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Republic of Costa Rica
Instructions for the Enumerator
National 1973
Dwelling,
Population,
Agriculture and Livestock
Censuses
Ministry of Economics, Industry and Commerce
General Directorate of Statistics and Censuses

[Pages 1-12 were not translated into English]

[p. 13]

Dwelling

[Page 14 is a copy of a census form.]

[p. 15]

1.- Definitions

[1.1.-] Census Class: In the census all the dwellings occupied and unoccupied existing on May 14, 1973 will be enumerated, whether they are private or collective.

[Below the text are pictures of two houses.]

[1.2.-] Date of the Census: The reference date for the National Dwelling and Population Censuses is

May 14, 1973, at 0 Hours

1.3.- Dwelling is every place or premises structurally separate or independent, that has been built, converted or available for purposes of lodging or housing of persons, temporarily or permanently, such as any other class of lodging, fixed or mobile, occupied as living quarters by a Census Family or a Non Family Group on the date of the Census and if not being possible, on the day of enumeration.

The dwelling can constitute:

1.3.1.- A group of rooms or one room, apartment, flat or independent house. It is considered independent if it has direct access to the street of to any other stairwell, corridor, hall, or public or communal territory, that is to say, when the occupants can enter or leave from their dwelling without passing through premises inhabited by other persons.

1.3.2.- A vessel, railroad coach or any other class of lodging occupied as living quarters on the date of the census.

1.3.3.- A building or any other place used for commercial, industrial or service purposes is not a dwelling except if in it exists any place occupied as living quarters by one or more persons; in this case, the part of the building occupied by these persons constitutes a dwelling.

Separate dwellings should be considered as:

1.3.4.- A building or house occupied by a Census Family or a Non-Family Group
[p. 16]
1.3.5.- If a building or house is divided in departments or rooms, and each department or room is or was inhabited by a different Census Family or Non Family Group, each department or room constitutes a separate Dwelling. Examples:
1.3.5.1.- If a married child, spouse, and children live in their parent's house, sharing meals with them, it is not a separate dwelling, instead it concerns a single Census Family.

[Below the text is a diagram of a house and its members.]

1.3.5.2.- If a married child, and spouse and children live in their parent's house, but without sharing meals, there will be two dwellings: One occupied by the parents and the other occupied by the married child and family. Get the information for each dwelling and census family in separate forms, writing down in each form what refers to the part of the house occupied by each census family. When they have common rooms, kitchen, living room, dining room, the two dwellings are enumerated as if each one had these rooms individually.

[Below the text is a diagram of a house and its members.]

[p. 17]

[1.4.-] Census Family: is a group of persons with or without family ties, that lives together under a set of family rules.

It can also constitute a person who lives alone.

Generally a Census Family consists of a Head of Family, the relatives who live with the Head and those persons who participate in this common life for reasons of work, "servants" and laborers, or other ties.

Other persons who share the dwelling and that take their meals with the family should be considered members of the Census Family.

Persons who share the dwelling but do not take their meals with the family should be considered as separate census families and should be enumerated in separate forms.

1.5.- Non-Family Group: is a group of persons, generally without family ties, that lives together for reasons of discipline, health, education etc. such as those who live in jails, reformatories, hotels, boarding houses, boarding school, seminaries, convents, etc.

2.- The Visit of the Enumerator

The enumerator should visit all the buildings, houses and places located within their segment, to insure the inclusion of all the existing dwellings on the date of the census.

It is possible that the enumerator visit dwellings that are occupied by a Census Family or by a Non Family Group different from the one that occupied the Dwelling on the date of the Census, May 14, 1973. If an enumerated person states that in their previous residence the family was enumerated, the Population form should not be filled out, but the Dwelling form should be filled out, as if it were unoccupied, marking in question 2 the circle 8X other.

In case the Census Family or Non Family Group had not been enumerated in the previous dwelling, do the enumeration both of the dwelling as well as its residents, indicating also in "Observations" that it concerns a Census Family or Non Family Group that did not reside in this dwelling on the date of the Census. Equally, write down in "Observations" the exact address of the previous residence: province, canton, district, neighborhood, hamlet, avenues, streets, and number of the house.

[Point 3 was not translated into English]

[p. 19]

4 and 5.- Instructions For The Correct Filling Out Of The Dwelling Form

The questions are presented in the first page of the form for the Dwelling and Population Censuses. One should write down in it:

4.1.1.- All the information in relation to the private occupied dwellings.

4.1.2.- In the case of occupied collective dwellings the response to question 1.- type should be written down only, marking with an "X" circle 5, corresponding to Collective Dwelling.

4.1.3.- In the case of unoccupied private dwellings only the responses to questions 1.- type and 2.- occupation-ownership-rent should be written down.

4.1.4.- Unoccupied collective dwellings should not be enumerated.

The form is divided into three parts; the first corresponds to the identification of the Dwelling and the second to their characteristics; in the third there is a space for "Observations", in which should be written down briefly all necessary explanations, and spaces for writing down the name and the signature of the enumerator and the reviser, and also the dates of the enumeration and revision.

The enumerator should fill out the form in the following order:

4.2.- Identification:

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

[p. 20]

The information referring to: Province, Canton, District, Segment, Zone, Section, Urban or Rural, should be taken from the title page of the folder, since they are equal for all forms of each segment.

4.2.1.- Dwelling No. (order of visit): in this space you should write the number corresponding to each Census Home that you visit, according to the order agreed upon by you and your immediate boss. Write down number 1 when you visit the first Census Home, number 2 when you visit the second, and so on during the whole information gathering of your segment. Do not forget that when you have use additional forms, you should write down the corresponding letters.

4.2.2.- Neighborhood or Hamlet: Write down the name of the neighborhood or hamlet in which the house or building is found, according to the information that the enumerated person provides.

4.2.3.- Highway, Road to [. . .]: Indicate the number of the highway or road, if it has one, or if not, the name of the place where you are taken, and additional signs that will help later, to locate the dwelling with ease.

