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Republic of Costa Rica
1963
Dwelling,
Population, and
Agriculture and Livestock
Censuses
Enumerator's Manual

[Pages 1-19 were not translated into English]

[p. 20]

Third Part
Filling out of the Forms

A-Dwelling Census

Section I

Generalities

The CPV packet contains the form of the Dwelling and the Population Censuses. The interview, according to where it can take place, should be started requesting the information for filling out the Dwelling form.

1.- Census Class

The Dwelling Census will cover all dwellings that, at the date cited in the following point, are found occupied by a Census Family or by a Non Family Group.

2.- Date of the Census

Both for the Dwelling Census as well as for the Population one, the reference date is March 31, 1963 at 12 o'clock at night; the following day, or that is, Monday, April 1 the gathering of information begins.

3.- Use of the Dwelling Form

The dwelling form appears on the first page of the CPV packet. The enumerator should write down on it the characteristics of the dwelling occupied by a Census Family of a Non Family Group. The characteristics corresponding to the occupants of the dwelling will be written down in the part meant for the Population Census.

As it will be seen later, when families or groups consist of more than twelve members, it is necessary to make use of more than one Population form for writing down the information about all of them.

[p. 21]

In these cases, the information corresponding to the dwelling (Dwelling Census) will be written down only in the first form and in the following the part referring to Dwelling should be crossed out with a big "X" to avoid confusion later.

Section II

Definitions

1.- Census Home

It is a group of persons who form a Census Family or a Non Family Group.

2.- Dwelling

Is every place or premises structurally separate or independent, that has been built, converted or available for purposes of lodging or housing of persons, temporarily or permanently, such as any other class of lodging, fixed or mobile, occupied as living quarters on the date of the Census.

The dwelling can constitute:

A group of rooms or one room, apartment, flat or independent house. (It is considered "independent" in the sense that the Census Home that resides in the dwelling does not share its meals with others).

A vessel, vehicle, railroad coach or any other class of lodging occupied as living quarters on the date of the census.

Not considered part of a dwelling are rooms or compartments meant for purposes other than habitation, like deposits, garages, stores, etc.

A building or any other place used for commercial, industrial or service purposes is not a dwelling unless in it exists any place occupied as living quarters by one or more persons; in this case, the part of the building occupied by these persons constitutes a dwelling.

a) Private Dwelling

It is used as living quarters by a Census Family, which can constitute a single person.

b) Collective Dwelling

What a Non Family Group uses as living quarters.

[p. 22]

c) Places where persons generally reside

Persons can live in houses, flats, huts, shacks, ships, hotels, railroad cars, orphanages, asylums, etc. The enumerator should visit all houses located in their segment, to be sure of the inclusion of all dwellings occupied on the date of the Census.

Generally, a dwelling constitutes a house, chalet, hut, flat or room. Nevertheless, for Census purposes, also to be considered as a dwelling are ships, barges, railroad cars, and other similar places, always that are inhabited by one or more persons on the date of the Census.

d) Application of the definition of Dwelling

It is indispensable that a clear distinction is made between one dwelling and another.

One should consider as separate Dwellings:

A building or house occupied entirely by a Census Family or Non Family Group.

If a building or house is divided into flats or rooms, each flat or room inhabited by a different Census Family or Non Family Group constitutes a separate dwelling. Examples:
1) If a married child, spouse and children live in the house of their parents sharing meals with them, it is not a separate dwelling. (it concerns a single Census Family.

2) If a married child, spouse and children live in the house of their parents, but without sharing meals there will be two Dwellings: one occupied by the parents and the other by the married child and family. Get the information for each Dwelling and family on separate forms (it concerns in this case two Census Families); the information to write down in each Dwelling form, should refer to the part of the house occupied by each Census Family.

3.- Census Family

It is a group of persons with or without family ties, that lives together under a set of family rules. It can constitute also a person who lives alone. Generally a Census Family consists of a Head of Family, the relatives who live with the Head and those persons who participate in this common life for reasons of work (servants and laborers) or other ties. Other persons who share the dwelling and that take their meals with the family should be considered members of the Census Family; however when there are more than five boarders the group will not be a Census Family, but rather a Non Family Group.

