public space through a hallway, corridor, stairs, or elevator. The dwellings from the first floor that have direct access to the street are also considered within this category.

By extension, dwellings that have been transformed or converted, that means that above the dwelling of the first floor a second floor has been constructed with an independent entrance are also considered dwellings in an apartment building.

[p. 102]

Apartment building in condominium

Dwellings in apartment buildings in condominiums are dwellings that form part of a building of two or more floors. In contrast to the previous category (apartment building) these are part of a condominium, such that the owner of the dwelling is part of an assembly of condominiums and is co-owner of the common areas of the site, such as the gardens, recreation spaces, pools, and others.

Because of this you should investigate if it is found within the presence of a condominium. These dwellings have access to a public space through a hallway, corridor, stairs, or elevator.

The dwellings of the first floor of the building that have direct access to the street are also considered within this category.

Traditional indigenous dwelling (tipi or ranch)

Non-traditional dwelling that houses one or more indigenous households, which was constructed with natural materials of local origin, or extracted from nature according to the traditions of each village.

On occasion, this type of dwellings tends to combine natural materials with artificial materials, like for example, a zinc roof with

[p. 103]

walls of chonta or wood with a woody grass roof. In this case it will also be considered a traditional indigenous dwelling.

In this way, you could also consider the case of the indigenous households of indigenous that were offered a dwelling of prefabricated materials and in addition use a dwelling made with natural materials. In these cases, both dwellings will be considered one single dwelling, in the category "traditional indigenous dwelling."

Room in bunkhouse

Rooms or small spaces within a single building that are used as a dwelling to house one or various people. Within this construction the rooms are used like individual dwellings to house one or various people. These have a single direct access to the street and each room has its own single exit to a common hallway.

In general the shower and sanitary service is of collective use; they do not have individual basic services (electricity and water) but rather are shared (by a same meter/gauge).

The bunkhouses lodge individual households and each one makes the rules for their room. Each room in a bunkhouse constitutes an individual dwelling.

If it is not possible to obtain interviews in this type of dwellings immediately communicate with the supervisor in order to take the measures necessary to collect the information.

[p. 104]

Shanty

A shanty is an enclosure constructed provisionally with waste materials (generally in poor condition) like cardboard, boards, old cans, among others. It is constructed with the objective of responding to an immediate housing need and is generally an improvised enclosure.

Other

Any other type of dwelling like a mobile home, boat, truck, camp tent or housing enclosures designed originally with purposes other than those of housing people, such as dwellings in premises, within mechanic workshops, warehouses, stables, factories, garages, guard stations, or caves and natural refuges amongst others.

[p. 105]

Collective

If in your registered area there is a collective dwelling in which there are more than 15 habitual residents, communicate the situation with your supervisor in order to determine the process to follow.

If, on the contrary, you find a collective dwelling with fewer than 15 habitual residents proceed in the following way:

Completely fill in Block 1: Location

Respond to question 1 of Block II: Characteristics of the dwelling, indicating the type of collective dwelling

Then continue on to Block III, question 3, and list all the habitual residents

Complete question 6 and continue according to the sequence of the questionnaire

The collective dwellings are classified as:

Barracks for workers: site dedicated to temporarily housing people that carry out work in a determined place, these tending to be structures adapted as dwellings. These are generally found within a site where labor is carried out for example, large constructions, coffee farms, or another type of plantation, amongst others.

Children's shelter: dwelling or building designed to house children and adolescents that for diverse reasons cannot live with their family members. They can belong to the National Board of Youth (PANI) or they can be private institutions.

Home for the elderly: dwelling or building designed to house the elderly that for diverse reasons cannot live with their family members. They can be public or private.

[p. 106]

Prison: institution designed for the reclusion of people deprived of liberty, like reformatories for youth or jails for adults.

Other (guesthouse, convent): these can be hotels, pensions, rehabilitation centers, guesthouses, boarding houses, student residencies, sanatoriums, convents, monasteries or seminaries, amongst others.

Person without a dwelling

This is the person that does not have an enclosure nor habitual residency in which to lodge, like those that sleep in the streets, parks, vacant lots, abandoned buildings, or under bridges but without having constructed a structure that protects them from inclement weather.

In this case proceed in the following way:

You must complete an individual questionnaire for each person without a dwelling

Completely fill out Block 1: Location

Answer Question 1 from Block II: Characteristics of the Dwelling with the code 14 "person without a dwelling." Go to Block IV and continue the interview respecting the steps of the questionnaire.

Question 2: Occupation of the Dwelling

2. Investigate and mark if the dwelling is occupied or unoccupied.

Occupied
[] 1 With present habitual residents
[] 2 With absent habitual residents (return later)
Unoccupied
[] 3 For rent or sale (finish interview)
[] 4 Under construction or in repair (finish interview)
[] 5 Temporarily on vacation (finish interview)
[] 6 Temporary dwelling for workers or students (finish interview)
[] 7 Other (finish interview)

This question refers to the occupation condition of the dwelling and must be registered by investigating with the informant.

[p. 107]

The first thing you should investigate is whether or not there are people habitually residing in the dwelling.

Occupied dwelling

A dwelling in which at least one person resides habitually will be considered occupied. After determining this condition, you should investigate and note if the occupied dwelling is found:

With habitual residents present: this refers to the presence of habitual residents in the dwelling, in which case it should be interviewed.

With habitual residents absent: this refers to the absence of the habitual residents from the dwelling during the week of the census.

This case could include, for example, a family that at the moment of the census is on vacation but left a person watching the dwelling, this person not being a habitual resident.

You should visit this dwelling however many times necessary during the week, in order to locate some resident that can provide the information.

Unoccupied dwelling

A dwelling that at the moment of the census does not have any person habitually residing within will be considered unoccupied.

In this case proceed to investigate and assign the type of vacancy. For the unoccupied dwellings, finish the interview after marking the option that corresponds to the kind on vacancy.

The categories of vacancy are:

For rent or sale: mark this option when it is indicated that the dwelling is for sale or available for rent.

Under construction or repair: the dwelling is not inhabited because it is under construction or undergoing repairs.

[p. 108]

Seasonal vacation home: this is a dwelling that at the moment of the census is being used to lodge people temporarily (not permanently), for the purposes of recreation and rest.

It might be that at that moment is it inhabited but its dwellers are not habitual residents.

Nonetheless, if the people that are found there are habitual residents, you must consider it as an occupied dwelling and complete the interview without marking this option.

Temporary dwelling for workers or students: this is a dwelling that at the moment of the census is being used to lodge people temporarily (not permanently), for reasons of work or study.

It might be that at that moment it is inhabited but its dwellers are not habitual residents. Nonetheless if the people that live there are habitual residents, you must consider it as an occupied dwelling and complete the interview without marking this option.

This type of dwelling includes those houses or apartments that are rented by institutions, businesses, or self-employed workers to reside there temporarily in order to complete a job.

Other: any other type of dwelling not considered previously, like an abandoned dwelling.

Question 3: Possession of the dwelling

3. Is this dwelling...?

[] 1 owned and totally paid
[] 2 owned and making payments
[] 3 rented
[] 4 borrowed for work purposes
[] 5 borrowed for other reasons
[] 6 precarious condition
[] 7 other

In the case of the occupied dwelling you must mark the option that corresponds according to the status of possession, according to the following categories:

[p. 109]

Owned and totally paid: in these cases the dwelling has already been paid off.

Owned and making payments: it belongs to one of the persons of the dwelling but is not completely paid, but rather requires monthly payments in the form of a loan or mortgage on the property.

Rented: the habitants of this dwelling pay a third person a determined quantity in order to reside within.

Borrowed for work purposes: in this case the dwellings have been conceded to workers that reside within while the labor relation to the boss persists. These dwellings lodge private households.

Borrowed for other reasons (without pay): dwellings that have been borrowed or conceded to habitants for different reasons, other than work. This dwelling is used with the authorization of the owner without negotiating any payment in return for the use of the dwelling.

Precarious condition: the dwellings that are found located in terrains that have been occupied without mediating for them through legal mechanisms of possession are included in this category. This deals with what is commonly known as land dispossession. Because of this situation, the dwelling could have been built by its inhabitants but, for being in a terrain that does not belong to them, this cannot be considered "owned." Keep in mind that "precarious" is not a synonym for shanty and as such cannot be confused with the shanty category.

Other: the location of a dwelling is found in structures such as mobile homes, trucks, etc.

Question 4: Predominant material in the exterior walls

4. The exterior walls are made primarily of...?

[] 1 block or brick
[] 2 plinth (cement with wood or fibrolite)
[] 3 wood
[] 4 prefabricated materials or tile
[] 5 Fibrolite, Ricalite (sheet of fiber cement)
[] 6 natural fibers (bamboo, cane, chonta)
[] 7 waste material
[] 8 other (zinc, adobe)
[p. 110]

Block or brick: cement materials like brick or block.

