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Republic of Costa Rica
National Institute of Statistics and Censuses
IX National Population Census
V Housing Census
February, 2000

[Pages 1- 10 were not translated into English]

[p. 11]

A. Basic Concepts

To carry out your work in a complete and ordered manner you should keep in mind some concepts, and follow a series of instructions during the enumeration and after it. In this sense, it is necessary to begin with two basic concepts for the fulfilling of the Census: the dwelling and the home.

Dwelling

Premises that human beings use to sleep, prepare and consume their meals, also for protecting themselves from the inclement weather and that has the following characteristics:

Separate: surrounded by walls and covered by a roof.

Constructed, transformed, fixed or available for the lodging of persons or that, although not designed for this purpose, is inhabited by persons at the moment of the carrying out the census.

Independent: with entrances or direct access to the street or through halls, stairs, patios, corridors, a public or communal terrace, etc., which does not oblige persons to pass through the interior of other houses in order to leave or enter it.

Private Home

Is a group of persons who, having family ties between them or not, reside usually in the same individual dwelling, live together and buy and consume their own food.

Examples of private home are:

Family homes formed by father, mother, children and other family members.
A single person
Group of students who rent an apartment together

[Below the text is a picture of a home.]

Individual Dwelling

Separated or independent premises designed to lodge one or more private homes.

Examples of individual dwellings are:

A neighborhood or residential house
Shacks made of straw, palm or cane
An apartment
A hovel
Room with an independent entrance that is rented in a dwelling.

[Below the text is a picture of a house.]

[p. 12]

Collective Home

It is a group of persons without family ties between them, but who live together for reasons of discipline, health, education, religious life, work.

Examples of collective home are:

A group or body of nuns who reside usually in a convent
Students in a boarding school
Guests of a hotel
A group of elderly persons who reside in a nursing home
Interns in jail

[Below the text is a picture of three nuns.]

Collective Dwelling

Place, office or house designed by the government, a private company or other institution for resolving problems or social needs.

Examples of collective dwelling are:

A convent
A hotel
A jail
A booth for workers
An orphanage

[Below the text is a picture of a convent.]

Special Cases

Private homes within collective dwellings, formed by special groups who live apart and reside there for different reasons that justify the existence of this dwelling; such as superintendents, managers, guards, etc., and their family members. In this case two situations can present themselves:

They have a dwelling with independent entrance with in the instillations of the collective dwelling. They should be enumerated as a private home in an individual dwelling.

They reside in one or more rooms of a collective dwelling. They should be enumerated as a private home, where the room or rooms are considered an individual dwelling.

Private homes that reside in: buildings constructed with purposes different than lodging, such as persons who live in mechanic workshops, restaurants, factories or offices, etc., or in dwellings that have been divided and equipped for containing more than one individual dwelling. They should be enumerated considering that and the rooms that they occupy constitute an individual dwelling.

[Pages 13-27 were not translated into English]

[p. 28]

Third Unit

The Census Form

Objectives of this unit:

Upon finishing this unit you will be capable of:

Applying the basic instructions for filling out the Census Form.

Carrying out the filling out of the Locality of the dwelling.

[p. 29]

A. The Census Form

1. Characteristics of the Form.

The Census Form is a folder that contains the questions that you should ask to collect the information about dwelling and population, that is to say, this form has a dwelling questionnaire and many population questionnaires, enough for writing down the information for up to ten members of the dwelling who reside there.

Each form consists of the following parts:

1. Locality.
2. Characteristics of the dwelling.
3. Characteristics of the population.

2. General instructions for the filling out of the Census Form.

The information that you write down in this form will be revised afterward and entered into a computer, nevertheless, to assure the quality of the information of the National Censuses, and to facilitate the work afterward, take into account the following instructions:

Fill the form only with pencil.
Write clearly and legibly.
Follow the instructions indicated in the form.
Do not cross out or erase. If you make a mistake, correct clearly indicating the response.
Never separate the sheets from the form. Only use complete forms.

3. How to ask the questions.

a. In the majority of cases the questions are written, nevertheless, you should read them literally including the response options when the suspension points ["..."] indicate as such, for example:

Without reading the response options:

[Below the text is a form.]

Reading the options until getting an affirmative response:

[Below the text is a form.]

b. When this sign " appears in the questions of the questionnaire you should substitute it with the name of the person from whom you are requesting information.

[p. 30]

c. When the question is not written, you should choose the corresponding option through observation or investigation, for example:

[Below the text is a form.]

4. How to write down the responses.

a. Mark with "X" the corresponding circle, for example:

[Below the text is a form.]

Note: Only in questions 7 and 16 of dwelling can more than one circle or option as a response be marked.

b. Write clear and legible numbers in the boxes available for this:

[Below the text is a form.]

c. Write letters clearly and legible, in the corresponding lines:

[Below the text is a form.]

d. Mark with "X" and write down clearly in the corresponding spaces:

[Below the text is a form.]

[p. 31]

B. Filling out of the Locality

The information written down in the locality is fundamental for identifying the geographic location of each dwelling and each home, which permits carrying out control of census coverage

Initial recommendations:

a. Before any distrust is shown by those interviewed, insist that the information that they supply will be used in absolute confidence.

b. Visit and investigate all the buildings or structures where mechanic workshops, deposit warehouses, factories, etc operate; that could be used also for dwelling.

[Below the text is a locality form.]

Segment Number: Copy the eight numbers of the segment written down in the front of your folder.

All the dwellings of a same segment should have the same number written down.

[Below the text is a form with eight numbers.]

Dwelling Number: Indicate the order that corresponds to every dwelling within its segment of enumeration.

[Below the text is a form with three letters.]

Remember:

This is the same number registered in the route sheet and in the map.

[p. 32]

Household Number: In the box of continuous lines, write down in ascending order, the number that corresponds to each household within the dwelling.

If the dwelling is inhabited by more than one household:

a. Use a form for each household

[Below the text is a form.]

b. Fill out the characteristics of the dwelling only for the first household.
c. Write the order of each home beginning with the one that has most members and continuing with this criteria.

[Below the text is a form.]

If a home has more than 10 persons:

a. Use as many forms as well as population questionnaires that you need.
b. Fill out the characteristics of the dwelling only on the first form.
c. Write down a small letter in the underlined box:

[Below the text is a form.]

And so on.

Address of the Dwelling: Copy the name of the province, carton and district where the dwelling is located from the front of your folder.

[Below the text is a form.]

Dwellings in urban zones: Write the name of the city, neighborhood, boulevard, urbanization, streets, avenue, roads, number of the house or other type of reference that contributes to locating the dwelling.

Example:

Santa Marta, Urbanization
La Flor, second entrance,
50 mts [meters] to the left,
house No. 5.
Dwellings in rural (dispersed) zones: Write down the name of the site or place and later the road or path, route or river, or other references that will permit the dwellings that are dispersed to be located.

Example:

Los Chiles highway, one kilometer north of the entrance of the farm Porvenir, house to the right, white and blue colored.

Telephone: Ask and write the telephone number which can be very useful in case one wants to complete or clarify information.

[p. 33]

Fourth Unit

Filling out the characteristics of the Dwelling

Objectives of this unit:

Upon finishing this unit you will be capable of:

Applying the dwelling questionnaire correctly.

Explaining the objectives and concepts associated with the Dwelling Census and its Questions.

Identifying the characteristics of the information requested in one of the questions.

[Page 34 does not exist]

[p. 35]

A. The V National Dwelling Census

In this census all individual or collective dwellings of the country will be visited and enumerated, whether they are occupied or unoccupied is not important.