[p. 23]

4.- Non Family Group

Group of persons, generally without family ties, that lives together for reasons of discipline, health, education etc. such as those who live in jails, reformatories, hotels, boarding houses, boarding school, etc. Include also families who have six or more boarders.

Section III

Special Cases of Enumeration

The information from the form should refer to each dwelling occupied by one or more persons, the day of the Census. Nevertheless it is possible that in some cases the enumerator visits dwellings that are inhabited by a Census Family or Non Family Group different than the one that occupied the dwelling the day of the census. If the enumerated person states that the family was enumerated before in their residence, the enumerator should not fill out a form; if contrary, write down the relative information both to Census Family or Non Family Group as well as to the respective Dwelling, indicating also in "Observations" that it concerns a Census Family or a Non Family Group did not reside in this Dwelling on the date of the Census. Equally write down in "Observations" the exact address of the previous residence. (Province, Canton, District, Neighborhood, Hamlet, Avenues, Streets, and the number of the house if it has one).

Section IV

Instructions for filling out the Dwelling Form

The enumerator should have the Dwelling form in hand and observe in it each room that is seen, in order to attain a better understanding of each one of the aspects of these instructions.

1.- Content of the Form

The form is divided into three parts; the first one corresponds to the identification of the Dwelling and the second to their characteristics; in the third there is a space for "Observations", in which should be written down all the doubts that come up to the enumerator, and two boxes for writing down the name and the signature of the enumerator and the reviser, and also the date in which each phase (enumeration and revision) was carried out.

Under the title of every characteristic of the Dwelling there is, in parenthesis, a very important note that indicates if only one or more than one box should be marked according to whether the responses are exclusive or not. The enumerator should keep in mind this note so as to not make more marks then necessary, also if it were to be marked, it would not be known which mark is the correct one.

[p. 24]

2.- The Annotation of the Information

You should make all the annotations in a clear and careful form, to avoid errors and confusion later. If a mistake is made when writing down information, do not cross out the annotation, erase it and then write down the correct information.

The forms should be filled out exclusively with black pencil; an ink pen will be used only for filling out the forms (formularios) that require them, according to how it is explained in the section of "Instructions for filling out the Administrative Forms".

The information about "Identification" should be written down first, then that of "Dwelling Census" and indicate in "Observations" any explanation that is considered necessary to complement or clarify any of the information in the form.

When the Census Home consists of more than twelve members, it will be necessary to use additional forms to enumerate it completely. In these cases you should not fill out the rest of the Dwelling forms again, but rather proceed in the following manner:

Write down in the space for "Census Home No." the same number that you wrote down in the first form and at the same time the letter A, B, C, etc., to indicate that it concerns the first, second, third etc., additional form.
Cross out with a big "X" the remaining spaces of the Dwelling part, of every additional form that you use.
Example: If Census Home number 15 consists of 30 members, it is necessary to use three forms to enumerate it completely; in the Dwelling part of the first form should be written down all the information; in the second only write down, in the space for Census Home, the number 15-A, to indicate that it concerns the first additional form, and on the third, in the same place, the number 15-B, which indicates that it concerns the second additional form of Census Home number 15. The rest of the spaces of the Dwelling part of the second and third forms, are crossed out with a big "X",

Identification

In the upper part of the form appear three boxes. Write down in the first the name of the corresponding province, canton, and district and the number of the agricultural region.

In the center box you should write down the number of the Zone, Section and Segment that, for Census purposes, are administrative divisions of national territory.

[p. 25]

In this same box you should mark with an "X" the corresponding box, according to whether it concerns an urban or rural place.

The information that you write down in these first box should be copied from the title page of your folder, so they are the same for all the forms of your segment.

It is convenient that these two boxes be filled out before beginning the job. This will help you work faster.

In the third box you should write down:

Census Home No. (order of visit): in this space you should write the number corresponding to each Census Home that you visit, according to the order agreed upon by you and your immediate boss. Write down number 1 when you visit the first Census Home, number 2 when you visit the second, and so on during the whole information gathering of your segment.

Institution: Written here is the name of the hotel, jail, hospital, clinic, boarding house etc., in which a Non Family Group resides. If the institution does not have a name, write down for example: Boarding House of Juan Pérez, Jail of Liberia, Clinic of Dr. Pedro Camacho, etc.