Plinth (cement with wood or fibrolite): walls that have a cement base and other materials like wood or fibrocement (Fibrolite) for the rest.

Wood: when the predominant material is wood of any kind, when this has passed through a preparation process. This excludes logs or timber.

Prefabricated materials or tile: this corresponds to the concrete tiles that are acquired already fabricated and that together make a wall. They are commonly sustained by posts or columns that have a channel in which the tiles are inserted. They are distinguished because the columns stand out from the wall.

Fibrolite, Ricalite (sheet of fibrocement): material made from a base of cement mix that is compressed to form sheets of different sizes and forms, it can be Fibrolite or Ricalite.

Natural fibers (bamboo, cane, chonta): material extracted from nature that can be cultural or climatic for any purpose. This includes bamboo, cane, chonta, logs, or timber.

[p. 111]

Waste material: elements already used or of short duration (cardboard, zinc sheets in bad condition, bags, plastic, fabric, etc.)

Other material: this includes other materials not contemplated in the previous categories like new zinc or adobe.

Question 5: Predominate material of the roof

5. The roof is made primarily of...?

[] 1 zinc
[] 2 Fibrolite, Ricalite, or asbestos (fibrocement)
[] 3 natural material (palm, straw, woody grass, and others)
[] 4 waste material
[] 5 other (clay tile, etc.)
Zinc: sheets of galvanized steel or zinc that are fabricated in smooth or wavy sheets. There exists the possibility that you will find that a dwelling has tiles, but that these are only decorative, and under these there are zinc sheets; if this is the case, mark this option.

Fibrolite, Ricalite, or asbestos (fiber cement): this is of the same material as Fibrolite or Ricalite (and other brands).

Natural material (palm, straw, woody grass, and others): this includes materials extracted from nature such as palm, straw, woody grass, and others, used according to geographic or cultural characteristics.

[p. 112]

Waste material: this includes waste materials of short duration and in general in bad condition, like cardboard, old cans, bags, etc.

Other (clay tile, etc.): this includes other materials like clay tiles, concrete slabs or plates.

Question 6: Ceiling

6. Does the dwelling have a ceiling?

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

The ceiling can be a sheet of wooden slats, gypsum, fibrolite, durpanel, or other lasting material, located within the dwelling at a certain distance from the roof. A dwelling is considered to have a ceiling when it is found in the majority of the dwelling or when the bedrooms have it.

Question 7: Predominate material of the floor

7. The floor is made primarily of . . .?

[] 1 ceramic, mosaic, terrazzo
[] 2 cement (ochre, shiny or not)
[] 3 wood
[] 4 natural material (chonta or logs)
[] 5 other material
[] 6 dirt floor
Ceramic, mosaic, terrazzo : this includes mosaic, terrazzo, terracín, Palladian, or ceramic, which is located on a slab of concrete. This also includes the mosaic floors covered with carpet or vinyl material.

Cement (ochre, shiny or not): this includes a slab of concrete that has generally been combed and refined, some times, with a finish of some color. This includes carpeted dwellings, with vinyl or laminated floors over cement.

Wood: when the predominate material in the floor is wood, it does not matter which combination has been used in which form, parquet, for example. This also includes the wood floors

[p. 113]

Covered with carpet, vinyl material or laminated floor.

Natural material (chonta or logs): this includes material extracted from nature such as chonta, logs, or timber.

Other material: materials that have been located directly above the ground, like for example, cardboard, old boards, or re used ceramic. Any kind of material that has not been contemplated in the previous categories.

Dirt floor: mark this option if the dwelling has a dirt floor.

Question 8: Condition of the exterior walls, the roof, and the floor

8. The condition of...?

The exterior walls are...?
[] 1 bad
[] 2 fair
[] 3 good
The roof is...?
[] 1 bad
[] 2 fair
[] 3 good
The floor is...?
[] 1 bad
[] 2 fair
[] 3 good

For each case you must ask the question and note what the informant considers pertinent.

Bad: if the material exhibits much structural deterioration that requires a partial or total replacement of the affected areas: sunken or rotten bases, cracks, holes, etc. Such anomalies constitute an imminent danger for the habitants of the dwelling since it is left to the mercy of the rain, wind, earthquakes, or other perchance possibilities that compromise the well-being. If the dwelling has "dirt floor" mark this option.

Fair: if the material exhibits some structural defect or deterioration that requires repair: damaged boards, missing bricks, small cracks, etc. These damages, however, do not constitute an imminent danger for the residents of the dwelling.

Good: the parts do not present any deterioration or structural problems.

[p. 114]

Question 9: Rooms for sleeping

9. How many rooms in this dwelling are used only for sleeping?

[] 0
[] 1
[] 2
[] 3
[] 4
[] 5
[] 6
[] 7
[] 8
[] 9
[] 10 or more

Record the number of rooms used only for sleeping. Consider that, in addition to the walls, you should also consider as partitions closets, curtains, stairs, or levels.

Question 10: Total rooms

10. Including the bedrooms, how many rooms does this dwelling have in total? (excluding bathrooms or laundry rooms)

[] 1
[] 2
[] 3
[] 4
[] 5
[] 6
[] 7
[] 8
[] 9
[] 10 or more

For the purposes of the census a room is an area separated by fixed walls, or partitions such as closets, curtains, stairs, or levels. This includes rooms such as: living room, dining room, kitchen, bedrooms, television room, study, and library.

This excludes hallways, bathrooms, laundry rooms, sun patios, terraces, balconies, storage rooms, and garages as well as those rooms that are used exclusively for commercial, industrial, or service purposes: attorney's office, medical clinic, store, bazar, small store, produce stop, workshop, beauty salon, etc.

In the field or rural areas, it is possible that the kitchen is a construction separate from the rest of the dwelling. In this case, take it as part of the dwelling and note it as an additional room.

[p. 115]

Question 11: Water supply

11. Water comes to the dwelling from...?

[] 1 rural or communal aqueduct (ASADAS or CAAR)
[] 2 municipal aqueduct
[] 3 A and A aqueduct
[] 4 business or cooperative aqueduct
[] 5 well
[] 6 river or stream
[] 7 other source (rain, cistern tank, hydrant)

If the dwelling has two ore more sources of water supply, note the one mainly used.

Rural or communal aqueduct (ASADAS or CAAR): the water service comes from a public network administered by a committee of rural aqueducts and drainage systems (CAAR) or administrative associations of water systems (ASADA).

In addition, the rural aqueducts can be administrated by the development associations and others.

Municipal aqueduct: the water service comes from a public network administered by the municipality in which the dwelling is located.

Aqueduct of the A and A: the water service comes from a public network administered by the Costa Rican Institute of Aqueducts and Drainage Systems.

Aqueduct of a business or cooperative: the water service comes from a public network administered by a business or public service, for example, the Heredia Company of Public Services (ESPH).

Well: this can be private or communal; from the well subterraneous water is extracted through the use of an electric or manual pump, or using a bucket or container, attached to the extremity of a cord.

River or gorge: the water comes from a river or gorge and is carried to the dwelling by hauling or via some type of plumbing.

[p. 116]

Other source (rain, cistern tank, hydrant): when the majority of the water used in the dwelling is rain water, or has been collected in plastic barrels from the gutters, or is received by cistern trucks, hydrants, etc.

Question 12: Water supply

12. Does the water arrive by plumbing to the interior of the dwelling?

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

It is considered that the plumbing is within the dwelling when it has least one tube or faucet for supplying water and it is not necessary to leave the dwelling in order to obtain it. This includes steel tubing, plastic, bamboo, or other.

This does not include the supply of water within the dwelling by means of a hose.

Question 13: Availability of sanitary service

13. The sanitary service is connected to...?

[] 1 sanitary sewer system
[] 2 septic tank
[] 3 direct connection to ditch, trench, river, or estuary
[] 4 hole, cesspit, or latrine
[] 5 no sanitary service

The "sanitary service" is the space conditioned within or outside the dwelling, with a "bowl", "recipient" or other object, in which the people can take care of their physiological needs.

[p. 117]

Sanitary sewer system: the sanitary system is connected to a network of sanitary sewage that collects the "black waters" of various dwellings. This includes those sewage systems that direct the waters to a treatment plant.

Septic tank: the sanitary service communicates with a tank of concrete, cement, or other material, connected to drainage areas. In general it is built on the patio of the dwelling. If the tank is found connected to the sewer or public sewage system, mark the previous option.

Direct connection to ditch, trench, river, or estuary: sanitary services that drain in a natural water current or a trench or other terrain.

Hole, cesspit, or latrine: this consists of a hole over which there is a little house with a cement, concrete, or wood floor and a box that serves as a latrine. Generally they are found outside of the dwelling.

[p. 118]

No sanitary service: when the residents of a dwelling do not have access to any type of sanitary service and in general use one from another dwelling or deposit excrements directly on the ground in open air in some terrain.