The collected information will permit:

Determining the characteristics and the number of the existing dwellings in the country.
Identifying the basic services that the residents of the individual dwellings are provided.
Building social indicators that permit classifying the population agreeing with their life conditions.
Producing a sample framework of dwellings, useful for different research.
Evaluating the usual situation at the regional and national level and for urban and rural zones.
Defining the policies and plans of action positioned to satisfy the needs of life and its basic services.

[Below the text is a picture of houses.]

B. The Dwelling Questionnaire

Question 1: Dwelling type

This question will permit us to distinguish the number of individual and collective dwellings of the country and group them in different types, depending on their characteristics.

Observe and mark with an "X" the corresponding circle.

In individual dwelling the following categories are distinguished:

[To the right of the text is a form.]

[p. 36]

Independent house: is one that has a direct entrance to the street or land and constitutes a single dwelling. Here dwellings with a second story are included.

[Below the text is a picture of a house.]

Shack: Premises constructed with waste materials: cardboard, planks, old tin, cloth, etc. Generally it is built with the purpose of responding to an immediate need for lodging.
9
[Below the text is a picture of a hovel.]

In building: Dwellings (apartments or condominiums) that form part of a building of two or more floors, it can be a dwelling that has been converted to apartments.

It has an independent entrance through a hall, stairs or other common space.

[Below the text is a picture of an apartment building.]

Other: Any other type of individual building like mobile ones: ships, trucks, camping tents, etc., or temporary: premises designed for dwelling in buildings that originally were not made for lodging persons, such as houses within mechanics workshops, wine stores, stables, factories, garages, guard houses, etc.

[Below the text is a picture of a garage.]

The category homeless deals with those persons who do not have premises to be quartered in, such as those who sleep outside of churches, commercial establishments, abandoned buildings or under bridges but without having built a hovel. In these cases mark the corresponding circle with "X".

For the collective dwellings mark with "X" option number 6 and write down the name of the institution, organization or place. If in your segment you find a collective dwelling with many usual residents, like a jail, tell your supervisor so that there is another person who enumerates these persons.

Keep in mind that:

If you mark any of the categories without dwelling or collective dwelling, you should continue with the population characteristics, without filling out the rest of the dwelling questions.

[p. 37]

Question 2: Occupancy - Tenure

This question has the goal of establishing if the dwelling is occupied or unoccupied; also the condition of ownership or the reason for it not being occupied.

Mark with an "X" only one of the options.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

Occupied

It refers to a dwelling in which, at the moment of the census, one or more persons reside usually.

The dwelling can be:

Owned completely paid for: belongs to any of the members of the home and is found to be free of payments by loan or mortgage over the property.

Owned and being paid for in installments: belongs to any of the members of the home, but is not completely paid for, but rather it requires monthly payment in the form of a loan or mortgage on the property. In this case write down in colones the amount paid monthly.

Rented: The inhabitants of this dwelling pay a determined amount of money for residing in it. Write down in colones the amount paid monthly for rent.

Squatter: includes the dwellings that are located in lands that have been occupied without mediating any legal mechanisms of possession. It concerns that which is commonly known as "taken land" (tomas de tierra). Nevertheless, the dwelling was able to be constructed by its inhabitants but, because of being land that does not belong to them, it cannot be considered "owned".

Other: Any form of ownership like the cases in which the dwellings are ceded for reasons of work or kin relationships.

[p. 38]

Unoccupied

The individual dwelling is considered unoccupied when at the moment of the census, no one resides usually in it.

It can be unoccupied only under the following forms:

For rent or sale: When the dwelling is uninhabited because it has not been rented or bought.

Under construction or repair: in this case it is not inhabited because it is in the process of construction or repair.

Seasonal: is a dwelling designed to lodge persons occasionally (not permanent), since it is for purposes of recreation or rest or for work reasons. It can happen that at the census moment it is inhabited, but its members are not usual residents of it.

Other: Any other form not dealt with previously, like a house abandoned for demolition.

[To the left of the text is a picture of a house.]

Recommendation:

If you verify that the dwelling is unoccupied, mark the corresponding option and visit the next dwelling.

Question 3: Predominant material in the exterior walls

What is wanted with this question is the most used material in the construction of the walls of the front, sides and back part of the dwelling.

Cinder block or brick: Cemented materials: brick, concrete block, poured concrete, etc.

[Below the text is a picture of a house.]

Mark with "X" only one option.

[Below the text is a form.]

[p. 39]

Socle (skirting board): Walls that have a base of cement and the rest of wood.

[Below the text is a picture.]

Wood: When the predominant material is wood of any type.

- with lining: When the wall is supported by a structure, generally of wood (that forms a partition) and this partition has a interior lining of wood, panel, fibrolite, plywood, etc.

[Below the text is a picture.]

-without lining: When it is possible to observe from the interior of the dwelling, the structure that supports the wall.

[Below the text is a picture.]

Prefabricated: Concrete tiles that are bought already fabricated. The horizontal tiles are inserted in a slot that is in the columns that support them. They are distinguished because the columns project out from the walls, the vertical tiles are placed one joining the other so that they form walls thinner than those of concrete block.

[Below the text is a picture.]

Other: Here are included other materials like "adobe-bahareque" [a local tree], straw, bamboo, palm, zinc tins, etc.

[Below the text is a picture.]

Waste material: Elements already used of a short duration: cardboard, old cans, sacks, plastic, etc.

[Below the text is a picture.]

[p. 40]

Question 4: Predominant material in the roof

This question refers to the base material used for building the largest part of the roof.

Mark with an "X" only one of the options.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

Metal sheets: Sheets of zinc or galvanized steel, that are made in straight and wavy panels.

[Below the text is a picture of a roof.]

Fibrocement (fibrocemento): Material from a mix of cement that is compressed to form sheets of different sizes and forms (wavy, tile, etc.). Here asbestos-cement is included.

[Below the text is a picture of a roof.]

Other: Include here any other material like tile, stone, or concrete sheets that separate the floors of a building, straw, palm, etc.

[Below the text is a picture of a roof.]

Waste material: Used elements not very durable: cardboard, old cans, sacks, etc.

Recommendation:

When in doubt, query the informant, since you will be able to find, for example, roofs with cloth as a decorative outside element, and below them, sheets of zinc or cement. In this case mark any of these two options (zinc or cement, according to what it corresponds to.

[p. 41]

Question 5: Interior ceiling paneling

The question that is asked, will depend if the dwelling that you visit has an insulated ceiling or not, that is to say, a sheet with planks, internit, durpanel, [these two are types of ceiling panels] or other material, placed within the dwelling a certain distance from the roof.

It is considered that it has a ceiling when this is found in the largest part of the dwelling.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

Mark with "X" one of the two options

[Below the text are two pictures of ceilings.]

Question 6: Predominant material of the floor

With this question one tries to know what is the material that covers the largest part of the floor of the dwelling.

Mark with an "X" the corresponding option.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

Tile (terrazzo), mosaic, ceramic, etc: Very durable materials, mosaic, terrazzo, terracín [type of tile], palladian or ceramic, that is placed over a concrete plate.

[Below the text is a picture of a floor.]

Cement (polished or not): Cement plate that generally has been scrubbed and polished, some times, with red or green ocher.

[Below the text is a picture of a floor.]

[p. 42]

Wood: Lines of wood nailed over bases or joists, keeping a space between the floor and the ground. Also includes parquet.

[Below the text is a picture of a floor.]

Other: is materials not dealt with previously: sheets, mosaics, bricks placed directly over the earth, etc.

None: Dwellings that have a dirt floor.

Keep In Mind That:

If the floors have rugs or are covered with vinyl you should write down the base material: wood, terrazzo, cement.