Neighborhood or Hamlet : Write down the name of the neighborhood or hamlet in which the house or building is found, according to the information that the enumerated person provides.

Avenues and Streets: These spaces should be written in only in the case of urban areas, writing down the numbers that correspond, according to the map of your segment.

Highway, Road, etc.: Indicate the number of the highway or road, if it has one, or if not, the name of the place where you are taken, and additional signs that will help later, to locate the dwelling with ease. In urban zones, write down in this space the number of the house.

Census Dwelling

In each Box you should mark with an "X" the box corresponding to the obtained responses. You should keep in mind always the note that appears below the title of every box, which indicates whether one or more than one box should be marked.

Box No. 1.- Class of Dwelling

Mark the corresponding box agreeing with the definitions of Private and Collective Dwelling that appears on page No. 21.

[p. 26]

Box No. 2.- Predominant Material in the Walls

You should mark an "X" in the respective box, asking for the material which in the largest proportion has been used in the construction of the walls.

Wood- Wood of any kind

Concrete- Brick, cement blocks, water proof cement, mixed brick, stone, reinforced concrete, cement, or any other natural or artificial stone material.

Metal Sheet - Wood with metal wire screen and plaster.

Adobe and bahareque - cane with earth covered with a cement cap (french bahareque), Mud blocks in wooden beams and mixed with smashed brick (filled bahareque), Blocks of earth (adobe).

Other- Specify when using this space, writing down for example: palm, straw, etc.

Box No. 3.- Predominant Material in the Floors

Indicate with an "X" the box for the material which in the largest proportion was used in the construction of the floors. Remember to specify when you use the space "Other", writing down for example: terrazzo, etc.

Box No. 4.- Predominant Material in the Roofs

Apply the same criteria of Boxes 2 and 3, and specify when you use the space "Other", writing for example: plastic sheets, palm, etc.

Box No. 5- State of the Dwelling

Mark the respective box according to the following criteria:

Good

Good condition of being inhabited

Average

A dwelling that requires repairs of some importance, by damage or lack of floors or ceiling, or by defects in the walls or roofs, but that has a lot of an acceptable size and is able to be repaired economically, without its defective conditions constituting immanent danger for its inhabitants.

Bad

A dwelling of inadequate original construction, (although recent), because of not having sufficient area, because of the use of materials of waste in the foundation, walls or roof, because of a lack of materials in an extensive area of the foundation, or because of a dangerous slope in the land.

A dwelling deteriorated by a sunken or cracked base, cracked collapsing walls with holes or rot, deteriorated or unsafe roofs, notable curvature of foundations, walls or roofs.

When any of these factors or a combination of these implies danger for its inhabitants, and it is not possible economically to correct or repair the defect, the dwelling will be classified as Bad.

Therefore, the general criteria for classifying a dwelling as bad will be that dwelling which should be eliminated or replaced completely.

Aggravating factors for classifying a dwelling as bad will be considered as:

Lack of access to a public thoroughfare, or deficient access for lateral access, alley, or narrow street.

Very pronounced slope, principally at the banks of rivers.

Lack of light and ventilation.

Unhealthy or disturbing neighborhood (smell, noise, etc).

Box No. 6.- Water Source

Piped

Piped water service is understood as the supply of water by pipes from a public or private system, the water always arrives by means of pipes to the dwelling or that is carried from a pipe or other apparatus connected to the public or private system, that is found at a distance not greater than 100 meters from the Dwelling.

Mark with an "X" a box of each one of the following cases:

[Below the text is a graphic.]

According to whether the piped system to which the pipe is connected is public or private.

[p. 28]

[Below the text is a graphic.]

According to whether the pipe takes the water to the interior of the dwelling or not.

[Below the text is a graphic.]

According to whether the pipe supplies water only to the dwelling whose characteristics you are writing down (only for this dwelling), or that supplies it also to other dwellings (for this and other dwellings).

By other Means:

In the case of Dwellings that are supplied water by means of wells, rivers, ditches, etc. If the Dwelling takes water from a well located at a distance not greater than 100 meters, you should mark the respective box ("well"); if it is by other means, specify in the space "Other", writing down for example: river, ditch, gulley, etc.