Question 14: Possession of electricity

ICE or the CNFL: electric lighting of the public service administered by the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE) or by the National Energy and Light Company (CNFL).

ESPH or the JASEC: electric lighting of the public service administered by the Heredia Company of Public Services (ESPH) or the Cartago Administrative Board of Electricity Services (JASEC).

Cooperative: electric lighting of the public service administered by different cooperatives of the country such as Coopelesca, Coope Alfaro Ruiz, Coopesantos, or Coopeguanacaste.

Solar panel: the main source of electric lighting is obtained via a solar panel.

Other source: when the main source of electric lighting is obtained by means of a private plant, a bio digester or other that is not contemplated in previous categories.

No electric lighting: when another type of lighting such as kerosene, gas, candle, or others.

Question 15: Main fuel used for cooking

15. Do you cook primarily with...?

[] 1 electricity
[] 2 gas
[] 3 firewood or coal
[] 4 other
[] 5 none (no cooking)

[p. 119]

Investigate the kind of energy or fuel that is used most for cooking, whether it is electricity, gas, firewood, or coal.

Other: this includes alternative fuels such as biogas, alcohol, kerosene, and other fuels.

None (no cooking): when foods are not prepared, even if they have the facilities to do so.

Question 16: Elimination of solid waste

16. The trash is primarily eliminated by...?

[] 1 garbage truck
[] 2 thrown in a hole or buried
[] 3 burned
[] 4 thrown in a vacant lot
[] 5 thrown in a river, gorge, or sea
[] 6 other

This question refers to the different ways of eliminating waste produced at home daily.

Garbage truck: this service can be provided with a garbage truck or compacting truck, property of the canton municipality or by a private garbage collector whenever this service is contracted and paid for by the municipality. This does not include private services contracted directly by the people of the community.

Thrown in a hole or buried: this option should be assigned when the garbage is deposited in a hole with the objective of remaining outside the dwelling. In general when the hole fills with garbage, this is covered, and the buried garbage burned.

[p. 120]

Burned: when the garbage is deposited in a hole or recipient with the objective of burning it in order to eliminate it. If it is burned and then buried, consider this to be burned.

Thrown in a vacant lot: when the garbage is deposited in a lot or unoccupied terrain, whenever this is close to the dwelling.

Thrown in a river, gorge, or sea: when the garbage is thrown or deposited in some river, gorge, or sea, whenever this is close to the dwelling.

Other: this includes for example, directly depositing garbage in the garbage cans or municipal dumps, taking to waste centers, or when the garbage is collected by a private contracted service and paid directly by the people of the community.

Question 17: Separation of solid waste

17. In this dwelling, do you separate from the rest of the garbage...?

Plastic, glass, aluminum
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no
Paper
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no
Food leftovers (fruits, vegetables, peels, bones)
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no

The separation of solid waste consists in a different treating process for the residuals, whenever this practice has been adopted in the dwelling and is part of the main management of residuals.

If it is indicated that in the dwelling the solid waste is separated but that the collection truck passes and mixes everything together, mark "yes" next to the type of residuals.

[p. 121]

Plastic, glass, aluminum: in a dwelling when the articles of aluminum, glass, plastic, and other products generally recycled by the industries, are separated from the rest of the garbage.

Paper: in a dwelling when the paper waste, newspaper, magazines, cardboard, and others are separated from the rest of the garbage.

Food leftovers (fruits, vegetables, peels, bones): in a dwelling when the fruit, egg shells, eggs, flowers, coffee, amongst others, are separated from rest of the garbage. In general these kind of organic residuals are transformed into organic compost.

Question 18: Equipment of the dwelling

18. In this dwelling do you have...?

Radio or sound equipment
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no

Fixed (landline) telephone line
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no

TV screen (plasma, LCO, or LED)
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no

Conventional television
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no

Satellite or cable television
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no
Hot water system for the entire house
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no

Water supply tank
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no

Desktop computer
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no

Laptop computer
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no
Internet
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no
Car (not a work vehicle)
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no

Motorcycle (not a work vehicle)
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no

Those devices of the dwelling that are found in good condition and used by its inhabitants will be included.

[p. 122]

If more than one household is found in the dwelling, the devices of all the households will be included and these should be recorded in the questionnaire for Household 1.

The devices of the landlords (they rent a room from an individual dwelling), should not be included, even though these are used by all the people of the dwelling.

Below some of the devices will be described:

Hot water system for the entire house: this is any type of system that heats water from at least two tubes of the house, like for example, bathrooms, dishwasher, and wash machine. This includes: water tanks and heaters. This excludes: thermal showers or other systems that only heat the water of the shower.

Water supply tank: this corresponds to tanks utilized to store water and possesses a plumbing system that provides the dwelling with water in case the water service is shut off.

Desktop computer: this has at least two basic parts: a computer processor and a monitor, separately. You should not include those computers that have been provided by an institution or company for labor purposes.

Laptop computer: the personal computers or laptop, netbook, or notebook should be included. This excludes: those computers that are sold as toys exclusively for children and those that have been provided by an institution or company for labor purposes.

Car (not a work vehicle): this includes cars that are available for the use of members of the household. It does not include those cars that were provided by a company or institution for labor purposes or those that are of exclusive use for work of a household member.

[p. 123]

Motorcycle (not a work motorcycle): this does not include the motorcycles that are available for use of the members of the household. This does not include those motorcycles that were provided by a company or institution for labor purposes or those that are of exclusive use for the work of a household member.

Question 19: Possession of a cellular telephone line

19. How many cellular phone lines do you have in this dwelling?

[] 0
[] 1
[] 2
[] 3
[] 4
_ _ 5 or more, note

This refers to the total quantity of cellular phone lines that there are in the dwelling. If the quantity is between zero and four lines, mark the oval. If there are five or more, note the number in the boxes.

Question 20: Telephone number

Find out the home or cellular telephone number of some person of the household.

If the person shows a lack of confidence indicate that the data is only collected for the exclusive use of INEC, in case that later on when some information is missing it can be completed. This, like all census data, is strictly confidential.

[Pages 124-126 deal with practice activities which were omitted from this translation]

Sixth Unit

The National Population Census

Objectives of this unit

Upon completion of this unit you will be able to:

Explain the objectives, conceptual contents and procedures of filling out every block of questions and form the National Population Census.
Explain the importance and uses of the information derived from the questions of the population census for the definition of public policies.

[p. 129]

A. Content of the National Population Census

Block III: Identification of Total Persons and households

Question 1: Identification of habitual residents

1. How many persons live here, in this dwelling?

_ _ Total number of persons. Note: Count persons that have lived in the dwelling for six months or longer, or persons who have lived in the dwelling for less than six months but intend to stay to live in the dwelling.

In order to correctly count the population it is necessary to establish and apply the concept of "habitual resident" of the household. To do this a specific question is asked, through which the quantity of "habitual residents" in the household will be determined and the omission of people from the census will be avoided.

Ask and note the number of people that habitually live in the dwelling. Do not forget to include the children, elderly, and the domestic employees that habitually resides in the dwelling.

Question 2: Quantity of households in the dwelling

2. Do all the people that live here share a common food budget and prepare shared meals?

[] Yes ...1 single household (go to 3)
[] No ...Then how many households are in the dwelling?
[] 2
[] 3
[] 4
[] 5
[] 6 or more.
Note: when you finish filling out Household 1, open a new questionnaire for each additional household, transcribe block 1 (page 1) changing the name of the household according to that which corresponds (2, 3, ...) and continue on to Block III question 3.

[p. 130]

In a dwelling there is only one household when all the people share a same budget and prepare shared meals, in which case you should mark the option "yes" and continue to the question 3; if not, mark the option "no" and ask the question:

Then, how many households are in the dwelling?

[] 2
[] 3
[] 4
[] 5
[] 6 or more.
Note: when you finish filling out Household 1, open a new questionnaire for each additional household, transcribe block 1 (page 1) changing the name of the household according to that which corresponds (2, 3, ...) and continue on to Block III question 3.

You must mark the oval that corresponds to the total number of households that are in the dwelling, that's to say, the quantity of groups of people that buy their food separately.

1. You must determine which the main household is (Household 1) and which are the secondary households (Household 2, Household 3. . .). To help you determine which is the Principal Household investigate who are the owners or those responsible or in charge of the dwelling, or which is the household that makes the main decisions. Keep in mind that the household with the largest number of people is not always the main household.

2. You must first complete the entire interview with Household 1.

3. Once you have compiled the information of Household 1, take a new questionnaire to complete the interview with Household 2 and do the following:

a) Fill out block 1 "Location" indicating that it deals with Household 2.
b) Start the interview in block III, question 3. "List of people of the household" and continue the interview normally.
c) Then proceed as indicated for the households 3, 4, etc.

[p. 131]

Question 3: List of people of the household

3. What are the first and last names of each member of this household, starting with the head of the household or reference person?