4.2.4.- Avenues and Streets: In these spaces the number or the name of the avenues and streets in which the dwelling is located should be written down. Consequently, if the avenues and streets do not have numbers, do not fill in those spaces.

4.2.5- House No.: In the case of a house, building or place having a number or place, write it down. If there were two or more dwellings in the house, building or place all of them will have the same number.

4.2.6.- Institution (Name): Written here is the name of the hotel, jail, hospital, clinic, boarding house, seminary, convent, etc., if a Non-Family Group resides in it. If the institution does not have a name, write down for example: Boarding House of Juan Pérez, Jail of Liberia, Clinic of Dr. Pedro Camacho, etc.

4.3.- Question No. 1. Type:

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

4.3.1.- Private Dwelling: is used as a living quarters by a Census Family. It is classified in the following types:
4.3.1.1.- Ordinary: Private Dwelling of Ordinary Type is a room or group of rooms and their dependencies, located in a house, building or permanent place, permanent is considered as with a durability of 10 years or more and has been built with long lasting materials like cement, cement blocks, bricks, wood, etc.

In this type of place are found: houses, apartments, independent flats, etc
[p. 21]
4.3.1.2.- Shack: is any room or group of rooms built with rustic local materials without any special treatment. Generally they have a roof and/or walls of palm leaves, straw, bamboo, etc. In this type of dwelling are found shacks, cabins, huts, etc.

4.3.1.3.- Marginal: In this type of dwelling are included

a) Improvised Dwelling: is a room or group of rooms built with discarded materials, without any preconceived plan and that is found to be occupied on the day of the enumeration.

This type of dwelling always is found on the banks of rivers, under bridges, in the outskirts of cities, and the majority is found in groups. It is a so-called hovel.

b) Dwelling in a building or permanent place not meant to be a human dwelling: dwelling units that have not been built, adapted or transformed for human habitation, but that are found to be occupied as a dwelling on the day of enumeration. Examples: Dwelling Units in wine cellars, granaries, stables, factories, garages, stores, offices, guard booths, etc.

c) Other places not meant to be a human dwelling: is a place not meant to be a human dwelling, but used as such the day of enumeration. Examples: Caves or any other natural refuge.

4.3.1.4.- Mobile: A mobile dwelling is understood to be a place built to be moved and that is found to be inhabited the day of enumeration.

Examples: Camping tents, ships, boats, railroad cars, trailers, etc.
4.3.2.- Collective Dwelling: is a house, building or place where a Non- Family Group resides, therefore in it persons are lodged for reasons of health, discipline, security, work, study, social adaptation, religious seclusion, etc.

Examples: Hospitals, jails, reformatories, convents, interned institutions, campgrounds, etc.

Mark the circle corresponding to collective dwelling (5) when in the identification you wrote down the name corresponding to an institution. When it concerns this type of dwelling do not ask the rest of the questions referring to the Dwelling form and continue with the Population form.

4.4.- Question No. 2.- Occupancy, tenure, rental.

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

[p. 22]

4.4.1.- Occupied: is a Private Dwelling where one or more persons reside on the date of the census, May 14, 1973 or the day of enumeration.

It can be occupied under only one of the following forms of Ownership:
4.4.1.1.- Rented: When rent is paid for living in it.

If a Private Dwelling is rented, the amount in colones that is paid by the month should be written down. Do not write down cents. For example: If they pay 300, 50 colones, only write down 300.oo colones.

If the form of payment is not monthly, write it down in "Observations", for example: Weekly, every two weeks, annually, etc.

4.4.1.2.- Owned: is a Private dwelling that belongs to the Head of the Census Family or to some or all of the members of the family.

A dwelling is owned even when it is mortgaged, or is not completely paid for.

Hovels and dwellings in poor areas, write them down as owned.

4.4.1.3.- Other: Included in this form of ownership are private dwellings that are not found to be occupied, by "Renters" Rented or by "Owners" Owned.

Examples: When a family inhabits a dwelling freely [without paying]. When a worker or employee of a farm lives in a house for which rent is not paid, that is, the dwelling is ceded for the services that are provided, or for other reasons.
4.4.2.- Unoccupied: is a Private Dwelling in which one or more persons does not reside on the date of the census May 14, 1973 or the day of enumeration.

It can be unoccupied under only one of the following forms of ownership: for rent, for sale, for the summer, under repair, under construction, other, do not know.

When a dwelling is under construction, the degree of construction should be taken into account on the date of the census May 14, 1973 or the day of enumeration.

If a Private Dwelling is unoccupied because it is going to be torn down or is in the process of demolition, it should not be taken into account in the census.

Keep in mind that marginal and mobile dwellings, by definition, only are to be enumerated if they are occupied on the day of enumeration.

If the dwelling was written down as unoccupied, finish the enumeration of this dwelling with this question.

4.5.- Question 3.- Predominant Materials in the Exterior Walls:

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

[p. 23]

The circle corresponding to what is the predominant material in the construction of the outside walls should be marked.

4.5.1.- Wood: Wood of any class

4.5.2.- Cemented Material: Include all cemented (repellado) material like: Brick, concrete block, stone, etc. Outside walls of adobe and cane with earth covered with a cement cap (bahareque) should be included also.

4.5.3.- Adobe or Bahareque: Include blocks of earth called adobe. Also bahareque should be included, which is a structure formed by beams of wood, cane, mud and pieces of tile.

4.5.4.- Other: The material that is different that those described in the previous points should be specified. Examples: Straw, palm, sticks, etc.

4.6.- Question 4.- Predominant Materials in the Floor:

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

The circle corresponding to what is the predominant material in the majority of the floors of the rooms in the dwelling should be marked.

Do not forget to write down in the space "Other", to indicate the material that it concerns.

Examples: Terrazzo, concrete, brick, parquet, etc.

4.7.- Question 5.- Predominant Material in the Roof

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

Equally as in the previous question, mark the corresponding circle. If you had to mark "Other", do not forget to specify the material; examples: plastic sheets, palm, etc.