Does not Have:

It is considered that a dwelling does not have water service, when the place from which it is taken (river, ditch, well, gulley, pipe, etc.) is at a distance greater than 100 meters from the dwelling.

In the case that a family that is being enumerated is not provided water from a pipe, well or other source to provide themselves with water, but they are permitted to take it from a neighboring Dwelling or from a school, local store, etc. it is considered that the Dwelling does not have water service.

Box 7.- Water supply to bathroom

It is understood that a dwelling has bath services when it is provided from a place or room where a bath is found to be installed. The place can be within or outside the Dwelling. If it is outside it is considered that the Dwelling has a bath, only if it is found to be a distance not greater that 100 meters; if the distance is greater than 100 meters the Dwelling does not have bath services.

The service can be:

Piped: when the bath is supplied water by means of a pipe connected to a public or private system, which brings the water to the Dwelling, or when the water is taken in a pipe or other apparatus that is found to be not greater than 100 meters from the Dwelling and that is connected to a public or private system. [p. 29] Mark the corresponding box according to whether it is:

Only for this Dwelling: when the bath is used by the right only of the occupants of the Dwelling that you are enumerating.

For this and other Dwellings: when the bath is used by the occupants of the Dwelling whose information you are requesting and also by the right of occupants of other Dwellings.

By other means: when there is no place or premises where an installed bath is found, it is always located a distance greater than 100 meters of the Dwelling. In these cases, the water is supplied from a river, well, ditch, or public or private system (piped) that is found more than 100 meters from the Dwelling.

When you use the space "other means" you should specify for example: river, well, ditch piped, etc. according to where the source of water for the bath is supplied from.

Does not have: It is considered that a dwelling does not have bath services when it is not provided a room or premises meant for this purpose, or that is its occupants bathe in places like rivers, gulleys, etc. Also it is considered that a Dwelling does not have bath services if its occupants must cover a distance larger than 100 meters to arrive at a place in which a bath is installed.

In the case that the family being enumerated uses, as a given favor, the bath of a neighboring house, school etc., you should consider also that the Dwelling does not have a bath. Keep in mind that this is not the case of Dwellings, generally with the same owner, that have a single bathroom for all; when this situation presents itself it should be considered that each Dwelling has a bath, since its occupants make use of it because they have the right to it.

Box No. 8.- Sewer facilities

Mark with an "X" the box that identifies the type of toilet facilities that the Dwelling has.

Sewer: When the apparatus is connected to a public system.

Septic Tank: When the apparatus is connected to a system that consists of a cement tank, in which the "negros" [black] waters are eliminated by special procedures.

Cesspool: (pit toilet): When the Dwelling only is provided a pit more or less deep, over which is a hut. The cesspool can be: [p. 30]

1) of Concrete: When the floor and the walls are concrete.

2) of Wood: when the floor or the walls, or both wooden.
Other: Any other means of toilet services no thought of here.

Does not have: When the Dwelling is not supplied toilet services.

Box 9.- Use of Toilet Services

You should ask if the toilet services are for exclusive use of the occupants of the Dwelling ("Only For This Dwelling") or if it is also used with equal right by those of other Dwellings ("For This and Other Dwellings"), and mark with an "X" the respective box.

Box 10.- Electric Energy

Ask if this electric energy is supplied to the Dwelling. If the response is affirmative, you should ask also what it is used for and mark the box that corresponds, according to if it is exclusively for lighting or is used also for any other things, like for example for the running of any domestic appliance ( radio, television set, electric stove, etc.) or any work machine installed in the Dwelling, or for a water well, etc. It is simply of interest to know if the electric energy is used only for lighting or for lighting and any other uses.

When the Dwelling is not supplied electric energy you should mark the box "Does Not Have".

Box No. 11.- Fuel used for Cooking

Write down the type or class of fuel that is used for cooking most frequently and in the largest quantity. For example: firewood, coal, kerosene, gas, electricity, etc.

Box No.12.- Appliances in the Dwelling

Ask if in the Dwelling there are: radio, electric iron, electric stove, electric toothbrush, washer, water heater, television set and refrigerator. It does not matter that the radio, washer or television set are of batteries, or the refrigerator of kerosene, what is of interest is knowing if the family has these appliances or not.