Person No. / First and Last name / Sex (man or woman)

Note: Continue with the rest of the people, according to the kinship relationship with the person 01, in the following order:

Spouse or partner
Single children
Married children, their partner and children,
Other relatives
Domestic employees and their family
Other non-relatives

Note: if there are more than 12 people in this household, use a new questionnaire, transcribe Block 1 (page 1), mark the oval that indicates that it is a continuation of the same household and continue completing the list.

You must ask for the first and last names of the members of the household and note them, according to the kinship relationship that corresponds.

Always begin with the head of the household or some person of reference. Continue with the spouse, single children, married children, other relatives, domestic help and their family and other non-relatives.

Together with the names of the people, mark with an X the sex of each one.

[p. 132]

Upon finalizing the list, contact the person interviewed and read out loud the names of the people noted, asking if someone was omitted, remembering newborn and elderly which many times are not declared. If so, proceed to register the person at the end of the list.

If the number of people in the household is more than twelve, you must continue the list of people of the second questionnaire, in which case you must cross out Person N. 01 and write in the numbers 13, 14, etc. successively in each column, as illustrated below:

[A graphic demonstrating renumbering of person numbers on the list of people in the household was omitted.]

Question 4: Shared headship

4. [] If the headship of the household is shared by the couple, mark here.

You should only mark this in the case that the informant has expressed that in this household the headship is shared by the couple. If the person does not make any comment regarding this, do not mark this option.

Independently of whether or not the situation presents itself, the family structure is established with respect to the person that is indicated in the first row of the list, "Person No. 01." So that, if in the household there is shared headship with the partner, ask the

[p. 133]

informant to offer the name of either of the people considered heads of the household, and explain that you start the list of people of the household with one of them.

Question 5. Summary of people in the household.

5. In summary, how many people constitute this household?

_ _ men
_ _ women
_ _ total

Note in the blank spaces the number of men and women that constitute the household, total them and compare this number with the total number of people of the list.

The "summary of people in the household" must always be recorded in the first questionnaire of each household. Pay attention to this instruction, especially when there have been additional questionnaires for a same household.

Question 6: Summary of people in the collective dwelling.

Only collective dwellings

6. How many people live here, in this collective dwelling?

_ _ _ _ men
_ _ _ _ women
_ _ _ _ total (continue on the Block IV)

This question is exclusively for the interviews taken of collective dwellings.

In it, you must note the quantity of men and women habitual residents of that collective dwelling and total it.

In the case of the collective dwellings you must pass to Block IV and continue as indicated.

[p. 134]

Question 7: Emigration

7. Does any member of this household live in another country?

[] 1 yes
How many?
[] 1
[] 2
[] 3
[] 4
_ 5 or more, note
[] 2 no

This question allows you to count the people of the household that are found living in another country, whenever upon leaving they were habitual residents of the household being visited. If the response is affirmative, ask and clearly mark the number of people that went to live abroad. If the quantity of people is greater than five, not the number, if the quantity is greater than nine, note nine.

Do not include:

The case of those people that have been living in another country for less than six months and plan to return to this same household before the end of the six months, because in that case that person is a habitual resident of the household and should be counted as such.

The case of deceased emigrants.

Question 8: Remittances

8. In the past year, did an member of this household

Receive money or goods from someone that lives abroad, for the use of this household?
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no
Send money or goods to someone that lives abroad, for the use of that household?
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no

[p. 135]

Received money or goods from someone that lives abroad, for the use of this household: includes the cases of people of the household that received money or goods from family members, friends, acquaintances, or other people that live abroad, always and whenever the goods received are for the use of that household, that's to say, designed for the consumption or savings of the people of the household that receive the remittance.

As such this does not include:

The cases of the households that receive money from abroad so that some person, here in the country, carries out bank transactions or another task in the name of the person that sent it.

The cases in which some people of the household receives a salary or pension from another country are not considered a remittance but rather payment for a job carried out.
Sent money or goods to someone that lives abroad, for the use of that household: includes the cases of the people of the household that send money to family members, friends, acquaintances, or other people that live abroad, whenever the goods sent are for the use of that household, that's to say, directed to the consumption or savings of the people of the household that receive the remittance.

As such this does not include:

The cases of the households that send money abroad so that some person (abroad) pays debts or completes bank transactions in another country.

The cases of the people of the household that send money to other countries for the payment of employee salaries abroad.

[p. 136]

Question 9: Identification of agricultural activities

9. Did any member of this household

[] 1 has a plot or a farm
[] 2 cultivate during the last year (in owned, rented, or borrowed territory)
[] 3 has cattle, pigs, chicken, ducks, wild turkey, geese, or others (for sale or self-consumption)
[] 4 none of the above

This question allows us to identify the households that carry out agricultural activities. You must ask if anyone in the household:

Had a plot or agricultural farm: this refers to the possession of some terrain completely or partially dedicated to the agricultural production, whose labors can be directed or carried out by one person or with the help of others.

The farm can be shared or in society with another household, company, or institution. It can be composed of one or more lots or plots (owned or not) not necessarily together. The agricultural production includes:

The annual, transitory, or permanent cultivations, grown in open air or in greenhouses.
The raising of animals like beef cattle, pigs, or poultry.
The production of foods of animal origin like milk, meat, eggs, etc.
The forest and fish production carried out as an additional activity in an agricultural farm
[p. 137]

Cultivated during the last year (in owned, rented, or borrowed territory): this is considered the person that cultivates or carries out agricultural activities when it has been done in owned, rented, or borrowed terrains including the patio or terrace of a dwelling.

It does not include: the case of the people that cultivated or carried out agricultural activities as a "salaried job."

Had cattle, pigs, chicken, ducks, wild turkeys, geese, and others (for the rent or self-consumption): this considers those people that carry out livestock activities like raising animals, whether for sale or self-consumption.

None of the above: when in the household no one has an agricultural farm, nor cultivates or raises cattle, pigs, or poultry.

Block IV: Socioeconomic Characteristics

This block of questions allows us to compile the main socio demographic statistics that are the base for planning and evaluating the public policies of the country.

You must apply Block IV to each one of the people of the household identified as habitual residents and whose names were found noted in the "List of People of the Household." You must start always with Person No. 1 and follow the order of the list.

This block contains five sections of questions, separated by subtitles, that are shown in the corresponding block, and you must keep this in mind at the moment of asking questions.

For all people

Only for people 5 years and older

Only for people 12 years and older

About the main job

Only for women 12 years and older

[p. 138]

This format is designed to avoid filling out unnecessary sections of questions when the person interviewed does not have the characteristics of minimum age required for completing different questions.

Beginning of Block IV: Person No. and name of the person

_ _ Person No. _____ Name

You must start filling out this block by registering the information of the Person No 01, transcribing in the header of the block, the number and name of the person as can be observed in the example.

This information must be taken from the List of people of the household, respecting the same order. This allows you to personalize the questions, mentioning the name of each person while formulating them.

Questions 1 to 14 should be asked of all people of the household.

Question 1: Relationship to the head of the household

For all persons

1. What relationship does he/she have with (person No. 01)?

[] 1 Head of household
[] 2 Spouse or partner
[] 3 Child or stepchild
[] 4 Son or daughter in law
[] 5 Grandchild or great grandchild
[] 6 Sibling
[] 7 Brother or sister in law
[] 8 Father or mother
[] 9 Father or mother in law
[] 10 Other relative
[] 11 Domestic help and their family
[] 12 Other non-relative

Note the "kinship relationship" that each person of the household has with respect to the person 01, who will always be the head of the household or the person of reference.

Head of the household: This is the person considered as such by the rest of the people of the household, or the one that contributes the greatest amount of economic resources to the household, or as a last resort, the oldest.

[p. 139]

Remember that only Person No. 01 must be registered with the category head (code 1). In the non-family groups, the head can be the one that has the most authority, the oldest, the one who has resided most years in the dwelling, or the one who administers to place. For all cases, the head must be a habitual resident older than fifteen years of age.

In the case of the collective households there are no heads of the household nor will the family relations that could exist among the habitual residents be recorded, so that you must include all the people of that collective household in the category called "other non-family" code 12.

In the case of the same sex couples, you must proceed in the same way, always respecting that which was indicated by the informer.

Question 2: Sex

2. Is he/she a man or woman?

[] 1 Man
[] 2 Woman

It is recommended to ask this question to avoid confusion with those names mentioned for men and for women, or with the names coming from languages other than Spanish. For example, Carmen, Inti, Leslie, Michel, Natividad, Pilar, Sacramento, etc.

Question 3: Age in completed years

3. How old, in completed years, is [name]?

[] 1 less than 1 year
_ _ _ years

You must ask the question as specified, avoiding that the informant confuses completed age with the age that he/she will complete.

When the person has less than 1 year of age, mark the oval that says "less than 1 year."

[p. 140]

For those that are a year or older, note the age in the boxes, putting a zero in front of the quantity as indicated (001, 015, 032, 102, 087).