[p. 24]

4.8.- Question 6.- Condition

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

4.8.1.- Good: A dwelling in good condition to be inhabited, and that does not show apparent flaws.

4.8.2.- Fair: A dwelling that requires repairs of some importance, by damages or lack of floor, ceiling, or defects in the walls or roofs.

4.8.3- Bad: is a dwelling that is found to be very deteriorated by a sunken or cracked base, cracked collapsing walls with holes or, deteriorated or unsafe roofs, foundations in a bad state, etc.

Also to be considered is the case of an inadequate dwelling having discarded materials used in the foundation, walls or roof.

Therefore, the general criteria for classifying a dwelling as bad will be that such building should be totally eliminated or substituted.

A hovel is a dwelling in a bad state.

4.9.- Rooms and Bedrooms.

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

4.9.1.- Total Number of Rooms: Ask, - How many rooms does the dwelling have?

Remember that "Room" is any compartment or area that the dwelling has for purposes of lodging: Living room, dining room, kitchen, bedrooms, studies, patios, recreation rooms, servants' rooms.

To be excluded are: Hallway, porches, bathrooms, inner patios, depots or garages.

Those rooms that are used exclusively for commercial, industrial or service purposes should not be considered rooms of a Dwelling. For example: Office of a lawyer, dentist, doctor, store, local store, bar, workshop, barber shop, etc.

4.9.2.- Of these how many are Bedrooms?: A bedroom is any room used principally for sleeping.

In the case of dwellings of only one room, zero (0) bedrooms will be marked. It is also the case of places that are, for example: A shoe store's workshop, wine cellar, local store, or any other that also serves as residence to one or more persons. Those dwellings that consist of one room and that is used exclusively for sleeping should be written down 1 room and 1 bedroom.

[p. 25]

5.1.- Question 8.- Water Supply

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

5.1.1.- Piped: should be understood as a piped water supply, supplied through pipes, from a public or private system.
5.1.1.1.- Public System: belongs to a public entity. Examples: National Service of Water and Sewer Systems "SNAA", and the Municipalities.

5.1.1.2.- Private System: is the property of a private entity, any that has its own jurisdiction, such as individuals, cooperatives, societies, etc. Example: Water facilities in private forms.

5.1.1.3.- Only for this Dwelling: is the case of the water supply that is connected for the exclusive use of the dwelling.

5.1.1.4.- For this and other Dwellings: When the connection of the pipe is for the use of one or more dwellings. It is the case of a pipe that is generally outside of the dwelling.
5.1.2.- By other means:
5.1.2.1.- Well: When underground water is extracted by means of a pump or by a bucket, etc. we have the water supply by well.

5.1.2.2.- Public Source: The water supply is from the Public Source when the water is taken from a public place for communal use.

5.1.2.3.- Other: In the case that the dwelling does not have any of the previous supply systems, the supply source where the water is obtained will be specified. Examples: River, gully, irrigation ditch, rain water, etc.

Do not forget that only a single circle should be marked.

[p. 26]

5.2.- Question 9.- Bathroom facilities.

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

It is considered that the dwelling has a bath when it is provided from a place for these facilities. The place can be outside or inside the dwelling.

[5.2.1.-] Piped: The corresponding circle is to be marked if the bath receives water by means of pipes, for the exclusive use of a dwelling or for two or more dwellings.

5.2.2.- By other Means: Here the corresponding circle is marked when the dwelling has bath facilities, that does not receive water through pipes. Where the water comes from should be specified, for example: River, well, irrigation ditch, public source, etc.

5.2.3.- Does not have: When the dwelling does not have a place meant for bathing, the circle corresponding to "Does not have" will be marked.

In rented houses in narrow streets (pasajes) or when there are rooms in places to be rented and the bath is for the service of all the dwellings, it should be considered that each one has bath facilities.

5.3.- Question 10.- Class and Use of Sanitary Facilities

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

[p. 27]

Mark with a single "X" the circle corresponding to the service that the dwelling has, either for the use of a single or for two or more dwellings.

5.3.1.- Sewer: System of toilet bowls connected to the system of water supply which eliminates human residue through means of water and pressure and is connected to a public or private system of sewers or sanitary sewer system.

Sewer (sewer system) exists when a system is correctly installed and covered [underground] that eliminates sewage. It can be that which serves a whole city of part of it and that takes the residue to the sea, a river, a common tank, as is the case with some private residential complexes (ciudadelas).

5.3.2.- Septic Tank: is a system of toilet bowls that is connected to a cement tank, which eliminates "negras" waters by special Procedures and that generally is built in the patio of the house.

5.3.3.- Pit Toilet (Pozo Negro): consists of a pit more or less deep over which is a hut. They can be of two classes.
5.3.3.1.- Of Concrete: When the floor and the walls are concrete.

5.3.3.2.- Of Wood: When the floor or the walls or both are wooden.
5.3.4.- Other Type: It is marked here when the dwelling does not have any of the types of facilities described in the previous points.

5.3.5.- Does not have: When the dwelling does not have any type of sanitary facilities.

5.4.- Question 11.- Lighting Type

[Below the box is a filled out form.]

Only a single circle should be marked, according to whether the type of lighting and agreeing with the following criteria:

5.4.1.- Electric
5.4.1.1.- From public utility: is considered as such, service supplied by: the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity "ICE", National Company of Power and Light, Administrative Board of Electrical Services of Cartago "JASEC", etc., Municipalities, Electric Cooperatives, private companies, or persons whose job is to supply this type of service to various dwellings.
[p. 28]
5.4.1.2.- From private generator: The dwellings that have a system of electric light of exclusive use are considered, a plant, dynamo, etc.

5.4.1.3.- From another source: If the dwelling does not have any of the types of lighting previously described, it will be marked in this heading, it can be like service because of (compensation to) working on a farm, a factory, mine, etc.
5.4.2.- Other Types: Types of lighting different than electric will be indicated here, like kerosene, candles, etc., being careful to specify always what is used in the space "Other".