The water heater can be any type: from the simple appliance placed in the bath to heat the water to the complete heating system of water from all the pipes that there are in the Dwelling.

If any of these appliances are in any way borrowed they should not be included.

[p. 31]

Always remember to mark one of the two boxes ("It Has" or "It Does Not Have") in the line corresponding to each appliance.

The code space should be left blank, because it is for office use.

Box No. 13- Tenure (occupied by)

Mark the box that corresponds according to if it is occupied by:

Owner: When a Dwelling belongs to one or more of its occupants.

Renter: When a Dwelling is occupied by one or more persons who pay an amount of money for inhabiting it.

Other: Include in this category Dwellings that are not occupied by "Owner" or "Tenant", agreeing with the two definitions above. For example: Dwellings ceded by family members, those occupied by pensioned or employees of a farm without paying rent for them, etc.

Box No. 14.- Monthly Rent

When it is indicated that a Dwelling is found to be occupied by "renters", write down the amount of colones that are paid each month for rent. Write with clear numbers omitting "centimes", for example: if the rent is 140.50 write down only 140.00.

If a dwelling is occupied by "Owner" or "Other", it is always necessary to write down the rent. In these you should ask how much the monthly rent is estimated to be or calculated to be; because of this in the space corresponding to these two cases it says "estimated". Possibly this information will be difficult to obtain because a person will refuse to give it; it will then be necessary to insist that it is obligatory to supply it and that it only will be used for statistical purposes. To attain answers faster, it is advisable to ask the question in this form: How much would you rent this house for? Or How much would you pay to inhabit this house? Or How much is the rent of a house like this one in this neighborhood?

It is probable that in many of the cases that a Dwelling is occupied by "Owner" or "Other" they do not supply this information or they do not give it exactly; the enumerator should not strike up discussion with the person about it, but rather proceed in the following manner:

a) If they do not give you the information, indicate it as such in "Observations", writing down there the number that you consider correct, in comparison with other information that you have obtained in the same neighborhood or hamlet.

[p. 32]

b) If you realize that the person is giving you false information, write it down as such and how they give it to you. When finishing the interview, you will explain in observations that you do not believe the truthfulness of this information and you will write down the number that you estimate to be true agreeing with the experience that you have acquired for getting information from other Dwellings of the same place.

Box No. 15.- Rooms and Bedrooms

Rooms

A "room" will be considered as any one of the compartments or rooms used for purposes of lodging, including: living room, dining room, kitchen, bed rooms, studies, recreation rooms, servants' quarters, but excluding: porches, hallways, bathrooms, inner patios, except when these last ones are used as recreation room, library or other purpose of lodging in which case they should be considered as "rooms".

You should ask and write down the number of rooms according to the criteria explained above.

Those compartments that are used exclusively for commercial, industrial or service purposes, such as store, local store (pulpería), bar, workshop, barber shop etc. should not be considered rooms of a Dwelling.

Bedrooms

Bedroom is understood to be any room of a Dwelling that is used for sleeping.

Keep in mind that in the explanation about "rooms" it said that those compartments used exclusively for commercial, industrial or service purposes should not be considered. On the other hand, if in a Dwelling there is a place that is used as a workshop of a shoe store {a very frequent case) and at the same time someone sleeps in it, such a place should be considered as "room", and also so "bedroom".

Box No. 16.- Residents In This Dwelling

Ask how many persons reside in the Dwelling and write down the information broken down by sex.

Subsequently, when you have finished filling out the Population Form, you should count the number of men and women that you have written down in it and compare this information with what you wrote down in the Dwelling Form with the purpose of being sure of the complete enumeration.

[p. 33]

Box No. 17.- Domestic Industry

Domestic industry is, for Census purposes, all activity of production or repair of goods, done in the Dwelling or in any annex place in the Dwelling, always that:

a) The owner is one of the members of the family.

b) The primary materials are not supplied by a company that hired the work force, and

c) The production is not exclusively for the use and consumption of the dwelling, but rather that it is all or partially sold.

Frequently the place where one works is a room meant for the use of the family, such as a bedroom, living room, kitchen, etc. on other occasions the place is a garage, doorway or room meant exclusively for this effect.