Question 4: Birthdate

4. On what date was [name] born?

Day_ _
Month _ _
Year _ _ _ _

You must note two digits for the day, two digits for the month, and four for the year. If they only report the year, note it.

Question 5: Place or country of birth

5. When [name] was born, where was his/her mother living?

[] 1 In this canton
[] 2 In another canton
_____ In which canton?
In which province?
[] 1 San José
[] 2 Alajuela
[] 3 Cartago
[] 4 Heredia
[] 5 Guanacaste
[] 6 Puntarenas
[] 7 Limón
[] 3 In another country
Which country?
[] Nicaragua
[] United States
[] Colombia
[] El Salvador
[] Panamá
[] Cuba
_____ Another country

The "place or country of birth" is determined in relation to the place of habitual residency of the mother of the interviewed person when this person was born. The place of birth should not be confused with the hospital or place where the birth occurred.

The possible situations are:

In this canton: consider this option if, at the moment of birth of the person

[p. 141]

the mother resided in the same canton, where the person currently lives. In this case mark option 1 and continue to question 7.

In another canton: consider this option if at the moment of birth of the person, the mother resided in another canton, distinct from that where the person currently resides.

If this is the situation mark option 2 and proceed to ask for the name of the canton and of the providence of residence of the mother at the moment of birth of the person and note the answer that corresponds.

If the informant does not exactly know, note any reference such as a neighborhood or district that allows you to determine later on the correct location. Once the information is obtained continue to question 7.

In another country: this option must be considered when the person was born in another country; in which case ask for the name of the country and mark it if it appears on the list. If it is not found in the list, continue by noting it in the blank spaces.

Question 6: Year of arrival to country

6. In what year did [name] arrive to live in Costa Rica?

_ _ _ _ If the year is unknown, ask:
Did he/she arrive to live in Costa Rica
[] 1 before 1980
[] 2 between 1980 and 1989
[] 3 between 1990 and 1999
[] 4 in 2000 or later

You must ask this question to people born in another country.

You must ask for the exact year in which the person arrived to live in the country. If the response is known, then register it in the corresponding boxes.

[p. 142]

If, on the other hand, the informant does not know nor remember the exact year of arrival to the country, leave these spaces blank and proceed to ask the question by periods.

If the person entered the country various times, you must register the year or the most recent period, based on the one in which the person decided to establish his/her fixed residency.

Keep in mind that, even though the question provides two ways of obtaining the answer, only one of these should have a response.

Question 7: Self-identification to an indigenous ethnicity

7. Does [name] consider himself/herself indigenous?

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No (go to 10)

You must ask the question of all the habitual residents of the household, national and foreign, whether present or not, whether in indigenous territory or outside of it.

The response must be noted using the focus on "self-identification of ethnicity" which refers to the self- identification with the customs and traditions of the indigenous cultures.

Because of such you must respect and assign the response offered by the person. For no reason may you assign a response using as a reference the physical appearance of the person. If the person does not consider himself/herself indigenous, you must continue to question 10.

Question 8: Indigenous community

8. To what indigenous community does [name] belong?

[] 1 Bribri
[] 2 Brunca o Boruca
[] 3 Cabécar
[] 4 Chorotega
[] 5 Huetar
[] 6 Maleku or Guatuso
[] 7 Ngobe or Guaymí
[] 8 Teribe or Terraba
[] 9 From another country
[] 10 No community

This question must be asked of the people that self-identified as indigenous. These people can be included in some indigenous community or, not belonging to any, in which case you must mark the option "no community" with the code 10.

[p. 143]

If the person affirms belonging to more than one indigenous community, indicate that he/she choose the community with which he/she most identifies.

Question 9: Indigenous language

9. Does [name] speak an indigenous language?

[] 1 Yes (go to 11)
[] 2 No (go to 11)

The question must be asked of people that self-identified as indigenous. The option "yes" will be considered when the person speaks an indigenous language, whether they have learned as a first language (maternal language) or second language. For example Bribri, Cabécar, Maleku, Brunca, and others.

Question 10: Self-identification of ethnicity

10. Does [name] consider himself/herself...?

[] 1 black or of African descendant
[] 2 mulatto
[] 3 Chinese
[] 4 white or mestizo
[] 5 other
[] 6 none

You must ask the question of all habitual residents of the household, national or foreign, present or not. For no reason should you not ask this question, except when they have identified themselves as indigenous.

The response will be noted using the focus on "self-identification of ethnicity" so that you must respect and assign the response provided by the person. For no reason may you assign a response using as reference the physical appearance of the person.

Black or of African descendant: persons that identify mainly with the cultural roots of African ancestry and its diaspora.

Mulatto: persons that identify mainly with the cultural roots of African ancestry and its diaspora, through one of their parents.

[p. 144]

Chinese: persons with ancestry from the People's Republic of China, includingTaiwan and Hong Kong. This does not include people with other Asian ancestries.

White or mestizo: persons that identify mainly with the cultural and historic Hispanic American legacy. This also includes identification with the European and Anglo cultural and historic legacy.

Other: persons that self-identify with an ethnicity not mentioned in the previous categories.

None: persons that do not consider themselves to belong to any ethnicity.

11. What type of social security does [name] have?

[] 1 Salaried
[] 2 Self-employed, voluntary work, or contract
[] 3 Non contributive agreements (receives a pension)
[] 4 Pensioned by the CCSS, Magisterium, or other
[] 5 Family insurance
[] 6 State insurance
[] 7 Other forms
[] 8 Does not have social security from the CCSS
Salaried: this is the direct insurance of a salaried worker that obtains it by working for a boss and receives a salary, from which a percentage is deducted because of a social security that must be paid by law of the CCSS.

This excludes the cases of people that have a salaried job and do not have direct insurance as a "salaried worker" because, for different reasons, the bosses do not report them on the CCSS sheet.

[p. 145]

Self-employed, voluntary work, or contract: this type of insurance can be obtained by people that work independently or that are unemployed or inactive.

In this type of insurance, the people decide to voluntarily pay for themselves by paying fees directly. This includes those workers insured by a contract, linked to cooperatives or businesses that have undersigned a contract with the CCSS, they can be associations, unions, cooperatives, etc. In these cases, in general, the fee payments are made by the company.

Non contributive agreements (receives a pension): in addition to offering health services to their beneficiaries, this offers a monthly economic subsidy that the people receive from the CCSS, that they generally withdraw at their offices. The beneficiaries are:

The elderly
Disabled people
Single mothers
Orphans in an evident state of need that do not benefit from other pension programs of the country

The people that enjoy a non-contributive agreement do not pay fees during their active life.

Included within this category are the people pensioned from the non-contributive contract of Grace or War.

Pensioned by the CCSS, magisterium, or other: this insurance is obtained by the person that during his/her active life was directly insured, paid fees for Disability, Elderly, and Death contracts (IVM) for other special contracts like that of the Hacienda, magisterium, Judicial Power, Post Office and Telegraphs, Trains, Ministry of Public Works and Transportation (MDPT), or the Supreme Court of Justice; and that currently enjoys a pension for disabilities or old age. If the person is pensioned from by any of these contracts he/she must be considered part of this category.

[p. 146]

This includes the people that have inherited the pension of their spouse, father or mother, due to their death and who do not have any other form of insurance.

If he/she has insurance from another country and does not have any other form of insurance with the CCSS, mark the option eight (doesn't have social security from the CCSS).

Family insurance: this type of insurance is obtained by the family members of a directly insured person, whether he/she has salaried, pensioned, self-employed, or contracted insurance. All of the directly insured generate benefits for their family members and dependents, who would be included in this category. As family members of a directly insured person are the following:

Spouse or partner
Children younger than 18 years, dependents of the insured, single and without salary
Children dependents between 18 and 25 years that are students
Younger brothers and sisters between 18 and 22 years old that are students, whenever they are properly registered or single; or those older than these ages with permanent disability.
Dependent children with permanent disability.
Mothers, fathers, or other family member dependents. In the case of mothers this also includes those adopted or those that carry out the tasks like a mother
•
State insurance: the person with this insurance belongs to the family nucleus of very low economic resources and whose socioeconomic situation does not allow them to insure themselves in any other way.

The law requires the state to insure its population prior to socioeconomic studies. This type of insurance, even though it covers the entire nuclear family, and people with disabilities regardless of age and dependents, it must be processed for each person of the household, to whom identification will be provided. If only one person has the identification, this does not work to insure

[p. 147]

the rest of the household. This type of insurance does not provide economic subsidies, only the health service of the CCSS.

Other forms: included in this category are the students insured through contracts of the CCSS with education institutions, always when the person is not covered by another form of insurance. This also includes foreign functionaries accredited in Costa Rica or by international organizations, whenever the insurance is from the CCSS.

Does not have social security from the CCSS: this category includes all the people that are not located in any of the previous categories.