Question 7: Condition of the outside walls, roof and floor

For each case you should make an appreciation that will permit you to judge in what state each of the parts of the building are in, the outside walls, the roof and the floor. If any doubt exists, investigate with the enumerated person.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

Select and mark with "X" the correct responses, according to the following criteria:

Poor: Major structural deterioration is present that requires a partial or total substitution of the affected areas: sunken or rotten bases, cracks, holes, etc.

These anomalies constitute an immediate danger for the inhabitants of the dwelling since it leaves them at the mercy of rain, wind, collapses and other possible mishaps that are against their wellbeing.

Fair: Some deterioration or structural defect is present, that requires repair: damaged planks, missing bricks, small cracks, etc.

These damages, nevertheless, do not constitute an imminent danger for the residents of the dwelling.

Good: The parts represent no deterioration: cracks, holes, sinking, etc, nor any structural flaws.

[p. 43]

Question 8: Rooms exclusively for sleeping

This question is related to the size of the home and will permit building an indicator of the overcrowding of persons in a dwelling.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

Write down here the number of rooms or quarters used only for sleeping. Include the bedroom of a domestic servant.

[Below the form is a layout of a house.]

Question 9: Total number of rooms

This question has been written to determine the total number of rooms or bedrooms that the dwelling has.

[Below the text is a picture of a floor.]

Room: Area separated from others by fixed walls, or permanent separations or differentiated by levels.

Total number of rooms: Include rooms such as: living room, dining room, kitchen, bedrooms, TV room, study, library.

Exclude corridors, bathrooms, laundry/storage room (cuarto de pilas), inner patio, terraces and garages; also rooms that are used exclusively for professional, commercial, industrial or service purposes: lawyer's office, doctor's office, store, bazaar, local store, beauty salon, etc.

Remember:

In the country or in rural areas, it is possible that the kitchen is a construction separate from the rest of the dwelling. In this case, take it as part of it and write it down as one more room.

The total amount cannot be less that the number written down in the previous question (bedrooms).

[p. 44]

Question 10: Water supply

This question tries to identify if the water comes directly to the dwelling through means of a pipe of galvanized steel, plastic, bamboo, etc, without its origin being important.

Mark with "X" only one of the options.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

Pipe inside the dwelling: The water arrives within the dwelling by means of at least a tube or faucet, that is to say, it is not necessary to leave the dwelling, for water supply.

[Below the text is a picture of a sink.]

Pipe outside of the dwelling but within the lot or building: The water arrives through a pipe to the lot, property or building but not into the dwelling. It should be close to the tube or faucet in the interior of the dwelling.

[Below the text is a picture of a sink.]

Pipe outside the lot or building: The water goes to a tube or public faucet that is located away from the lot, property or building.

[Below the text is a picture of an outside faucet.]

Does not have piped water: The dwelling is supplied by other means (hauled from a well, river, rain, cistern truck, etc.).

[Below the text is a picture of a water truck.]

Parcel - property: site where the dwelling and the patio and garden areas that surround it are located.

[p. 45]

Question 11: Origin of water

With this question the origin of the water that is consumed in the dwelling will be determined.

Mark with "X" only one of the circles.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

If the dwelling has two or more sources of water supply, write down only the most used.

The first two categories are characterized as being collective answers.

Water system of the Water and Sewer Company (A y A): The service of water comes from a public system administrated by the Costa Rican Institute of Water and Sewer Systems.

Rural or municipal aqueduct: The water service comes from a public system administrated by a Committee of Rural Water Systems, the Municipality or a company of public services.

The following options are characterized because they are individual answers.

Well: Owned or community, from a well that extracts water from the ground through the use of an electric or manual pump, or using a bucket or recipient, tied to the end of a rope.

[Below the text is a picture of a well.]

River, stream or spring: The water is taken from a river or ditch and is brought to the dwelling by carrying or through some type of tube.

[Below the text is a picture of a river.]

Rain and others: The largest part of the water used in the dwelling is rain, it has been caught in tanks (estañones) from the gutters of the roof, is received from water trucks, etc.

[Below the text is a picture of a house in the rain.]

Keep in mind:

A dwelling can have piped water if the origin is a water system.

[p. 46]

Question 12: Availability of Toilet Facilities

This question permits obtaining an indicator of the sanitary conditions of the country.

Toilet facilities: Space equipped within or outside of the dwelling, so that in it its inhabitants can fulfill their physiological needs.

Mark with an "X" only one of the following types of toilet facilities.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

Connected to public service: Toilet facilities are connected to a sewer system that collects sewage from many dwellings.

[Below the text is a picture of pipes.]

Connected to a septic tank: Toilet facilities are connected to a tank of concrete, cement or other materials, connected to drainage areas. Generally, it is built in the patio of the house. If the tank is connected to a public sewer system, mark the previous option.

[Below the text is a picture of pipes.]

From pit toilet or latrine: Also called "pit toilet". Consists of a hole over which there is a hut with a cement, concrete or wooden floor, and a base that serves as a latrine made also of any of these materials.

[Below the text is a picture of an outhouse.]

With another system: Toilet services formed by a "toilet bowl" or any object that drains into a natural current of water: irrigation ditch, ditch, river, estuary, etc.

[Below the text is a picture of a house next to a river.]

Does not have: The residents of the dwelling are not provided any type of toilet facilities. In this case, the persons generally deposit their excreta directly on the ground, that is to say, they go "to the mountain".

If this response is selected go directly to question 14.

[p. 47]

Question 13: Use of toilet facilities

This information will permit determining if the toilet facilities are only for this dwelling, or are they shared with persons of other dwellings.

Mark with "X" only one option.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

Question 14: Availability of electricity

This question has the purpose of measuring the degree of electrification of the country, and what institution or company offers the service.

Mark with "X" the corresponding option.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

C.N.F.L. or I.C.E.: Electrical lighting from public service supplied by the National Company of Power and Light (C.N.F.L.) or by means of the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (I.C.E.)

Other: Electric light supplied by a cooperative committee or private plant. The cooperatives or Committees include: Administrative Committee of Electrical Services of Cartago (J.A.S.E.C.), Company of Public Services of Heredia (E.S.P.H.), Coopelesca, Coopealfaro, Coopesantos, Coopeguanacaste, or other company of public services.

The private plant is an instillation for use of the dwelling or for owners of a farm, factory, mine, etc., for their exclusive use and that of their workers, whether this service is free or not.

There is no electric light: When another type of illumination is used like kerosene, gas, candle, or others.

Question 15: Principal fuel used for cooking

What is desired to be known with this question is what type of fuel or energy is used principally in the dwelling for cooking the food.

Mark with an "X" only one of the options.

C.N.F.L. or I.C.E.: Electrical lighting from public service supplied by the National Company of Power and Light (C.N.F.L.) or by means of the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (I.C.E.)

[To the right of the text is a form.]

If meals are not prepared, even though they have the facilities for making them, pick the option "None (does not cook)".

[p. 48]

Question 16: Appliances of the Dwelling

This question is important in contributing to establishing a socioeconomic level of the dwelling.

Mark with an "X", the ownership or not of each and every one of the appliances.

The appliances can belong to one or many members of the homes that reside in the dwelling, and in all the cases they should be in usable condition.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

Keep In Mind:

Hot water for a shower: Appliance that is installed directly to the shower of the bath to heat the water.

Hot water tank: is generally a cylinder that is installed in some site in a dwelling, which permits supplying hot water both to the bath as well as to other pipes.

Computer: should not be included if it is used exclusively for purposes of work.

Vehicle (not for work): Those used by any member of the home for labor or job purposes should not be included, such as taxis, cargo trucks, microbuses meant for the transportation of schoolchildren, "Jeep" for the farm, etc. Nor should motorcycles or bicycles be considered vehicles.