Typical cases of domestic or household industries are: sewing rooms, shoe stores, tailor shops, bread or tortilla bakeries, factories of baskets, pottery or string, etc., always that meet the 3 conditions indicated before (a, b, and c).

Do not include as domestic industry an activity done in the same Dwelling by workers at home, or that is by members of the family who work in a house but with primary materials supplied by other persons or companies, for which they work the activities in the Dwelling as a free service to individuals or family members, as occurs in many cases with dress makers: because of this they do not complete the third indicated condition (c), which is the one that states that production should be all or partially sold.

When the Dwelling has any industry of this type, mark the box "it has" and then ask and write down in the space meant for this purpose, the products that are produced for sale.

Also you should ask if is someone who is not in the Census Family worked in this industry and write down the number of persons in the space that says "Personal non family employee."

When you have doubts over whether a certain case should be considered or not as a domestic industry, consider it as it is, request the information for filling out the Box and explain your doubt in "Observations".

Observations

In this space you should make any observation that you consider necessary, whether it is to clarify special situations about those where doubts have risen or to complement information about diverse characteristics of the Dwelling.

[p. 34]

Enumerator

In the corresponding spaces, you should write down with clear letters, your name, your signature, and the date in which you obtained the information (date of enumeration).

Reviser

In this Box the enumerator should not make any notation, since it is reserved for the person who revises the form.

Revision of the Form

Once you finish writing down the information corresponding to the Dwelling, revise the form well in order to be sure that all the questions are answered, that the annotations made are clear and coincide with the obtained responses, and finally, if you have any doubt, write it down in the space for "Observations". After this continue the interview with the part of the form relative to the Population Census.

B- Population Census

Section I

Generalities

1.- Census Class

The Population Census will be "de jure" or "de facto"; this means that each person should be enumerated in their "habitual place of residence", agreeing with the definition that is given above.

[2.-] Date Of The Census

As it was said before, the information of the Population and Dwelling form should refer to the same date: March 31, 1963 at 12:00 at night; April 1, that is to say the following day the enumeration begins. If in any segment the enumeration begins before April 1, the information always should refer to the time mentioned before (March 31, 1963 at 12:00 at night).

3.- Use Of The Population Form

The design of this form permits that the characteristics of all the members of a Census Family or a Non Family Group always be written on it when they are not more than twelve.

[p. 35]

When one of the groups mentioned above consists of more than twelve (12) members, you should use one or more additional forms, following the indications that are given above.

Section II

Definitions

Some of the following definitions that appear in the instructions for the Dwelling Census are repeated for convenience.

1.- Census Family

It is a group of persons with or without family ties, that lives together under a set of family rules. It can constitute also a person who lives alone. Generally the Census Family consists of a Head of Family, the relatives who live with the Head and those persons who participate in this common life for reasons of work (servants and laborers) or other ties. Other persons that share the dwelling and that take their meals with the family should be considered members of the Census Family; However when there are more than 6 boarders the group will not be a Census Family, but rather a Non Family Group.

[In the first Census Family definition, the maximum number of boarders is five.]

Persons who share the Dwelling but do not take their meals with a family should be considered as independent Census Families.

2.- Non Family Group

Group of persons, generally without family ties, that lives together for reasons of discipline, health, education etc. such as those who live in jails, reformatories, hotels, boarding houses, boarding school, etc.

Include also families who have six or more boarders.

3.- Dwelling

Is every place or premises structurally separate or independent, that has been built, converted or available for purposes of lodging or housing of persons, temporarily or permanently, such as any other class of lodging, fixed or mobile, occupied as living quarters on the date of the Census.

The dwelling can constitute:

A group of rooms or one room, apartment, flat or independent house. (It is considered "independent" in the sense that a Census Home that resides in the dwelling does not share its food with others).

[p. 36]

A vessel, vehicle, railroad coach or any other class of lodging occupied as living quarters on the date established as reference for the census (Date of Census).

a) Private Dwelling

It is used as living quarters by a Census Family, which can constitute a single person.

b) Collective Dwelling

What a Non Family Group uses as living quarters.

4.- Habitual Place Of Residence

For census purposes, it is considered to be the place where a person habitually sleeps.