5.4.3.- Does not have: is considered when the dwelling does not have any type of lighting.

5.5.- Question 12.- Cooking Fuel

[Below the box is a filled out form.]

The corresponding circle should be marked according to the type or class of fuel used most frequently for cooking.

The heading "No Kitchen" is marked when in the dwelling the kitchen is not used to prepare food or meals are not prepared, although it has a kitchen or other similar facilities.

5.6.- Question 13.- Appliances in the Dwelling

Question No. 13 refers only to the following appliances existing in the Dwelling:

Radio - Television Set
Stove - Refrigerator
Washing Machine - Hot Water Heater for Bath
Electric Iron - Vacuum Cleaner
Telephone

In this question only one circle should be marked in each case

5.6.1.- Radio - Television Set: It should be asked if it [the dwelling] has a Radio and if it has a Television Set. If it only has a Radio circle 1 will be marked, if it only has a Television Set circle 2 will be marked, in case it has both appliances circle 3 will be marked, when it does not have either circle 0 will be marked.

[p. 29]

[At the top of the page is a filled out form.]

5.6.2.- Stove - Refrigerator: It should be asked if it has an Oven and if it has a Refrigerator. If it only has an Oven circle 1 will be marked, if it only has a Refrigerator circle 2 will be marked, in case it has both appliances circle 3 will be marked, when it does not have either circle 0 will be marked

5.6.3.- Washing Machine - Hot Water Heater for Bath: It should be asked if it has a Washer and if it has a Bath Warmer. If it only has a Washer circle 1 will be marked, if it only has a Bath Warmer circle 2 will be marked, in case it has both appliances circle 3 will be marked, when it does not have either circle 0 will be marked.

5.6.4.- Electric Iron - Vacuum Cleaner: It should be asked if it has an Electric Iron and if it has an Electric Toothbrush. If it only has an Electric Iron circle 1 will be marked, if it only has a Electric Toothbrush circle 2 will be marked, in case it has both appliances circle 3 will be marked, when it does not have either circle 0 will be marked.

5.6.5.- Telephone: It should be asked if it has one or it does not have one. If it has a telephone circle 1 should be marked and if it does not have one circle 0 should be marked.
5.7.- Residents in this dwelling:

Ask the enumerated person how many persons reside in the dwelling and write down the information breaking it down by sex.

Later when you have finished filling out the population form, you should count the number of men and women that you have written down in it and compare this information with what you wrote down in this space, with the purpose of assuring a complete enumeration.

[p. 30]

5.8.- Observations:

In this space you should make any type of observation that you consider necessary, in a concise form, to clarify special situations over which doubts have arisen or to complete information over the diverse characteristics of the dwelling.

5.9.- Revision of the form:

Once you finish writing down the information corresponding to the Dwelling, revise the form well in order to be sure that all the questions are answered, that the annotations made are clear and coincide with the obtained responses, and finally, if you have any doubt, write it down in the space for "Observations".

Continue the interview with the part of the form relating to the population census.

[p. 31]

Population

[Pages 32 and 33 are copies of census forms.]

[p. 34]

1.- Definitions

Census Class: The Population Census will be de "Jure" or "De Facto", this means that each person should be enumerated in their habitual place of residence.

Date of the Census: As was said before, the information for the Dwelling and Population Form should refer to the same date: Mat 14, 1973 at 0 hours.

Who should be enumerated

[Below the text is a drawing of a stork and a baby on left side, a coffin on the right side and a clock with both hands straight up in the middle.]

All children who were born before 0 hours on the 14th.

All persons who died after 0 hours on the 14th.

Who should not be enumerated

[Below the text is a drawing of a coffin on left side, a stork and a baby on the right side and a clock with both hands straight up in the middle.]

Persons who died before this hour.

Children who were born after this hour.

If for any reason in a segment the enumeration is begun after May 14, 1973 the information will always refer to May 14, 1973 at 0 hours.

1.3.- Census Family:

It is a group of persons with or without family ties, that lives together under a set of family rules.

[p. 35]

It can constitute also a person who lives alone.

Generally the Census Family consists of a Head of Family, the relatives who live with the Head and those persons who participate in this common life for reasons of work "servants, laborers" or other tie.

Other persons that share the dwelling and that take their meals with the family should be considered members of the Census Family.

Other persons who share the Dwelling but do not take their meals with a family should be considered as separate census families and enumerate them in separate forms.

1.4.- Non-Family Group: is a group of persons, generally without family ties, that lives together for reasons of discipline, health, education etc. such as those who live in jails, reformatories, hospitals, hotels, boarding houses, boarding school, seminaries, convents, etc.

1.5.- Place of Habitual Residence: is a place where the enumerated person normally sleeps.

2.- The visit of the enumerator

Enumerate all persons who reside habitually in the segment in which you are going to go to work, also those that, not having a place of habitual residence are found living within your segment on the date of the census May 14, 1973 at 0 hours.

Remember to include all children before and persons who died after this moment.

Agreeing with above, the general norm consists of enumerating each person in the place where they reside habitually, but the following should be taken into account:

3.- Who should be enumerated in the private dwelling, with the census family.

3.1.- Persons who are on vacation, in or outside of the country.

3.2.- Those who are found to be absent, in or outside the country, for work purposes. Examples: Traveling salespersons, chauffeur of non urban transport, crews of airplanes, railroads or ships; those who fish, workers who cross the border.

[3.3.-] Persons interned in hospitals.

3.4.- Those jailed for minor infractions and those who have not been sentenced.

[3.5.-] Minors interned in orientation and social adaptation centers.

3.6.- Servants, chauffeurs, workers and similar employees like family members, when they sleep habitually in the dwelling. They should be included although they spend holidays, week ands, vacations, occasional sicknesses, with their family members or in another place.

3.7.- Strangers with residence bond or in transit

All pensioners and lodgers who reside in the dwelling, including students and professors.