If the enumerated person shows distrust in responding to this question, make clear that the information is confidential and will be used in aggregate form.

Observations

Write down in this space all the explanations, doubts, additional information etc. necessary respect to any of the questions of the questionnaire. Make these observations in an ordered form, in a manner that it is carried out in sequence and has a clear reference to the number of question that it corresponds to.

When finishing filling out this questionnaire, check that all the questions contain the required information and later continue with the "Identification of homes and persons" and the Population Characteristics.

[p. 49]

Fifth Unit

Filling out the Population Characteristics

Objectives of this unit:

Upon finishing this unit, the census enumeration personnel will capable of:

Knowing the objectives of the Population Census, the concepts and the characteristics of the information requested in this census.

Clearly identifying the reference moment and who are considered usual residents.

Suitably identifying members of the census homes.

Correctly filling out the population questionnaire for each one of the members of the home.

[Page 50 does not exist.]

[p. 51]

A. The IX National Population Census

The census will enumerate all resident persons in the country, their nationality not being important

Its objectives are the following:

Knowing the amount of resident population in the country and its geographic distribution (province, canton and district; urban and rural; region; hamlets, etc.)

Knowing the evolution or increase of the population and its migratory movements.

Knowing the composition of the population according to these aspects:

Demographic (sex, age, family composition, married state, fertility).

Social (education, social security, handicapped, ethnic)

Economic (occupation, sector of activity and institution).

With the previous information as a base, offering the necessary information for direct policies and plans of action to satisfy the basic needs of the population, and for the exploitation of human resources both in the public sector as well as the private.

Offering information about the population necessary for the determination of the legislative representatives according to the Territorial Administrative Division.

Offering the necessary information that complements the conformation of the sample framework of dwellings.

[Below the text is a picture of different people's faces.]

[p. 52]

B. Important Definitions

Census Class

The National Population Census of our country is a De Jure Census, which means that each person should be enumerated in their dwelling or Place of Usual Dwelling, even if they are not there at the moment of the enumeration.

Because of this the following definitions should be kept in mind:

1. Census moment

The number of inhabitants in a country, canton or district changes constantly, either by the entrance or exit of population or by births and deaths of its inhabitants. To determine or count its exact population, it then is necessary to refer to a given moment, this moment is that which we name Census moment.

The Census moment is the instant that serves as reference for determining the inclusion or not of a person in the census. For this Census, the Census Moment is "zero hours, zero minutes of June 28, or the same thing, "24 hours (12 at night) of the previous day".

So, you should enumerate all persons that were living at midnight of June 27, including newborns, even if they have died since that moment and you should NOT enumerate persons who have been born afterwards, or died before this moment.

[Below the text is a picture of a clock with a coffin and a newborn.]

Examples:

You arrive at a dwelling Wednesday the 28th and the enumerated person tells you that among the members of the home there is a girl who was born this Wednesday at 2 in the morning.

[Below the text is a picture of a clock with a newborn inside it.]

You should not enumerate this girl.

That same day you visit another dwelling where an 80 year old man recently died at 10 in the morning.

[Below the text is a picture of a clock with a coffin inside it.]

You should collect the information of the deceased elderly man.

[p. 53]

2. Place of usual residence

It is an individual or collective dwelling that one person or a group of persons usually occupies always; and taking as a reference the census moment; they are not absent from it for a period of six months or more. Nevertheless, if a person or group has lived less than six months in the dwelling and does not have another place of residence, it is considered that this is their place of usual residence.

To clarify what is explained before, take into account the following cases:

[Below the text is a chart with sections labeled "Situation", "Should be enumerated in the individual dwelling that is visited", "Should be enumerated in the collective dwelling that is visited" and "Should not be enumerated in the dwelling that is visited". I will translate the situations and note their respective answers.]

1. Members of a home that resides usually in the individual dwelling for more than six months. Should be enumerated in the individual dwelling that is visited

2. Members of a home absent for special purposes (travel, study, work, jailed, hospitalization, etc.) but their absence is less than six months or they regularly visit their residence in periods less that six months. Should be enumerated in the individual dwelling that is visited.

3. Members of a home that for more than six months were absent because of study or work without returning during this period to the usual residence of their family. Should not be enumerated in the dwelling that is visited.

4. Persons shut in for six months or more, or who live usually in hospitals, jails, convents, or any other institution of health, social adaptation, discipline, work or study (barracks, asylums, orphanages, student residences, etc.) Should be enumerated in the collective dwelling that is visited.

5. Guests who reside in hotels and boarding houses for periods up to six months, whether they are alone or with their family members; considering them together as a non family group. Should be enumerated in the collective dwelling that is visited.

6. Visitors, friends, or relatives of a family or a home who are spending a season in the dwelling in which you enumerate, and always when their visit is not longer than six months. Should not be enumerated in the dwelling that is visited.

7. Foreigners and their family members with less than six months in the country and not trying to stay more than six months, whatever their migratory condition may be. Should not be enumerated in the dwelling that is visited.

8. Employees, chauffeurs, workers and other similar workers who are at the service of the home, and eat and sleep usually in the dwelling in which they work for six months or more. Should be enumerated in the individual dwelling that is visited.

9. Foreigners, including servants of international organizations (not diplomats), who are in the country for six months or more, taking as a reference the census moment, meaning to stay in the country for six months or more. It should not be important to you if they have a bond of residence or if they are taking steps to get it. Should be enumerated in the individual dwelling that is visited.

10. Costa Ricans hired in this country by foreign diplomatic representatives and who live for six months or more in the embassy. (1) Should be enumerated in the individual dwelling that is visited.
[p. 54]

(1) In this case (Costa Ricans who reside within an embassy) they can be in two situations:

These persons reside within the premises of the diplomatic representation, in which you will only fill out the population questionnaire and make the respective observation.

Persons reside within the lands of the diplomatic representation but in a dwelling independent of the diplomats; then you should fill out the dwelling and population questionnaire.

Special Cases

Should Be Enumerated

Persons who at the moment of the census do not have any dwelling due to the conditions of poverty in which they live, nevertheless, they will have to be enumerated using only the population questionnaires, referring to them as their own home, as if it concerned a family or family group that lived together. In the contrary case, they will have to be enumerated as individual homes if it concerns one person or many, even if they are near to each other in the space.

Should Not Be Enumerated

Diplomatic representatives of other countries and their family members and the civil servants of embassies, who are not Costa Rican and work as administrative personnel or support diplomatic labors, who due to their duty, reside in our country.

Keep in mind that:

Given the current migratory conditions of the country, if you have doubts about whether to enumerate or not a foreigner who shows uncertainty about their immediate future residence or who has a fixed residence, the most convenient thing will be to proceed to enumerate them in the individual or collective dwelling where they are found.

[p. 55]

C. Section for the identification of Households and Persons

The first thing you should do when beginning the filling out of Population Characteristics is ask about the total number of persons who reside in the dwelling and the number of homes, based on the definitions explained in the Third Unit.

If there exists more than one home in the dwelling, you should only write down the information on the first form. Remember that you should use separate forms for each home.

Once you have established the total number of members of the home, ask for their names and surnames individually write them down in the List according to the relationship or to how the family or groups of families are formed in each home.

Always begin with the head, or head of home, then continue with the spouse, single children, married children, other relatives and others non-family.

Additionally mark with an "X" according to the sex of each person.

When the home is made up of more than 10 persons, the list should be continued on a second form, being careful to correct the number of persons, repeat the segment and dwelling numbers for identification and to write down the number of the corresponding home such as is illustrated on the following page. Also, you should cross out the dwelling questionnaire.