If a person is used to sleeping habitually part of the time in more than one place, they should be enumerated in the place where they slept during the period of work. For Example: If María is a teacher in San Pedro de Pérez Zeledón and sleeps in this place during the week, but spends the weekends and vacations with her parents in the Catedral district of the Central canton of San José, María should be enumerated in San Pedro de Pérez Zeledón, which is her habitual place of residence.

Section III

Special cases of enumeration

Enumerate all persons who reside habitually in the segment in which you are going to work, and also those who, not having a habitual place of residence, are found residing within your segment on the date of the Census (March 31, 1963 at 12:00 at night).

Remember to include all children born before and persons deceased after this moment.

Agreeing with above, the general norm consists in enumerating every person in the place where they reside habitually. In practice this is not so simple since many special cases present themselves; we will see some of the following ones.

1.-Absent Residents

They are persons who on the date of the Census or your visit, are found to be absent from the Census Home, but within the national territory.

[p. 37]

They include only cases in which this absence is temporary because of vacations, jobs, interned less than a year in hospitals, clinics, asylums, jails, etc., or similar causes, which mean that they have not changed their habitual place of residence.

2.- Persons Interned In Institutions

They are persons who are found to be interned in hospitals, schools, jails, convents, reformatories, etc.

With this group the problem of determining where every person should be enumerated presents itself: in the institution or in the place where their family resides?; in reality some should be enumerated in the institution and others in the Dwelling of the family, according to the following criteria:

a) How to proceed in the institutions

If in your segment there are any of the mentioned institutions, you should, in the first place, direct yourself to the head of the group (warden of the jail, administrator of the hospital or asylum, etc.), request from them the list of persons interned there, and find out from them or from the person they indicate, how much time each one of the persons is going to remain interned in the institution; then you should interview only those who are going to remain interned a period greater than a year, starting to count from the date of the Census. Persons who are going to remain interned a year or less, should not be enumerated in the institution.

In the institutions also those persons who, without being interned, reside habitually there should be enumerated, such as guards, gardeners, etc.

b) How to proceed in a Dwelling or home of these persons

Always when you are enumerating a Census Family, you should ask the person if any of their family members are found to be interned in a hospital, clinic, jail, sanitarium, reformatory, school, or other similar institutions, and find out when they are going to return, or by when the expect their return. If the interned person is going to return to live with this family within the period of a year or less starting to count on the date of the Census, you should enumerate like any other member of the Census Family. When a person does not know with certainty when the person is going to return, enumerate them as a member of the Census Family and indicate in "Observations" that this person is found to be interned in ____ (write down the name of the institution), and that there is no certainty over the date in which the person will return.

Some persons who are going to return to their home within more than a year, should not be enumerated as members of the Census Family, since as we have seen, they will be enumerated in the institution.

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3.- Servants And Other Employees

Servants, chauffeurs, farm workers, and other similar employees are considered members of the Census Family, as well as their family members, when they sleep habitually in the Dwelling that is visited and they eat there.

Cases exist in which servants reside, during the work period, in the Dwelling of their employers and are going to spend week ends and holidays with their family members. When situations like this are found, the persons should be enumerated as members of the family of the employer, since this is their place of habitual residence.

If the servants do not sleep in the house of their employees, they should not be enumerated there, but rather in the Dwelling where they sleep habitually.

4.- Visitors

Persons who are found to be spending some days with any relative or friend should not be considered as members of the Census Home of this relative or friend. These persons will be enumerated according to their place of habitual residence.

5.- Foreigners

Any foreigner who resides in the Dwelling, temporarily or permanently, should be included as member of the Census Home, except those who are provided a card, extended by Migration authorities, that identifies them as persons in transit in the country.

6.- Costa Ricans Abroad

Costa Ricans who reside in a temporary or permanent form abroad should not be enumerated in any case.

7.- Teachers And Professors

It is frequently the case that a professor or teacher who works in a place far from where the family resides, and who, therefore, lives in a boarding house or a house in the place they work, given that it would be very difficult, at times impossible, to travel daily. This person should be enumerated where they reside during the academic year although they go to spend weekends with their family.

It is very necessary to keep this point in mind, since when doing the enumeration of their family, this person should not be included, since on the contrary it would be duplication of the enumeration.

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8.- Construction Workers, Timber Operations, Miners, Farmers, etc.