Question 12: Population with disability

12. Does [name] have a permanent limitation...? (You can mark multiple options)

[] 1 seeing, even with glasses or contacts on
[] 2 hearing
[] 3 speaking
[] 4 walking or going up steps
[] 5 using arms or hands
[] 6 intellectually (retarded, Down's syndrome, other)
[] 7 mentally (bipolar, schizophrenic, other)
[] 8 none of the above

This question is asked of all the habitual residents of the household. In the case of the babies, it should be considered that they do not have permanent limitations if there is no medical opinion that indicates otherwise.

As can be observed in this question you can mark various responses that refer to the following permanent limitations.

Seeing, even with glasses or contacts on: in this category are considered people with permanent visual difficulties that, even with glasses or contacts on, claim having

[p. 148]

limitations seeing, either partially or fully.

This also includes the people that claim to have problems seeing and for some economic reason do not have the glasses they need.

Hearing: this considers the people with permanent difficulties hearing that, even when they have earphones or some audio apparatus placed, they have limitations hearing, whether partially or fully.

Speaking: this includes the people that present permanent difficulties speaking (expressing a thought orally). This excludes: the temporary problems speaking derived from some condition of shyness or stutter.

Walking or going up steps: this includes the people that present permanent difficulties walking from one place to another, inside or outside the dwelling, or going up steps in a dwelling, buildings, or means of transportation. This excludes: the people with temporary injuries or burns that are found in rehabilitation and could recover.

Using arms or hands: this includes the people that present permanent limitations voluntarily controlling the movement of the arms and hands that prevent then from grabbing, manipulating, lifting an object, or carrying something from one site to another. This excludes the people with temporary injuries or burns that are found in rehabilitation and could recover.

Intellectually (retarded, Down's syndrome, other): this includes people with problems with their mental functions that affect that intellectual development.

Mentally (bipolar, schizophrenic, other): people that because of some mental condition have permanent limitations for relating with the rest of the people or for obtaining interpersonal abilities.

[p. 149]

In this case it does not include people with psychiatric or psychological treatment with which they can function daily without any limitation. It also excludes the people with dyslexia, insignificant attention deficit disorder, temporary depression, introverted attitudes, shyness, problems of insomnia, stress, or other states of transitional moods, popularly known as "nervous breakdowns."

None of the above: this option should be marked when the person does not present any permanent limitation.

Question 13: Attendance to centers of learning and care

13. Does [name] attend...?

[] 1 daycare, nursery school, or preschool
[] 2 kindergarten, elementary or secondary school
[] 3 open education (MEP exams)
[] 4 university prep school or university
[] 5 special education
[] 6 day center for elderly
[] 7 does not attend (go to 15)
Daycare, nursery school, or preschool: these are public and private centers where children between 0 and 5 years of age attend. These exclude the CEN CINAI.

Kindergarten : this is understood as attending the grade prior to the first year of elementary school

Elementary or secondary school: this is the attendance to a regular day or night education center of an academic or technical elementary, middle or high school

Open education (exams before the MEP): this is attendance to an institution of elementary or secondary education but under programs adapted for taking exams before the MEP. These have a different duration from that established in the formal education.

It is considered that a person attends the "open education" if he/she is properly registered and regularly attends some center or program. Some of the most common are: IPEC, CINDEA, New

[p. 150]

Opportunities, home teacher, and private institutions.

This does not include the people that are registered in the MEP to take exams but prepare themselves alone or pay a separate professor. This does not include people that attend technical education centers like the National Institute of Learning (INA) or schools of commercial training of computation, language, free courses or others that give short courses.

University prep school: this refers to the institutions of superior education recognized by the National Council of Superior Education and whose principal objective is to offer short courses, of two or three years for people graduated from secondary education, from where they receive a diploma.

University: this refers to public and private institutions recognized as such by the National Council of Superior Education where high school, undergraduate, masters, specialty, and doctorate titles are obtained.

Special education: this is composed of the people that attend schools of special education or centers of specialized education for the people that present some permanent limitation of physical or intellectual disability.

Day center for the elderly: these are centers of care to which adult people attend for a few hours to receive food and recreation services, among others. These do not include institutions or homes where the people live, but rather only those that function during the day.

Question 14: Type of institution

14. The center that [name] attends is...?

[] 1 public
[] 2 private or semi-private

This question must be asked of the habitual residents of the household that attend some center of learning or care. The options of the response are:

[p. 151]

Public: in this type of institutions a periodic payment must not be made for the education services received.

In some cases the state institutions solicit voluntary contributions but these do not condition the attendance or the right to admissions to the center or public institute. This includes attendance to the state universities.

Private and semi-private: in this type of centers there must be a monetary payment for the education services received. In the case of the semi-private centers, the MEP or other state institute totally or partially subsidizes the attendance or some services.

Questions 15 to 19 should be asked questions to people 5 years or older.

Question 15: Literacy

Only for people 5 years or older

15. Does [name] know how to read and write?

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

It is considered "yes" when the person knows to read and write a simple text that allows one to face situations in daily life, like a message or an announcement. If the person only writes, only reads, or only knows how to sign or write their name, or expresses that in some moment he/she knew how to read and write but says that he/she forgot how, you should mark the option "no."

It is considered that the blind person knows how to read and write if he/she has these abilities in the Braille language.

[p. 152]

Question 16: Level of instruction

16. What is the last grade or year that [name] passed?

Level
[] 60 no grade
[] 70 special education
[] 80 kindergarten or school prep
[] 1 elementary school, last grade passed
[] 1
[] 2
[] 3
[] 4
[] 5
[] 6
[] 2 secondary school
[] 1
[] 2
[] 3
[] 4
[] 5
[] 3 secondary technical school
[] 1
[] 2
[] 3
[] 4
[] 5
[] 6
[] 4 university prep school (go to 17)
[] 1
[] 2
[] 3
[] 5 university (go to 17)
[] 1
[] 2
[] 3
[] 4
[] 5
[] 6
[] 7
[] 8
[] 9

This question should be asked of all people whose age is 5 years or older. This refers to the last year or grade passed by the person, in regular learning.

No grade: when the person does not attend kindergarten or prep school. This includes the children that currently attend daycare, nursery school, or preschool.

Special education: in this category are classified the people that have passed some of the levels of special education.

Kindergarten or school prep: this refers to the grade or year of preschool immediately prior to the first year of elementary school.

This option will be marked for all the people that effectively passed this level. This category does not include the children that are currently attending this level (even though they have attended for various years), since in these cases you must mark the option "no grade."

Remember that for the options "no grade," "special education," or "kindergarten or prep school" you only need to fill the ovals corresponding to "level."

In the following options you must mark the category corresponding to the level of learning and in addition you must mark in the corresponding oval of the "last year passed"

[p. 153]

according to the following ranges. If the informant does not know the last year passed, you must mark at least the level.

Elementary school: the possible numbers that you could mark are 1 to 6.

Secondary school: the last year passed will be 1 to 5. If the person finishes the 5th year but did not take all the exams of the high school, mark 5th year.

Secondary technical school: the last year passed will be 1 to 6. If the person concludes the 6th year but did not pass the high school exams, mark 6th year.

Prep universities: the last year passed will be from 1 to 3.

Universities: the last year passed will be from 1 to 9.

Question 17: Possession of a title

17. (for those who studied at a university prep school or university). Does he/she have a degree at that level?

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

If the last year passed of the person is university prep school or university, you must indicate if the person possesses a title at that level.

Question 18: Use of cellular phone, computer, and internet

18. In the last 3 months has [name] used . . .?

Cell phone
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no
Computer
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no
Internet
[] 1 yes
[] 2 no

The objective is to investigate whether the people have used a cell phone, computer, or internet in the past three months, for whatever reason.

[p. 154]

Question 19: Place of residency five years ago

19. Where did [name] live five years ago? (May 2006)

[] 1 In this canton (go to 20)
[] 2 In another canton
_____ In which canton? (go to 20)
In which province? (go to 20)
[] 1 San José
[] 2 Alajuela
[] 3 Cartago
[] 4 Heredia
[] 5 Guanacaste
[] 6 Puntarenas
[] 7 Limón
[] 3 In another country
Which country?
[] Nicaragua
[] United States
[] Colombia
[] El Salvador
[] Panamá
[] Honduras
_____ another country

The place of residency five years ago refers to the place of habitual residency of each person in May 2006. The possible situations are:

In this canton: if the reference person lived in the same canton five years ago as the current residency mark option 1 and proceed to question 20.

In another canton: if the reference person lived in a different canton five years ago from the current one, mark this alternative, request the name of the canton and province and note the corresponding information. If he/she does not know the canton, note the name of the district or the population center or some other reference that can help to determine the correct canton. In this case you must also mark the province. Proceed to question 20.

In another country: if the reference person was found living habitually abroad five years ago, mark this option, and then request and mark the name of the country, if it appears on the list. If the country is not on the list, note it in the blank spaces.

[p. 155]

Questions 20 to 31 are asked only of people 12 years of age or older.