[p. 36]

4.- Who should not be enumerated in the private dwelling, with the census family

4.1.- Students and professors who remain during the academic year in another place different than the residence of their parents or families. They can be interned in an education center or living in a boarding house or private house.

4.2.- Workers who live more or less long seasons in their places of work, and who for such a reason should be enumerated in the place where they are to be found on the date of the census even if it is the work place. This group should not be confused with those who travel occasionally such as traveling salespersons, train conductors, or those who are found to be spending their vacation in other places.

4.3.- Visitors who are found to be spending a few days in the enumerated dwelling.

4.4.- Diplomatic representatives of other countries in Costa Rica and the foreign personnel who resides in embassies.

4.5.- Workers who sleep during the work period in places where jobs for mining, farming or forest operations are done.

Examples: A mason whose family resides in Cartago, who is found in San Ramón de Alajuela, working with the Ministry of Public Works in the construction of a school, and resides there during the work period.

A worker whose family is in San Pedro de Poás who works with the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity in the plants of Cachí.

A construction laborer in the Inter-American highway of Costa Rica.

When you are not sure if you should include one of these persons in the form of the Census Home that is being enumerated, include them and explain clearly your doubt in the space for "Observations."

5. Who should be enumerated in collective dwellings, with a non-family group.

5.1.- Persons who work and reside habitually in institutions.

5.1.1.- Patients in hospitals, who have no habitual residence, by having been abandoned by their family members, for not having the possibility of being mentally or physically cured.

5.1.2.- Persons in nursing homes or orphanages.

5.1.3.- Professors, students and administrative personnel who reside as interned in boarding schools where lessons are taught and learned.

5.1.4.- A director and administrative personnel who reside in prisons, jails, reformatories, and social adaptation centers.

5.1.5.- Personnel, clerics and lay persons who reside in convents, seminaries, and other religious institutions.
[p. 37]

5.2.- Persons who reside in hotels, boarding houses and guest houses.

5.3.- Persons who reside in work camps or another kind.

You should be warned that if in the grounds of a hospital, jail or other institution, there is a separate and independent house for lodging the Director, Head, etc, and their family members, it should be enumerated as a census family in a private dwelling.

6.- Annotation of the information

In the questionnaire three different forms for writing down the responses of the questions exist:

6.1.- Marking with X the corresponding circle. Examples:

[Below the text is a form with circles marked.]

Writing down one number or many. Examples:

[Below the text is a form filled out with numbers.]

Writing down the response. Examples:

[Below the text is a form with a written response.]

[p. 38]

All the annotations should be made in a clear and careful manner, to avoid errors and confusion later. If you make a mistake when writing information down, do not cross out the annotation, erase it and then afterward write down the correct information. The forms should be filled out exclusively with a black pencil.

After writing down the information for the Population Census, indicate in the lower part, "Observations", any explanation that you consider necessary to complement or clarify information in the form.

When the Census Family or Non Family Group consists of more that nine members, it is necessary to use additional forms to make the enumeration complete. In these cases the other forms in the part about dwelling should not be filled out again, but rather that which corresponds to "Identification" and proceed in the following manner:

Cross out with a big X the remaining spaces for the part about Dwelling for each additional form.

Examples: If Dwelling No. 15 consists of 25 members, it is necessary to use three forms to enumerate it. In the first form "Dwelling No. 15 A" all the information of Identification and of Dwelling "questions 1 to 13" should be written down; in the second "Dwelling No. 15 B" only should be written down the information of Identification; and in the third "Dwelling No. 15 C" the same as before. The rest of the spaces of the part about Dwelling, and those of the second and third forms, are crossed out with a big X.

7.- Instructions for correctly filling out the population form

The questions are presented in the interior pages and the last pages of the Population and Dwelling Censuses form. In it, all information related to census families and non family groups should be written down.

The form is divided into two parts; the first corresponds to the characteristics and the second to "Observations", in which all necessary explanations will be briefly written down.

The filling out of the Population form should be begun writing down in the first column "First Person" the information about the Head of the Census Family or the Head of the Non Family Group, and then the rest in the following order, in census families.

7.1.- Spouse or companion.

7.2.- Single children beginning with the oldest and continuing in descending order of age.

7.3.- Married children or in consensual union, followed by one of their spouses or companions and then their single children.

[7.4.-] Other relatives of the Head, including in-laws.

7.5.- Servants and their relatives.

[7.6.-] Others not related, or that is lodgers or pensioned.

In Non Family Groups first the Head, and then the others should be written down.

[p. 39]

8.- Question No. 1.- Name and surnames

Ask this question to all persons who reside habitually in the dwelling.

The space for this annotation is divided into two parts: The name should be written in the first, the surnames in the second.

For married women you should write down, after the first single surname, that of her husband, preceded by the preposition "de"; en the case of widows, write, after the first single surname, that of her deceased husband, preceded by the words "Vda. de".

When the case of a newborn who still does not have a name presents itself, write "Unnamed".

[Below the text is a form with two names written down.]

9.- Question No. 2.- Relation to the head

Mark the corresponding circle agreeing with the link or relation of every person with the Head of the Census Family or Non Family Group. Remember that only one circle should be marked in each case.

When you mark the circle "Other relatives", do not forget to specify the relation, for example: uncle, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, nephew, grandfather, brother, sister-in-law, etc.

Also, when marking the circle "Others not Related", do not forget to specify the relation; for example: Guest, accused, sick, student, professor, nun, priest, guard, inmate, etc.

In any case whether Census Family or Non Family Group, the Head is the one who the other members consider as such.

In the case of Non Family Groups, for the other persons, the relation will be written down in "Others not Related".

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

[p. 40]

10.- Question No. 3.- Sex

Mark the corresponding box. Ask the question if the name is not sufficient to determine the sex and can be, in many cases, applied to men or women; examples: Rosario, Carmen, Concepción, etc.

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

11.- Question No. 4.- Age

The enumerator should ask: How old are you in completed years?

When a person is one year old or more write down the number of years, using the space "Number of Years".

When a person is less than one year mark the corresponding circle only.