When finishing the filling out of the list, read out loud to the enumerated person the names of the persons written down, with the purpose of not omitting any person, above all newborns and elderly, who many times are not declared. In the case of having forgotten any member of the home, write their name at the end of the list.

If necessary, explain to the enumerated person that the list of persons who make up the home is done only for the purpose of ordering and avoiding possible omissions or errors in the requested information. If it is the case, accept only the name and initials in order to lessen the distrust of the enumerated person.

Household summary

Before beginning the filling out of each one of the questionnaires, do not forget to fill out the summary of the home.

[Below the text is a form.]

If only one home is found, verify that the total number of usual residents is equal to the total number of persons written down in the Home Summary. If on the contrary, you find more than one home in the dwelling, the total number of persons in this dwelling should be equal to the sum of the total number of summaries corresponding to each home.

How the members of the home should be written down is shown below.

[Page 56 is a filled out form.]

[p. 57]

D. Structure and Content of the Questionnaire

The questionnaire of the National Population Census, consists of 20 questions organized in four blocks, according to the age of the persons.

[Below the text is a census form.]

[p. 58]

During the interview you should keep in mind the relation that exists among each one of the blocks with age, sex and specific conditions of the members of the home. This will avoid the unnecessary filling out of a block of questions when the person does not meet the required characteristics; you will be able to save time and avoid inconsistencies such as requesting information about economic activity to persons younger than 12 years old or the number of children born alive to men.

You should apply these questions to each one of the members of the home identified previously as usual residents, and whose names were written down on the list mentioned in the previous section.

To begin filling out the questionnaire you should repeat, in the respective top line, the number, name and surname of each member of this home, in the same order that they are on the list that appears in the "Identification of homes and persons."

Example:

In Accordance with the information written down in the reproduction of page 54, you should fill out the top line as:

[Below the text is a form.]

First block

For all persons

Question 1: Relation or Relationship to the Head of the Home

This question considers the relation or kin tie that exists between each one of the members of the home with respect to a person or reference member who for census purposes is the head of the home, and as such is able to form family groups.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

The head [gender emphasized] is the person considered as such by the rest of the members of the home or who contributes the largest part of the economic resources of the home, or in the last instance, is the oldest.

In non family groups the head can be one who has the most authority, the oldest person, the person who has resided in the dwelling the longest or the one who administers the place.

For all cases, the head should be a usual resident older than 15 years.

Although you should write down the relation or relationship declaredby the enumerated person, when doing it consider that:

a. For the case of domestic service and their family members you should keep in mind the concept of usual residence, as in the instructions previously given for its application.

b. In collective homes persons will be considered as non family groups, therefore, once a person is identified as head ["la jefa o el jefe"] of this collective home, the rest of the residents will be classified as "Others not family", even though they have some relation or relationship with this head.

[p. 59]

Question 2: Sex

This question is basically for categorizing the population since all the other variables are always classified by sex.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

You should ask the question to all persons, especially those who are not present. It is recommended to do it to avoid confusion with names used both for men as well as women, or, with names coming from languages different than Spanish. For example: Carmen, Mercedes, Pilar, Leslie, Inti, Michel, etc.

Question 3: Age in completed years

The objective is to determine the complete age of each person, given that also it is an important classification variable.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

For this, you should ask the question as it is presented, avoiding that the person confuses the correct age with their upcoming age.

In the case of a person less than one year old, mark with an "X" the corresponding circle.

For those older than one year write down the given age (01, 08, 15, 40, 85, etc.). When a person is 100 years old or older, write down 99 in the boxes and write the exact age to the side.

Question 4: Place of Birth

With this question, the place of birth of each person is to be determined, understanding that it as where their mother resided when the person was born. Do not confuse the place of birth with the hospital or place where the birth occurred.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

The possible situations are:

In this same canton: if at the moment the reference person was born, their mother resided in this same canton where this person currently resides.

In another canton: in whose case you should write down the canton or province of the usual residence of the mother at the moment of birth of the person. If the person does not know exactly, write down any reference, like neighborhood or district, that permits determining later the correct canton.

In another country: Write down the country of birth when the person was born abroad. Additionally the year of arrival to the country is requested. You should not forget question 4a. It refers to the respective person and not to their mother.

[p. 60]

Question 5: Nationality

This question refers to the legal condition of national or foreign that each person has with respect to the country in which the census is being given and permits determining the amount of foreigners residents in the country.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

They are Costa Rican by birth:

a. Children of Costa Rican mother and father, born in the country or away from it, but duly registered.

[Below the text is a picture of a baby and two parents.]

b. Children of foreign mother and father but born in Costa Rica and registered as Costa Rican

[Below the text is a picture of a baby and two parents.]

Costa Ricans by naturalization are those who having been born abroad, acquire nationality by virtue of what the Costa Rican laws establish, once naturalization is dealt with and awarded by the Civil Registry of our country.

They are of another nationality, those who do not have Costa Rican nationality neither by birth nor naturalization, [whether] they are legally or illegally in the country. In this case the nationality declared by the enumerated person will be registered.

Keep In Mind

If a person refuses to answer, make clear that the information is confidential and will be used in global [aggregate] statistics; it will not be supplied in an individual form to another institution.

Question 6: Ethnicity

The objective of this question is identifying the principle ethnic groups of the country, that will permit knowing the ethnic composition of its population and the demographic and social situation of its members.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

You should ask the question to all persons, nationals and foreigners, especially when they are not present.

An "X" should be marked according to the ethnic group or culture that the person declares to belong to.

In the category "China" only persons who belong to the cultural tradition of Continental China, Taiwan and Hong Kong are included.

[p. 61]

Question 7: Social Security

With this question the population of the country that is covered or protected by Social Security benefits in any of its types.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

An "X" should be marked according to the type of social security that the person has access to.

Take into account the definition of these categories:

1. Salaried: Person from whom the employer deducts from the salary a quota. This type of insurance is obligatory, although some are not salaried workers because their employers omit insuring them. You should also consider employers who together with their employees and are included in the payroll paying in this form their affiliation to the Social Security Fund.

2. By their own account or by agreement: They subscribe to it in voluntary form, persons who work for their own account, like employers, non remunerated family member, and includes the unemployed and inactive, paying directly to the C.C.S.S. a monthly quota.

Include also workers insured through special contracts between the C.C.S.S. and public and private entities such as associations, labor unions, cooperatives, etc.

3. Pensioned: refers to that type of insurance that covers persons who are pensioned under any of the pension types existing in the country, namely: contributive and non-contributive type of the CCSS, Housing type, of the National Magistrate and other public institutions. Both the pensioned are included as well as their family members who have inherited the insurance of the pension of the spouse or husband (in the case of underage persons), due to the death of them and the fact that they do not have any other type of insurance.

4. Family member: is the type of insurance that protects family members of the directly insured salaried, pensioned, by their own account or by agreement, in the following cases:

Spouse, children under 18 years old and dependents of the insured, single and without salary.
Children and dependents between 18-25 years old who are students.
Children and dependents permanently disabled.
Parents and other dependent family members.
5. By account of the State: Persons in scarce economic resources are included here, and who do not have possibilities of being insured through any other form. The law obliges the State to insure this population following a study of their socioeconomic situation. This insurance covers the whole nuclear family of the directly insured person by account of the State: spouse, children under 18 years old, or disabled and dependents.

6. Other: Other types of insurance not dealt with in the previous categories such as, students, refugees, and war pensioned.

7. Does not have: If the response is to this question is negative, you should mark the corresponding circle Does not have.