Question 20: Marital status

Only for people 12 years or older

20. [Name] is currently ...?

[] 1 in a consensual union or partnership
[] 2 married
[] 3 separated
[] 4 divorced
[] 5 widowed
[] 6 single

This question refers to the marital status and not the civil or legal status of the population.

Consensual union or partnership: people that live in a consensual union without having contracted legal or civil matrimony with the person with which they cohabitate. This category includes those people of the same sex that declare to be cohabitating as a couple.

Married: person that has contracted legal matrimony and lives with his/her spouse or partner, even if they do not live in the same dwelling for circumstantial reasons such as work, sickness, imprisonment, hospitalization, or other reason that does not allow them to live under the same roof; whenever the union has not been dissolved.

Separated: person that contracted legal matrimony or was in a consensual union and currently does not live with his/her spouse or partner because they dissolved the union without recurring to legal mechanisms, or solicited legal separation without having consolidated the divorce.

Divorced: person that having dissolved his/her matrimony in a legal way has not married again nor lives in consensual union.

Widowed: person that after the death of his/her spouse has not contracted matrimony again nor lives in a consensual union.

Single: person that has never married nor lived in a consensual union.

Remember that this deals with the marital status and not the civil status. Because of this you may find the case of a couple where one of the partners is legally married and the other single; in this situation, the marital status of both is "consensual union."

[p. 156]

Questions 21 to 23: Determine the activity status of the people.

In order to adequately establish the economic activity condition of the people of the household as "employed, unemployed, or inactive" it is important that you analyze the following diagram and know the main concepts and related definitions.

Activity status

Active economic population (work force)
Employed population
Worked for an hour or more in the last week
Carried out economic activities for money or something in exchange
Did not work but has employment
Worked or helped in the family business without pay
Unemployed population
Looked for work and had worked previously
Looked for work for the first time
Inactive economic population (not in work force)
Student
Retired or renter
People with domestic chores in their own home
Other situation
[p. 157]

Keep in mind the following definitions:

Reference week: the information that is collected about the activity status must refer to the week immediately prior to the interview (from Sunday the 22nd to Saturday the 28th of May).

Activity status: this refers to the classification of the population 12 years or older according to their participation in economic activities.

Economic activity: all activity or work directed to the production of goods or economic services, designed for sale or exchange.

Work: the participation of the population in economic activities.

Employed population: according to the previous definitions employed people are those that during the reference week:

a) Worked or carried out some economic activity for at least one hour, without counting domestic tasks of their own home.

b) Were found not working but who have employment (they did not work because of some incapacity, vacations, suspension or leave of absence for a month or less, strike, lack of clients at the premise or office, bad weather, equipment failure, lack of raw materials, or closure period).

c) Worked or helped in a family business without pay.

[p. 158]

Keep in mind that for the purposes of the census, the following activities are not considered work:

Having exclusively carried out volunteer work as a fireman, red cross worker, and other volunteers that go to the hospitals and do not receive pay.

Voluntary help in domestic tasks in another household different from one's own, without receiving remuneration.

Help given to a friend or relative as a favor.

Ad honorem labor.

Begging.

Professional internship without remuneration that the students are required to do in order to graduate.

Agricultural activities exclusively for self consumption.
Unemployed population: people that are unemployed during the reference week are those that did not work and did not have employment, they were available to work and took concrete actions to look for a salaried or independent employment.

Economically inactive population: this is composed of the collection of people that during the reference week did not form part of the work force, that's to say, they did not participate in the production of goods and economic services, they were not available to do so and they did not look for work.

[p. 159]

Question 21: Worked the past week

21. Last week [name]...?

[] 1 worked for an hour or more (excluding domestic tasks) (go to
24)
[] 2 did not work but has employment (go to 24)
[] 3 helped with a family business or farm without payment (go to 24)
[] 4 none of the above

You must ask this question of all household members 12 years or older, applying the definitions and concepts previously explained.

The categories of the response are:

Worked for an hour or more: people that carried out some economic activity for at least one hour, without counting the domestic tasks of their own home.

Did not work but has employment: people that are without work during the reference week because of incapacity, vacations, strikes, or other, but they have employment.

Helped with a family business or farm without payment: person that helped for at least an hour, without receiving remuneration or profit, for some person that works independently or salaried in economic activities, in a farm, business, or company.

Question 22: Carried out economic activities:

22. Last week, in exchange for payment, [name] ...?

[] 1 carried out agricultural labor, raised animals, fished (go to 24)
[] 2 sold products (go to 24)
[] 3 cared for people, cleaned, or ironed for a private household (go to 24)
[] 4 did various tasks (odd jobs) (go to 24)
[] 5 did not do any of the above

This question is only applied to the people of the household that, in question 21 declared themselves as part of the category "none of the above."

Usually the activities identified in this question are seen as work or employment for being developed occasionally, on a small scale or for being of low production because they generate low income.

[p. 160]

Keep in mind that if the person declares having carried out some of these activities, you should continue to question 24.

Question 23: Unemployed or inactive people

23. Last week [name]...?

[] 1 looked for work and had worked before (go to 30)
[] 2 looked for work for the first time (go to 30)
[] 3 is pensioned or retired (go to 30)
[] 4 makes a living by renting (go to 30)
[] 5 only studies (go to 30)
[] 6 dedicates time to domestic chores of the household (go to 30)
[] 7 another situation (go to 30)

This question is applied to those who responded in question 22 "I didn't carry out any of the previous." Keep in mind that if one person declared to find himself/herself in situations 1 and 2, it is an "unemployed person" and the people that declare to find themselves in situations 3 to 7 will be considered "inactive."

Looked for work and had worked before: this refers to the person at working age that during the reference week did not have work, was available, and took action to find it and they have worked at some point.

Looked for work for the first time: this refers to the person at working age that has never worked but that during the reference week was available and took action to find work.

The actions to find work include the following:

a) Trying to obtain a salaried or independent employment through friends or relatives, answering announcements in the newspaper, visiting places to look for a position or taking actions to work

[p. 161]

on one's own account, such as seeking financing, materials, equipment, or clients.

b) Waiting for a response from recent applications or stopping to look momentarily because of a passing sickness.

c) Conversations in the street with acquaintances or not. Assisting an employment fair. Looking for work via the internet.

Is pensioned or retired: this refers to the person that did not work nor looked for work and that receives a pension from some agreement.

Makes a living by renting: this includes those that live by renting dwelling or offices or from utilities, interests, banking, bonds, investments, etc.

Only studies: this refers to someone that dedicates himself/herself to his/her studies without working nor looking for work during the reference week; if in addition he/she helped with the domestic tasks of the home he/she must be considered a student. In this case it can include people that in question 13 said that they did not attend school but attended free classes at the INA or other places.

Dedicates time to domestic chores of the household: the person that exclusively dedicates his/her time to the domestic tasks of his/her own household and cannot be classified in the previous categories. Keep in mind that this activity is carried out by men and women.

Other situation: this includes the people not classified in the previous categories, for example: people with a permanent work disability, residents permanently in jails that don't work, convents, hospitals, etc. Also consider lazy people, homeless, and others that are not already classified.

The categories are mutually exclusive. It only requires one response.

[p. 162]

Remember that the employment condition is priority over unemployment and inactivity and that the condition of unemployment is priority over any condition of inactivity.

Questions 24 to 29: Determine the characteristics of the people's main work
This refers to the characteristics of the main job, that to which the person habitually dedicates the most number of hours or that which generates the greatest income.

About the main job

Question 24: Main occupation

_____ 24. What is the occupation or profession that [name] has in this job?

The occupation or office is the type of work that carried out the person in his/her main occupation. You must request the informant to correctly describe the name of the occupation that he/she carried out.

In order to do so, obtain the complete name of that occupation, with every detail necessary so that the nature of the work that the person carried out is clear.

Don't write generic occupations such as: peon, helper, assistant, mechanic, or professor, that by themselves do not provide details to classify the various occupations.

Below some examples of the correct and incorrect forms to gather information will be shown that will surely help you understand what is asked for:

[p. 163]

[The left-hand side is the general but incorrect type of occupation; examples of more specific and correct identification of occupation follow to the right]

Teacher: elementary school teacher, secondary school teacher, university professor, private class professor

Mechanic: automotive mechanic, dental mechanic, aviation mechanic

Maintenance: gardener, miscellaneous, electrician

Day worker: agricultural cane worker, miler, construction worker, cattle worker, fisherman

Merchant: store owner, mini super worker, vegetable salesman, soda salesman

Lawyer: attorney in private practice, examining magistrate, legal advisor of a bank, price attorney

Assistant: accounting assistant, nursing assistant, topography assistant

Machine operator: embroidery machine operator, print machine operator

Store manager: human resource manager, merchandise manager

Chauffeur: truck driver, bus driver, trailer driver

[p. 164]

Question 25: Main task

_____ 25. What is the main task completed? Explain.

Describe the main task that the person carries out in his/her main job.