Generally persons have the tendency to lower the number of years of some ages, others on the other hand prefer to raise them, principally at older ages.

Another inconvenience that is possible is meeting persons with the tendency to declare their age approximately, principally stating the so called "attractive ages" like for example: 1-5, 10, 15, 18, 20, 25, 40, 60, 65 years old, etc.

All enumerators should insist in getting the exact age of every person, avoiding when possible, annotation of rounded numbers.

This information refers to the date of the census and not the date of the visit. If the person is not sure of the age of a person, the enumerator should suggest that they consult the date of the birth document or proof of birth.

When it is impossible to get the exact age of a person, try to help the person to get approximate information, it being good to know local and national historic events. When the information that you write down is approximate, you should indicate it as such in the space for "Observations".

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

12.- Question No. 5.- Children born alive

All women 15 years old or older should be asked, how many children born alive have you had?

For this the following definition should be taken into account:

Child born alive: is a child who when born breathes, cries and moves. If any of these signs of life manifested themselves and later the child died, it is born alive.

[p. 41]

If when being born the child shows none of the signs mentioned previously, it is a still birth.

It should be kept in mind that generally a woman tends to omit those children who where born alive and died later or at the time of birth, declaring only those that currently are alive, you should insist on this in order to avoid that some children who were born alive do not get written down.

Once the number of children born alive is assured, the name should be written down in the corresponding space. When there are no children born alive mark the circle "None".

When the woman does not know the number of children born alive mark an X in the circle corresponding to "Not Known".

In the case of women 14 years old or less, and for all men, because of not being asked the question, cross out the corresponding box with a big X.

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

13.- Question No. 6.- Children alive

This question should be asked to all women 15 years old or older who have had children born alive, in the contrary case, mark the circle "None".

It should be asked: How many children are currently living?

One should proceed according to the following definition:

Children alive: are those who on the date of the Census May 14, 1973, are found to be with life, independent of whether they live with their parents or not or that they reside in another geographic place in the country or abroad.

When the number of children alive is assured, make the annotation in the corresponding space. When the woman does not know the number of children alive write down "Not Known".

In the case of women 14 years old or older and for all men, because of not being asked the question, cross out the corresponding box with a big x.

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

14.- Question No. 7.- Current Marital Status

Mark the corresponding circle according to the case; remember that you should only mark one circle.

14.1.- Single: A person of any age who is legally married and does not live in Consensual Union.

14.4.- Married: One who is married as a catholic or civilly and lives in this state.

[p. 42]

14.3.- Widowed: One who has not married again after the death of their spouse, nor lives in Consensual Union.

If a person has married again or lives in Consensual Union, you should indicate this current civil state.

[14.4.-] Divorced: One who legally separated and has not married again or lives in Free Union.

14.5- Married separated: One who was legally married and lives separately from the spouse and does not live in Free Union.

The separation can be de facto or physical separation declared by competent authority. It should not be confused with divorce, which is a total and definitive separation.

14.6.- Consensual Union: It is said that a pair lives in Free Union when without being married, its members are thought to be a well defined family by themselves and their family members. You should proceed with tact at the time of the interview, avoiding discussions or expressions that could spoil the success of the interview.

When it is possible, the enumerator should abstain from suggesting the response of the person, over all in the case of divorced, married separated, and free union; so you will avoid an unfavorable atmosphere when the person is very sensitive in this sense.

Some times the person does not give this information in a truthful form, principally in some of the cases cited before; so for example, they say that they are married and in reality they live in Free Union. In many of these cases, the enumerator will realize the falseness of the information in the course of the interview, but you should never insist in this matter; when this happens you should explain it in the space for "Observations", and write down there the information that you consider correct. You should be careful to do it later after you have finished the interview, to avoid displeasure or resentment of the person.

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

15.- Question No. 8.- Habitual place of residence 5 years ago

This question should refer to persons 5 years old or older.

For persons 4 years old or younger, cross out the corresponding box with a big X.

Mark the circle "Here" if a person has resided 5 years or more in the canton that is being enumerated.

If a person resided in another canton or country in May 1968, write down the name of this canton or country.

Examples: Central de Heredia, Central de Limón, Poás, Goicoechea, etc.

If a person lived abroad write down the name of the country.

[p. 43]

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

16.- Question No. 9.- Place of birth

The place of birth of each person is the place where their mother lived when the birth occurred.

One should not simply ask for the place of birth, because the majority of persons were born in hospitals, clinics, etc., that, generally, are not in the same place where the mother resided. Make the annotation that corresponds agreeing with the following:

16.1.- Mark the circle "Here" if when being born the mother resided in the canton that is being enumerated.

16.2.- If the mother resided in another canton write down the name of the canton and when you cannot get the name of the canton, write down the district and province.

16.3.- If the mother lived abroad, write down the name of the country.

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

17.- Question No. 10.- Nationality

Ask the question and write down the annotation according to the following:

17.1.- If one is Costa Rican by birth, write down an X.

17.2.- If one is a naturalized Costa Rican, write down SX.

17.3.- If one is a foreigner, write down the nationality that the person reports. If a person has more than one nationality, write down the one that is preferred.

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

18.- Questions Nos. 11 and 12.- Social Security

This question should be referred to all persons. By means of it, what is to be known is the size and the location of the population that enjoys the protection of Social Security, through any of its regimes, such as Sickness and Maternity, Invalid ,Old Age and Death; and in direct "direct insurance" or indirect "family insurance".

[p. 44]

You should mark the corresponding box according to whether the person is protected or not in direct or indirect form, by any regime of Social Security.

If the circle "Not Insured" is marked, the following questions do not apply.

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

19.- Question No. 13.- Do you attend school, high school or university

This question should be asked to all persons 6 years old or older. It is convenient to consult the age (line 4), so that compatibility exists in the responses.

Mark the circle "Yes" when a person 6 years old or older regularly attends a regular education center; and the circle "No" in the contrary case.

"Regular education" will be understood to be that which persons receive in primary school, middle schools including vocational, and University.