[p. 62]

Question 8: Disability

The objective of this question is estimating the population of the country that presents any type of permanent deficiency that can be a disability to the person, making it hard to fulfill daily activities in an independent manner; and in this way to guide the programs of attention to these persons.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

Deficiencies can be by origin: congenital (since birth) or acquired (by sickness or accident).

Mark with "X" only one of the deficiencies, the most important, according to the situation of the person.

The most common deficiencies are:

1. Partial or total blindness: Consists of the partial or total loss of visual capability. Include: blind or cannot see in one or both eyes. Among the most frequent causes are: cataracts, glaucoma, diabetes, German measles, squint or others. Exclude: persons who can correct their deficiencies with glasses or contact lenses.

[Below the text is a picture of a blind man.]

2. Partial or total deafness: consists of the partial or total loss of aural capacity. Include: deaf persons of one or both ears, such as any person who has permanent difficulty in hearing or wears a hearing aid. Exclude: persons with temporary hearing problems.

[Below the text is a picture of a deaf man.]

3. Mental retardation: Mental retardation is characterized by significant difficulty in intellectual functioning and for learning (concepts and intellectual practices). Include: persons with Downs Syndrome (previously called mongolism) and all known grades of mental retardation. Exclude: persons with learning problems such as: dyslexia, attention deficit (lack of concentration and attention), others.

4. Paralysis, amputation: Understood as the loss, paralysis or difficulty of functioning or mobility of one of many parts of the body (foot, leg, hand, arm), or both, in some cases fingers. Include: persons with cerebral paralysis, with physical difficulties by polio, severe arthritis, by amputations, congenital physical malformations, such as persons with involuntary movements, like Parkinson's disease. Exclude: cases of muscular, head or back pain, rheumatism, tiredness, or temporary fractures.

[Below the text is a picture of two handicapped persons.]

[p. 63]

5. Mental illness: take into account all mental diseases that cause serious problems of adaptation and social behavior in persons. Include: severe psychiatric problems like psychosis, schizophrenia, neurosis, dementia, permanent depression, that makes it difficult to lead a life considered "normal". Exclude: persons affected by temporary depression, stress or other transitory states of mind, known popularly as suffering from "nerves".

6. Others: are those deficiencies by losses, scarcities or anomalies that are not included in the previous deficiencies. Include: chronic obstructive lung disease (EPOC), other lung insufficiencies, cystic fibrosis, harelip, hemophiliacs, mutes, epilepsy, among others. Exclude: any other common suffering or disease such as hypertension, ulcers, emphysema, bronchitis, diabetes, whenever they have caused consequences that are classified in previous categories.

7. None: are cases in which the person claims to not have any permanent deficiency.

Second Block:

Only for persons 5 years old or older

Question 9: Place of Residence 5 Years Ago

This question has as its purpose determining the migrant population in a period of 5 years, that is to say, getting an idea of the special mobility of the population in a recent period.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

It refers to the place of usual residence of the interviewed person in June, 1995. The possible situations are:

a. If a person lived in the same canton of current residence mark with "X" the option "In this same canton".

b. If a person lived in a canton different then their current residence, mark the alternative "In another canton" and write down the canton and province of residence in June, 1995. If they do not know the canton, write down the name of the district, of the settlement (centro poblado) or any other reference that helps to determine the correct canton.

c. If in June, 1995 the reference person was residing usually abroad, mark "in another country" and write down the name of the respective country.

You should help the enumerated person remember the place where they lived in June, 1995, associating it with historic local or national events that occurred on this date or close dates.

[p. 64]

Question 10: Attendance at Centers of Regular Education

With this question an estimation of the access of the population to regular education is meant to be obtained.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

Regular education: It is understood to be kindergarten or preparatory, primary school, secondary school, school of special education, associate degree (parauniversitaria) or university, public or private. In the case of associate degrees they are only considered regular education if the study they belong to a program directed at obtaining a degree of diploma, of two to three years of duration and that has as a requisite having graduated from the secondary level.

On the contrary, do not include within the regular education those institutes that prepare the student to obtain a high school diploma by experience/maturity (bachillerato por madurez), or for the passing of secondary years through exams, nor any other open system of education. Also do not consider the attendance at non-regular centers of education like the INA and schools for commercial training or for computers, that teach short courses.

Question 11: Level of Instruction

This question has as its objective capturing the level of advanced schooling by the population as an indicator of the social development of the country and of the grade or quality of its human resources.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

As the question indicates, you are interested in knowing the last grade or year passed and not that which they are currently enrolled in. Keep in mind that the category "kindergarten or preparatory" refer only to having passed the year of preschool immediately before the first grade of primary education; Of this form, if the boy or girl is attending kindergarten, even if they have fulfilled many years of preschool education, you should mark with "X" in "No grade".

[Below the text is a picture of two schoolchildren.]

If the enumerated person responds "No grade" or "Preparatory or Kindergarten" only mark with "X" the corresponding circles. If a person only passed years of special education, in which one does not advance in grades like those of common school, mark circle 0 of "No grade".

[p. 65]

In the remaining options you should indicate with "X" the corresponding category, and also write down the last year passed.

[Below the text is a picture of a student.]

For primary the numbers possible that you will be able to write down go from 1 to 6 (first to sixth grade); in secondary the maximum written number for you will be 5 for middle academic education and 6 for technical. In associate degree the highest number written down for you should be 3, and 9 for university education.

If the interviewed person does not know completely the last year passed by the enumerated person, you should mark, at least, the circle that corresponds to the level.

Question 12: Literacy

Literacy is investigated to obtain a general indicator of the development of a country.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

This question should only be asked to persons 5 years old or older who say that their level of instruction (question 11) is "None", "Kindergarten or preparatory" or "Primary (from 1st to 6th grade). Only one of the two possible responses is accepted:

1. Yes: knows how to read and write in their first language, at least a simple text that permits them to face situations in daily life: a message or notice.

[Below the text is a picture of a person reading and writing.]

2. No. When a person does not know how to read and write a simple paragraph in their first language. Also are include in this category one who only knows how to sign or write their name or only knows how to read and one who says that at one time they knew how to read and write but now it has been forgotten.

[Below the text is a picture of an illiterate person.]

[p. 66]

Third Block

Only for persons 12 years old or older

Question 13: Marital Status

This question has as its objective obtaining the current marital situation of all persons 12 years old or older at the moment of the census in relation with the laws and customs of the country (not the civil state). Together with the relation or relationships, it permits identifying different family nucleuses in the same home.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

Ask the question as it appears in the questionnaire, reading each one of the alternatives until getting an affirmative response.

Six types of marital state situations have been considered:

[All marital situations end in "o(a)" indicating that the person could be man or woman.]

1. Consensual Union: A person who lives in marital state without having been legally or civilly married with a person with whom they coexist ["de facto union"].

2. Married: A person who has been legally married and lives with the spouse or mate or is temporarily separated for special purposes like work, sickness, incarceration, etc.

3. Separated: A person who lives separated from their spouse (of marriage or union) and does not live in a "de facto" union.

[Below the text of a picture of a man in a woman in two different houses.]

4. Divorced: a person who having dissolved their marriage legally, has not married again nor lives in "de facto" union.

5. Widowed: a person who after the death of their last spouse, has not married again nor lives in "de facto" union.

[Below the text is a picture of a widow.]

6. Single: a person who has not been married and never has lived in "de facto" union.

If a person is encountered who says that their last and only marriage was annulled, they are classified according to the marital state that they had before the annulled marriage.

Important

The following questions (14 to 18) correspond to the economic characteristics of the population 12 years old or older. This part requires a careful understanding of a series of concepts related among themselves and that should not be confused, with the purpose of collecting the correct information.