Question 26: Name of the business, institution, or business

_____ 26. What is the name of the company, institution, business where [name] works?

You must request and note the complete name of the business, company, or institution for which the person works. In case the informant forgets the name of the "establishment" you can follow the following recommendations:

If it deals with people that worked on a farm without a name, write "agricultural farm" or "cattle farm," according to the specific case.

If it deals with people that worked in family houses note "In a family house."

For the people that in their own home carried out the work write "in their own home"

For the people that worked in small businesses or workshops without a name, note "without a name."

You must keep in mind that some institutions contract certain services in private form like: security guards, caretakers, computational services, among others. In these cases you must note the name of the company that proportions the work and remuneration.

[p. 165]

Question 27: Branch of activity

_____ 27. What does the company, institution, or business where [name] works produce?

The "branch of activity" allow us to locate the business, establishment, company, or farm, within an economic sector, according to the class of goods or services that it produces. You must note the branch of the activity of the establishment in which the person works in his/her main occupation.

So, if it deals with a business of the commercial sector you must indicate as well the type of product that they sell, and if it deals with retail sale or wholesale; if it deals with an agricultural farm you must specify the type of animals or crops that are produced in the farm, in the case of industrial manufacturer you must describe the kind of goods that are produced are developed in the business or factory, or if it deals with businesses that provide services to others, you must specify the kind of service offered.

Upon noting this you should avoid generic terms such as workshop, factory, warehouse, farm, laboratory that by themselves do not allow for a classification of the branch of economic activity.

Below some examples of correct and incorrect annotations used when assigning this information are shown, which will surely help one understand what is being asked:

For no reason leave questions 24 "main occupation" and 27 "branch of activity" blank for those declared employed.

[p. 166]

[The left-hand side is the general but incorrect type of branch of activity; examples of more specific and correct identification of industry activity follow to the right]

Sale of construction materials: wholesale of tubes, cement, paint

Transportation: transportation of ground passengers, transportation of aerial passengers, transportation of maritime passengers, transportation of ground cargo, transportation of aerial cargo, transportation of maritime cargo

Repairs: computer repair, appliance repair, building and structure repair

Agricultural activities: cleaning of terrain for planting, collection of coffee, cleaning of farms

Information activities: web page design, software development, office of information technologies

Farm: production of milk and milk products, production of sugar cane and coffee, recreation estate

Bakery: elaboration of baked good, sale of baked goods

Cultivation of agricultural products: yucca cultivation, sugar cane cultivation

[p. 167]

Question 28: Occupational category

28. In this job [name] is...?

[] 1 Employer (has permanent employees)
[] 2 Self-employed worker
[] 3 Employee of a private sector
[] 4 Employee of the public sector
[] 5 Employee of private households
[] 6 Helper without pay

The "occupational category" is that relationship of dependence in which a person completes his/her occupation. In order to correctly note this it is necessary to understand the following concepts:

Employer (has permanent employees): this is the owner or active partner in a business that as part of his/her job contracts one or more salaried workers in a permanent way.

Self-employed worker: this is the person that works alone or in association, without establishing dependence with a boss, that generally does not contract salaried personnel or only on occasion.

A person that works "on one's own" defines the conditions of the work and places value of the goods produced, of the services provided, or of the price of the merchandise sold.

The people that work in a cooperative as partners of the cooperative are in included in this category.

Employee of a private sector: person that works in a relationship of dependence with a private company and receives a payment for the work in the form of a salary, wage, or daily paid, whether in money or in kind, or both.

Employee of the public sector: person that works in a relationship of dependence with the state.

Employee of private households: the person that works in a relationship of dependence with a household that is not his/her own. This person works as a salaried worker, in money or in kind, or both.
[p. 168]

Unpaid worker: this is that person that works in a relationship of dependence with a person in a farm, business, or family company, and does not receive payment for his/her work in money or in kind.

Question 29: Place of work

29. The place where [name] works is...?

[] 1 within or adjacent to the dwelling (go to 30)
[] 2 in this canton (go to 30)
[] 3 in another canton. (go to 30)
_____ In which canton? (go to 30)
In which province? (go to 30)
[] 1 San José
[] 2 Alajuela
[] 3 Cartago
[] 4 Heredia
[] 5 Guanacaste
[] 6 Puntarenas
[] 7 Limón
[] 4 in multiple cantons
[] 5 abroad

The "place of work" is the location to which a person moves to work daily, that does not necessarily correspond to the site where the business or institution that contracted and pays him/her is located.

You can cite as an example, the case of a security official of a private company who was assigned to guard the State Bank. In this case you must note the place where the bank is located and not the security company, as this is where the official travels daily.

In order to correctly note this it is necessary to keep in mind the following answer options:

Within or adjacent to the dwelling: this corresponds to those cases in which the person carries out his/her work within the same dwelling where he/she lives, or in an establishment, premise, or farm, alongside the dwelling. This category does not include the people that carry out their activity in an establishment, premise, or farm attached to the dwelling when the dwelling does not belong to anyone in the household.

[p. 169]

In this canton: when the person carries out his/her work mostly in the same canton where he/she currently resides.

In another canton: when the person must move to a canton distinct from that of his/her current canton in order to carry out the majority of the main job. You must note the name of the canton and mark the oval that corresponds to the province. If the informer does not exactly know the place, not any reference such as neighborhood or district, always mark the oval that corresponds to the province.

In multiple cantons: in this category classify the people that carry out their work in various cantons since they do not have a single canton in which they work. We can cite as an example the case of "the Polish," catalogue salesmen, street salesmen that move around various cantons and in general those people that are moving around to diverse parts of the country by the nature of the work.

Keep in mind that the following are not included in the category:

The drivers that have to go to an establishment for the bus, taxi, or vehicle. In the case of these people their place of work in the canton where the establishment is located.

The fishermen that work in the open sea but usually land in a specific location. For the case of these peoples their work place would be the canton from which they embark and to which they disembark.

These cases should not be considered part of this category. If a person works for a certain time in his/her home and another part outside of the home, you must note the place of work (canton) that the person considers to be the most important.

Abroad: mark this category when the person works in another country. If, for example, someone works for a company on line and the activities are developed in the home do not mark this option but rather "within or next to the dwelling."

[p. 170]

Questions 30 and 31 are asked only of women 12 years of age and older.

Question 30: Sons and daughters born live

Only for women 12 years or older

30. How many live birth children has [name] had?

_ _ Total (go to 31)
[] 00 None (go to the next person)

A live born person is one that cries upon birth even if he/her dies minutes later. This question must be asked of all the women 12 years and older, without considering marital status. In order to collect this information, keep in mind that:

You must consider the total number of live born sons and daughters of all the matrimonies or unions that the women has had, such as those had while being single and inclusive of those given up for adoption.

This includes all the live born sons and daughters, independently of whether they have passed away, live with the mother, or are married, united, or live abroad.

Do not forget to request this information from single and adolescent women.

Do not include the adopted sons and daughters.

For the women that have never had children or children that were not born live, fill the option corresponding with "none" and go to the next person.

Question 31: Sons and daughters currently living

31. Of these, how many are currently alive?

[] 00 None
_ _ Total

The "sons and daughters currently living" are those that are alive at the moment of the census, independently of whether or not they live in the same household as the mother, for reasons of work, study, marital status, or because they live outside of the country.

[p. 171]

Note the response in the space that corresponds to "total." If none of the children are still living, mark the response that corresponds to the option "none."

The total number of children currently alive can never be greater that the total number of children born live. If this condition is not meet, request the informer makes any clarifications necessary.

Back cover of the census questionnaire

Legal dispositions: you will find some legal dispositions that support the census and its confidentiality. If it is necessary you can make them known to the person being interviewed.

List of provinces and cantons of Costa Rica: this will help you locate which cantons correspond to each province and in turn, facilitate the assigning of these in the geographic questions (5, 19, and 29 of Block IV).

Examples of the response for questions 24 and 27 of Block IV: on the back cover you will find some examples that seek to facilitate the completion of questions 24 and 27 from Block IV.

Space for observations: utilize the space for observations to note any kind of clarification. You can use and note as identifier or reference the line number of the person and the question number to which the observation refers.

Verification of the basic information: once you have administered the interview to all the members of the household and before concluding the interview, review the questionnaire to corroborate that the information requested is complete. Verify that the quantity of people enumerated in the dwelling coincides with the total number of people noted in the "total number of residents of the dwelling."

Concluding the interview, thank the informant for his/her valuable participation and collaboration.

[Pages 172 to 174 were omitted because they are a collection of practice situations and activities.]

[p. 175]

Seventh Unit

Turning in and returning the census material

Objectives of this unit

After completing this unit you will be able to:

Verify that the census material received was correct and complete

Adequately apply the return process of the census material

[Pages 176 to 184 were omitted from this because they explain how the census materials can be returned. The appendix, additional practice and evaluation activities, and additional note pages listed at the end were also omitted.]