Normal schools are considered university level.

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

20.- Question no. 14.- Do you attend other non regular education centers

This question should be asked to persons 6 years old or older. It is convenient to consult the age (line 4), so that compatibility exists in the responses.

If a person attends a non regular education center, write down the type of center: Business School, School of Languages, National Institute of Teaching, Institute of Beauty, Academy of Fashion, etc. If a person does not attend any of these centers, mark with a Y the box "No".

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

[p. 45]

21.- Question No. 15.- Level of instruction

Like the previous question, this one should be asked only to persons 6 years old or older. Write the number of the highest grade or year that a person has passed. In this question it is necessary to insist a little, since, generally, a person tends to say the grade or year that the person is in; while the last passed is what is to be known.

You should write down the number of the grade or year in the corresponding line agreeing with the level of education. If a person does not remember the information exactly, but knows they attended primary school, secondary school or university, write down a "d" (which means unknown in the respective line.

Many university students take subjects of different years, always write down the last year that they have completely passed.

In the case of university graduates, who although they are have not taken the exams to obtain their professional title, the last year passed should always be written down. If a person has a university degree medical, law, or economy, etc., write a "G" (which means graduated) in the line that says "University".

When a person has not passed any grade, mark the box that has this name "No Grade"; this box should be marked for two groups of persons, namely:

Those being 6 or more years old, never have attended school.

Children or any other person who is taking first grade in primary education.

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

22.- Question No. 16.- Literacy

This question should be asked only for persons 10 years old or older.

Mark the box "Yes" when a person can read and write a simple paragraph in any language. The box "No" should be marked for four groups of persons, namely:

22.1.- Those who do not know how to read or write a simple paragraph.

22.2.- Those who only know how to read.

22.3.- Those who only know how to sign and/or write their name.

Those who at one time knew how to read and write but have forgotten it.

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

[p. 46]

23.- Question No. 17.- Activity status

Only one circle should be marked for each person. Ask what the person does and then include it in the corresponding space.

23.1.- Worked: refers to all persons 12 years old or older who during the week of may 7 to 12 worked one hour or more or was in possession of a job.

This job could have been for:

23.1.1.- a) Received remuneration, in money, in kind or in both.

23.1.2.- b) Having had incomes or not; such is the case of "worker by own account".

23.1.3.- c) Not having had remuneration or incomes, such is the case of "non remunerated family worker".

All persons who during the week of May 7 to 12 were in possession of a job should be included, even if they were on vacation, sick, on strike, involuntary work stoppage, etc.

It is not considered that a person "worked", if a person is dedicated exclusively to domestic crafts or household duties, such as painting it, working in the garden, repairing it, etc.

23.2.- Did not Work: refers to every person 12 years old or more WHO WAS CAPABLE OF WORKING who in the week of May 7 to 12 did not have a job, and either was looking for it or did not look for it because they thought they were not going to find it.

23.3.- Looked for Work for the First Time: refers to every person 12 years old or more who was capable of working, who never has worked and looks for work for the first time, including those who took the steps to work for their own account or as employer.

23.4.- Student: refers to a person 12 years old or more who is dedicated exclusively to studying during the week from May 7 to 12. That is, if a person worked during the aforementioned week, it should be written down as such.

23.5.- Domestic Crafts: refers to every person 12 years old or more who in the week of May 7 to 12 were dedicated exclusively to the care of their own home. Generally they are understood to be women and as an exception, men.

Servants and other paid employees of the house should be written down as "worked".

23.6.- Pensioned, Rentiers or Retirees: refer to persons who live exclusively from a pension, retirement payment or investment. They should always be written down as such, even if they do household duties "Domestic Crafts".

23.7.- Others: are those persons 12 years old or older who cannot be classified in the previous points. The persons referred to in this group are

23.7.1.- Persons Interned in Institutions: are residents in a permanent form in jails, convents, asylums, etc.
[p. 47]
23.7.2.- Other Persons: includes persons such as the blind, beggars, paralytics, and others with mental or physical deficiencies who do not work in any occupation.

Children who finished their primary education or now do not attend school, who do not work, or who do not look for work for the first time, should be included in this group.

Also all persons not included in the previous classifications are included here, such as: Persons 65 years old or older, vagabonds, antisocial persons, etc.

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

24.- Question No. 18.- Principal occupation

Ask this question only to persons in the classifications "Worked" or "Did not Work".

Clearly write in this space the nature of the occupation that the person did during the week of May 7 to 12.

If the occupation cannot be written down with one defined name, describe the nature of the job, for example: puts lining on steering wheels of vehicles.

When a person has had more than one occupation in this period, ask and write down that which is considered the principal.

Avoid the use of generic terms such as: worker, aid, owner, day laborer, etc., which say nothing about nature or class of work that a person did during the period of reference.

When it concerns not worked, ask the last occupation they had, it does not matter how long ago it was.

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

Keep in mind that here what you should write down is the occupation and not profession. Of course, it can happen, and it is very frequent, that both (occupation and profession) coincide; but also it can happen that they do not; for example: it is common that doctors, engineers, lawyers, etc. work in the same profession; nevertheless also it can be that a doctor is the administrator of a hospital, or an engineer the manager of a company. It is evident that in the last two examples, the occupation of the doctor is administrator and that of the engineer is manager.

[p. 48]

Examples of correct and incorrect occupations:

[Below are two columns, one marked Incorrect and one marked Correct. In this translation we list them in a single column.]

Incorrect

Professor
Correct
Professor of Primary School
Professor of Secondary School
Professor of Dance, Song, etc.
Incorrect
Mechanic
Correct
Automobile Mechanic
Thresher Mechanic
Aviation Mechanic
Incorrect
Construction Worker
Correct
Mason
Carpenter
Carpenter's Helper
Incorrect
Worker
Correct
Agricultural Worker
Quarry Worker
Poultry Farm Worker

25.- Question No. 19.- Industry

Ask this question only to persons in the classifications "Worked" or "Did not Work".