[p. 67]

Question 14: Condition of Activity

The principal objective of this question is to determine the participation that persons 12 years old or older had in the economic activity of the country in the reference period.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

In accordance with the explained objective, three basic concepts should stand out:

Reference period: The Population Census has the moment of reference as 0 hours June 18, but in the case of questions about economic activity (questions 14-18), the reference period is the week previous to the census moment. The information that is compiled should refer to the week (from Sunday to Saturday) immediately before the interview.

Economic Activity: is all activity and work directed toward the production of economic goods and services meant for sale or barter.

Condition of Activity: is the participation (or not) of each person in the economic activities that are developed in the country, in any of its sectors (industrial, commercial, agricultural and livestock, service, etc.).

To determine the condition of activity of each interviewed person their situation is investigated respective to having or not a job or employment, if they looked for a job or if they were economically inactive in the reference week.

The following possible response options are defined:

1. Worked: Included in the category is a person who in the week before the day of the interview, worked for at least one hour, in any economic activity, and for it received remuneration or income in money, in kind or both, as salary or earnings. In this sense, not only working in a formal and permanent factory but also that which is done occasionally are included, if it was done during the reference week.

[Below the text are two pictures of people working.]

2. Worked or helped a family member without receiving pay: refers to a person who worked or helped for at least one hour in a relation of dependence with a member of the home or with another person, on a farm, company or family business and who did not receive remuneration nor earnings for the work, either in money or in kind.

3. Did not work, but had a job: A person who had employment but who, in the week before the interview, did not work for reasons of vacation, incapacity, strike, or any other circumstance, when a formal tie exists with the employment.

[Below the text is a picture of a person not working.]

[p. 68]

Remember that many economic activities that persons do, especially children, youths and women; frequently the enumerated person does not consider them work, because they dedicate little time to them, they are not remunerated or they are complementary to their studies or household duties. Because of this it is important to insist on the possession of a job when a person responses negatively to the first three categories.

These activities can include, for example, sewing, ironing other's clothes, making food for sale, helping the family in agricultural or livestock activities (milking cows, raising chickens, taking care of crops, among others) or also dividing time in a family business.

4. Looked for work having worked before: refers to a person of working age, who in the reference week did not have a job but was looking for one and who had worked before.

[Below the text is a picture of persons looking for work.]

Looking for work is understood as:

The act of trying to get a salaried or independent job through means of friends or relatives, answering ads in the newspaper, visiting places in search of a position or taking steps toward working on their own account such as looking for financing, materials, equipment or clients.

Also included is one who waits for a response to requests made recently or who stopped looking momentarily because of a temporary sickness.

Also a person who has found a job but will begin to work after the day of the interview should be considered.

5. Looked for work for the first time: refers to a person of working age, who never has done it before but who in the week before the interview was looking for work. Looking for work is considered the same conditions mentioned in the previous category.

[Below the text is a picture of a person looking for work.]

6. Pensioned or rentier: refers to a person who did not work or look for work and who received a pension from some form of social security (régimen previsional), or who lives from the investments that renting dwellings or offices produce, or from utilities that pay deposits, bonds, stocks, etc.. They should be considered in this category even if they did household duties.

7. Student: refers to a person who is dedicated to studying, without working or looking for work during the reference week, if also they help or take charge of household duties they will always be considered students.

8. Household duties: refers to a person who is dedicated exclusively to work or domestic chores of their own house and cannot be classified in the previous categories. Keep in mind that currently this activity is done by both men and women.

9. Other: is understood to be persons not classified in the previous categories, for example: residents permanently in jails, convents, asylums, hospitals, etc; persons of advanced age or permanently disabled; in all the cases those who always do not have a job should not be classified here. Also consider bums and indigents among those not classified previously.

Once you make the reference period clear, you should complete the question with each one of the alternatives that we have defined, until getting an affirmative response.

Some additional recommendations that it is necessary to take into account are:

The categories of condition of activity are not mutually exclusive (for example, many persons work and study or work and do household duties) but, it requires a single response.

[p. 69]

Nevertheless, you should write down the condition of activity that the person has, in accordance with the order of priority in which the categories appear.

Make an effort to get information about the activity fulfilled by women that tend to call themselves "housewives", when in reality they combine the chores of the house with some other activity of an economic type within or outside of the house (sewing, making handicrafts, sale of food, raising animals, etc.).

Do not consider the following situations to be work

Having exclusively done a voluntary job like firepersons, Red Cross workers, or lady volunteers who go to hospitals.

Voluntary help of domesticated duties in another home, without receiving remuneration.

Help done by a friend or relative as a favor.

Farm work exclusively for self consumption.

Asking for alms.

The professional practice without remuneration that students must do for companies in order to graduate. [internship]

If any doubtful situations present themselves to you, write them down in observations so that the supervisor may clarify them.

The following questions, 15 to 18, are applied only to persons classified in categories 1, 2 and 3, of question 14, that is, persons who work or had employment.

In the case that a person works for many establishments (has more than one job), you should refer the following questions to the job where the most time is spent, which is considered the principal employment or job: because of this before question 15, "For the Principal Job" is indicated in the questionnaire.

Question 15: Name of the Company

This question is expressed to know the institutional sector where the person works or worked during the reference week, whether in the Government Sector, autonomous or semiautonomous institutions, private companies, etc.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

For this you should write down the complete name of the work establishment and any other information that helps to determine this sector.

[p. 70]

In case the enumerated person does not know the complete name you can carry out the following recommendations:

a. If it concerns a farm, write "Agricultural farm" or "Livestock farm".

b. If it concerns a worker of jobs in the home (domestic, gardener, cook, etc.) write down "In a family house".

c. If the economic activity is done in their own house, write down "In their own house" (except if the business has another name).

d. Other cases can be given of persons who do activities for their own account on foot or occasionally, in whose case all the specifications that are necessary, such as, "In the street", "Private business", "Street vendor", etc should be written down.

Question 16: Industry

The interest of this question is to be able to determine the principal economic activity of the place where the person works. This permits, at the same time, knowing the composition of the employed according to the branch of economic activity.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

For this question you should investigate and write down in detail, the class of products or services that the company, business or farm principally produces or sells for which the person works the principal job. If the activity consists of a service to another company, for example, service of guard in a bank, the branch of economic activity that should be written down is that which corresponds to the establishment or company that hired the person, and not to the company where the service is done. In the example it would be "private guard" and not "financer" or "bank".

Generic terms should be avoided like workshop, factory, store, etc, for which we will give some examples of incorrect and correct forms of writing down this response.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a building.]

[Below are two columns, one marked "Incorrect Annotation" and one marked "Correct Annotation". I am going to translate them without using two columns.]

Incorrect Annotation
Workshop

Correct Annotation
Workshop for the repair of automobiles
Workshop of a thresher mechanic

Incorrect Annotation
Factory

Correct Annotation
Leather shoe factory
Plastic wrap factory
Cardboard box factory

Incorrect Annotation
Sale of Products

Correct Annotation
Retail sale of groceries and articles (local store, supplier, supermarkets)
Wholesale of clothes

Incorrect Annotation
Laboratory

Correct Annotation
Clinical laboratory
Chemical-Pharmaceutical laboratory
[p. 71]
Incorrect Annotation
Warehouse

Correct Annotation
Wood warehouse
Construction materials warehouse

Incorrect Annotation
Store

Correct Annotation
Sports equipment store
Boutique or Bazaar
Gloria, CEMACO, El Globo, etc.

Incorrect Annotation
Ministry

Correct Annotation
Ministry of Public Works and Transportation
Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports

Incorrect Annotation
Farm

Correct Annotation
Production of milk and dairy products
Production of coffee and sugar cane

[To the right of the text is a picture of a farm.]

Question 17: Principal Occupation

With this question the type of job that the person did in the reference week is determined and so being able to know the composition of the employment according to occupation. Also it is important as an indicator of socioeconomic condition.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

[Below the text is a picture of a teacher.]

Equal to question 16 (industry), the type of work should be written down completely, so that the occupation that persons do can be clearly distinguished.

Do not confuse occupation with the craft or profession for which they were prepared, since the occupation is determined by the activities that are done in the current job, and not by the degrees or crafts that the person possesses.

Example:

A man has worked many years as a carpenter, which he considers as his craft; nevertheless, he declares that for six months he has been working as a guard in a factory that trained him about handling firearms and security procedures. His type of work or occupation is "security guard of a factory" and among his jobs you should specify that along with guarding and making his rounds, he handles firearms.

Some following examples of correct and incorrect forms of obtaining this information are shown, that will surely help you understand what is asked for:

[Below are two columns, one marked "Incorrect Annotation" and one marked "Correct Annotation". I am going to translate them without using two columns.]

Incorrect Annotation
Teacher

Correct Annotation
Primary Teacher
Secondary Teacher

Incorrect Annotation
Mechanic

Correct Annotation
Automobile Mechanic
Thresher Mechanic
Airplane Mechanic

Incorrect Annotation
Worker

Correct Annotation
Mason
Carpenter
Maintenance Mechanic
Industrial Worker

Incorrect Annotation
Farm Worker or Day Laborer

Correct Annotation
Agricultural Worker in Cane
Milker
Construction Worker

Incorrect Annotation
Doctor

Correct Annotation
Medical Consultant
Medical director of a hospital
Head of surgery of a hospital
Professor of Pathology in a Medical Faculty

Incorrect Annotation
Lawyer

Correct Annotation
Lawyer with own office
Professor in a Faculty of Law
First Judge of a Lower Court
Judicial assessor of a bank

Incorrect Annotation
Assistant

Correct Annotation
Accountant's Assistant
Nurse's Assistant
Topography Assistant

Incorrect Annotation
Machine Operator

Correct Annotation
Operator of a Coffee Picking Machine
Operator of an Embroidery Machine
Operator of a Printing Press

Incorrect Annotation
In Charge of a Store

Correct Annotation
In Charge of personnel
In Charge of Arranging Merchandise

Incorrect Annotation
Chauffeur

Correct Annotation
Taxi Driver
Chauffeur of Light Vehicles for Hire

As you see in question 17, the principal jobs that are done are additionally requested.

The objective is obtaining a complete idea of the occupation and the nature of the job that is done during the reference week, so that, along with the complete name of the occupation, you should write down a brief description of the principal tasks or functions, as is shown in this example:

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

In the tasks it should be specified, if it is the case, the level of responsibility that the person has and the instruments, type of material and tools that are used.

[p. 73]

Question 18: Occupational category

[Note: the Spanish version explicitly refers to both male and female grammatical endings in the sub-headings of this section.]

This question refers to the condition or relation of dependence under which the person carries out the principal occupation. This information is important for analyzing the forms of worker participation of the employed population.

Because of this it is necessary that you understand the following concepts:

1. Employer (hires employees): refers to an owner or active member of a company who by carrying out their job hires one or more permanent salaried or employed workers.

[Below the text is a picture of an employer.]

2. Worker on their own account: is a person who works alone or with an associate in their own business, without establishing dependence with an employer and without hiring permanent salaried personnel. They can, in certain cases, have under their dependence one or more remunerated workers (generally family members) or salaried workers hired for short or occasional periods. The person defines the work conditions and fixes the value of the goods produced, or of the services rendered, or the price of merchandise sold.

[Below the text is a picture of a man digging a hole.]

3. Salaried worker: A person who works in a relation of dependence with an employer (company or private institution) or for the State, and receives a payment for the work in the form of a wage or salary, either in money or in kind or both.

[Below the text is a picture of three women sewing.]

4. Unpaid family worker: is one who works in a relation of dependence with a member of the home (or another person) who administers or is in charge of a family farm, business or company, and who does not receive payment for the work in money or in kind.

[Below the text is a picture of a child not receiving money.]

You should be very sure of the occupational category of the person before marking the corresponding box, based on the concepts given previously. Read the question, option by option, until the person responds affirmatively and mark according to what corresponds.

[p. 74]

Fourth Block:

For women 12 years old or older

Question 19: Children Born Alive

This question is asked with the purpose of determining the total number of daughters and sons born alive by each woman in her whole reproductive life, without her marital state or union being important and being able to know the contribution of fertility to the increase of the population.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

To collect this information keep in mind that:

a. A child born alive is one who when being born breathes and shows any other sign of life, independently if it dies moments after having been born. For practical effects a child born alive is one who cries during the birth even when dying minutes later.

b. The sum of all daughters and sons born alive from all marriages or unions that the woman has had should be considered, even those born when single.

c. It will include all daughters and sons born alive, independently if they have died, if they live with the mother or if they live abroad.

d. Do not forget to request this information also to single women and adolescents.

e. Do not include adoptive children.

f. If the total number is less than 10, always add a zero to the left.

For women who have never had children, mark the circle corresponding to "None" and go to the next person.

Question 20: Children Currently Alive

This question along with the previous has the purpose of obtaining estimations of mortality in childhood.

[To the right of the text is a form.]

Because of this, after having written down the total number of daughters and sons born alive, the total number of them who are currently alive is investigated.

Write down the response in the space corresponding to the total number, if it is less than 10, always add a zero to the left.

If none of the children survive, mark the circle "None".

Before making the annotation remember that:

a. They are the daughters and sons currently alive, from the total number of children declared in question 19.
[p. 75]
b. All children alive at the census moment are taken into account, independently if they live in the same home as the mother, for reasons of work, study, marital state or because they live outside of the country.

[Below the text is a picture of mother and children.]

[Below the picture is a form.]

c. The total number of children currently alive never will be larger than the total number of children born alive. If this condition is not satisfied, request from the woman any clarification that would be necessary.

[Below the text is a picture of mother and children.]

[Below the picture is a form.]

[p. 76]

Final Considerations

At the bottom of the Dwelling From is included a space for observations, which is provided to register any information that serves to clarify doubts that arose in the course of the interview. You should do it in a concise form and always writing [sic] down the number of the question and the section to which it refers.

Revision of the form

Do it after having enumerated all members of the home that has their usual residence in the Dwelling where you are found. Once you have finished the revision of the information included, you should count the number of persons included in the population questionnaires and compare it with what is written down in the "Home Summary".

If this information does not coincide for any reason, you should repeat it to the person to determine if they forgot any person or if any other error exists. In all cases the number of men and women included in the Population questionnaires should coincide with the information written down in the Home Summary.

We put special emphasis on the fact that you should ask if there are children younger than one year. If there are, you should proceed to enumerate them if they were born before 0 hours of June 28. All this we remind you because some enumerated persons tend to omit these members of the home.

Equally it is convenient to remember that you should not omit any person, for this you should investigate or ask in all dwellings about the situation of absent persons; for example if any member of the home is found to be interned in an institution (hospital, jail, school, etc) and proceed according to what is explained in relation to the place of usual residence of these persons.

Space for the enumerator and supervisor

At the bottom of the first page of the Dwelling and Population form you will find two spaces: one that is headed with the word Enumerator and the other that says Supervisor.

In the first you should clearly write down you name. The other space is meant for who revises the forms, frequently it will be your supervisor.

Do not forget that:

The success of the National Censuses will depend on your work and dedication.

Thank you very much!