This question is intimately related to the previous, you should write down the industry that corresponds to the occupation written down in it, that is to say, the type of industry, institution, farm operations, public dependence, etc., in which the person did their occupation.

Avoid generic terms that do not give a clear idea where the person works.

[Below are two columns, one marked Incorrect and one marked Correct. In this translation we list them in a single column.]

Incorrect

Workshop
Correct
Workshop for the repair of automobiles
Workshop of a thresher mechanic
Workshop for a dressmaker
Incorrect
Factory
Correct
Shoe factory
Clothes factory
Cardboard box factory
Incorrect
Club
Correct
Football club
Social club
Night club
Incorrect
Store
Correct
Grocery store
Warehouse
Clothing store
Incorrect
Laboratory
Correct
Clinical laboratory
Dental laboratory
Chemical laboratory

When it concerns a commercial establishment, specify if it is Wholesale or Retail.

If a person works for a company that manages more than one activity write down the activity which carries out the occupation written down before.

[p. 49]

[At the top of the page is a filled out form.]

26.- Question No. 20.- Occupational Category

This question should be asked only to persons of the classifications worked and not worked.

Every person should be assigned a corresponding category of occupation agreeing with the occupation and industry written down before.

Remember that only one circle should be marked.

[26.1.-] Remunerated Worker: is a person who receives remuneration in the form of salary, wage, commission, paid by the job or in kind and who works for an employer.

Examples: A carpenter in a construction site, a typist in a factory, a secretary in a public dependence.

26.2.- For Their Own Account: is a person who is dedicated to an occupation, profession or office, alone or with associates in an independent form, that is, without remunerated employees, nor being employed by anyone. It can be that there are family workers or apprentices without wages.

Examples: A taxi chauffeur, the owner of a local store or a place in the market, the owner of a cabinet making shop who works with their children, who do not receive any payment.

26.3.- Employer: is the owner of any company, big or small, or one who manages a profession or craft and has one or more remunerated workers.

Examples: The owner of a factory who has remunerated employees, a doctor who has a private practice and has a secretary or a nurse.

[26.4.-] Non-Remunerated Family Worker: is a person who manages a non remunerated occupation in a company in which a family member is owner.

Examples: An underage child who works on his father's farm; a spouse who attends to the local store of the spouse, a nephew who keeps the accounting books for his uncle's bakery, etc.

You should, according to the previous definitions, assign to each person the corresponding category. When you find any special situation that you consider doubtful, write it down in the space "Observations".

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

[p. 50]

27.- Question no. 21.- Hours Worked

This question should be asked only to persons classified as worked: write down the number of hours worked during the reference week or that is the week of may 7 to 12, in the occupation written down before.

When it concerns an agricultural occupation, try to get the most exact information possible.

For those persons who were on vacation, sick or incapacitated, the number of hours worked in the last week of work should be written down or that is before leaving on vacation, getting sick or getting hurt. The extra hours worked during the reference week should be included, especially when they refer to the written down occupation.

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

28.- Question No. 22.- Wage or salary

Ask this question only for persons in the condition of Worked or Remunerated Worker. In this space you should write down the amount of the wage or salary yielded to each person according to whether it is received by month, every two weeks, week, day, etc. in the occupation written down during the week of May 7 to 12.

Where it is possible you should obtain exact information of the wage or salary without deducting Social Security fees, premiums of the National Insurance Institute, special pension funds, or any other deduction of the wage or salary of the person.

[Below the text is a filled out form.]

You should display the most ability possible to make them understand that their fears are unfounded, because the law guaranties the confidentiality of the information; you should insist also that the information will not be used for purposes outside of Census purposes, nor for tax purposes, which is one of the causes for which the person fears giving this information.

When a person does not know the salary of another member of the Census Home, it will be necessary to request that they estimate or calculate it.

With the purpose that such an estimation be the most exact possible, the enumerator should help the person, basing themselves on the knowledge that the person possesses about salaries, and in other information that they have obtained from persons with related or equal occupations; so that like in the conditions of the life of the family, or other aspects they can give an approximate idea about the incomes of its members; and write down in "Observations" that the information is estimated.

When, with the purpose previously mentioned, you make use of the obtained information in other Census Homes, remember that you should not mention to whom it belongs for any reason, since all the information that is compiled is strictly confidential.

Example: In a dwelling they have informed you that one of their members is a carpenter and earns 20.00 a day; you go to another dwelling in which another carpenter lives, and he does not know his salary. You can help him estimate his salary, using as a resource, the information that they told you before.

[p. 51]

29.- Observations

In this space you should make any observation, in a concise form, and that you consider necessary to clarify special situations in which doubts have arisen or to complete information about the diverse characteristics of the Dwelling.

30.- Revision of the form

Before requesting information for the Agricultural and Livestock Census, you should revise carefully the information written down, assuring yourself that no contradictions exist in it and that you have not omitted any question.

This is the last chance to assure yourself that you have finished a complete enumeration, that is to say, you have included all the members of the Census Home. Once you have done the revision of the information written down, count the number of persons included in the form, separating them by sex and compare the information with that written down in the space residents in this Dwelling from the Dwelling form. If this information does not coincide, you should repeat it with the person to determine if any person in the Population Form was not there or was left out, or it is was that the person made a mistake when giving the response to the question. In all those cases the number of men and women included in the Population Form has to be equal to the information written down in the space residents in this Dwelling of the Dwelling Form.

Special emphasis to be is made that it should be asked if there are children under 1 year, and proceed to enumerate them if they were born before 0 hours of May 14; this is because frequently the enumerated person tends to omit them. Equally it is advisable to remember here that the enumerator should ask in all Dwellings, if any member of the Census Home is found to be interned in an institution "hospital, jail, school, etc" and proceed according to what is explained in the point 5.

31.- Enumerator

In the corresponding spaces, you should write down with clear letters your name, your signature and the date that you got the information "date of enumeration".

32.- Revisor

This space is for the person who revises the Form, before being sent to the General Management of Statistics and Censuses.