Enumerate in the place they slept during the period of work, persons who work in the construction of houses, bridges, highways, electric plants, mining operations, farms and in forests.

Examples of this group are the following:

a) A mason whose family resides in Cartago, who is found in San Ramón de Alajuela, working with the Ministry of Public Works in the construction of a school, and resides there during the period of work.

b) A worker whose family is in San Pedro de Poás who works with the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity in the plants of Río Macho.

c) A construction laborer in the inter-American highway of Costa Rica.

d) A person who works in the Banana Company of Costa Rica, etc.

You should not confuse this group with "Absent Residents", point 1), who are persons who occasionally travel, such as traveling salespersons, railroad drivers, or who are found spending vacations in other places. Workers in construction, mines, etc., are persons who live more or less long seasons in other places, and who should be enumerated in the place where they are found to be residing on the date of the Census.

When you are not sure if you should include one of these persons in the form of the Census Home that is being enumerated, include them and explain clearly your doubt in the space for "Observations".

9.- Students

In many families, principally those who reside away from the Meseta Central, you will find the case of members who live in another locality studying. For example, a member of a family from Puerto Cortés, who lives in San José to attend the University. These persons should not be included as members of the Census Family because they will be enumerated where they are, or that is, where they reside during the academic year.

10.- Pensioned

They should be included as members of a Census Home when they reside habitually in the Dwelling (house, boarding house or hotel).

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11.-Diplomats

The members of the Consular and Diplomatic Service accredited in Costa Rica who are abroad should not be enumerated. Nevertheless, the embassies and consulates should be visited to enumerate the Costa Ricans who reside in them, who generally are only domestic employees.

12. Persons Who Have No Place Of Habitual Residence

These persons should be enumerated where the enumerator finds them, only when they have not been enumerated in another place.

Note:

To decide if a person should or should not be included in the Census Home form, we have seen that it is necessary to determine if they reside habitually in the Dwelling. It is necessary, also, that all persons included share meals since on the contrary they do not form part of a Non Family Group or of the Census Family, according to the definition of these concepts.

If in a house of a building there is a person who does not share meals, a form should be made for this person, since this person alone constitutes a Census Family, independent of the Census Family or Non Family Group that resides in the house or building.

Section IV

Instructions for filling out the population form

To attain a greater comprehension of the following explanations, the enumerator should have the Population form at hand, and study the instructions together with the respective space of the form. In this manner you will understand the concepts more, and your knowledge will be therefore more solid.

1.- Content Of The Form

To the left of the form, arranged vertically, appear all the questions that you should ask. A small explanation has been included in each question, with the purpose of facilitating your work in order to get the most exact information possible; nevertheless, when doubts arise to you, you should consult this manual and if the doubt persists, write it down in "Observations" and consult your immediate boss.

To the right of the column in which appear the questions that the previous paragraph refers to, there are nine columns, each one of them corresponding to a person.

[p. 41]

The first column is reserved for the annotation of the information about the Head of the Census Home. When a family consists of more than 9 persons, go to the following page and continue writing down in it the corresponding information.

At the bottom of the form there is a space that is called "Observations", write down in it all the explanations that you believe convenient.

2.- The Annotation Of The Information

You should begin to fill out the form writing down the information about "Head of the Census Home" in the first column (first person).

"Head of the Census Home" is understood to be a person who considered as such by the members of the group; we have seen that their information should be written down always in the first column, because of this in this column appears, in line No. 2, the box "Head" marked beforehand.

Once you have filled out the column for the Head, go to the second to fill out the information of the following person, who generally should be the spouse or companion of the head, then the third column and so on.

You should write down first the name and the two surnames of a person, and then continue writing their characteristics vertically, in the same order in which these appear in the following lines of the form, and how they are explained below.

When a Census Family or Non Family Group consists of more than twelve members, use as many additional forms as is necessary to complete the enumeration of all of them, and write down in each one of the spaces of the Dwelling form that corresponds to "Census Home", the same number that you write down in the first form, accompanied by the letter A, B, C, etc., according to whether it concerns the first, second, or third additional form. In these spaces, indicate in the space "Observations" of the first Population form that there is a second form and on the second that there is a third etc.

Remember that when these situations present themselves, you should not fill out again the Dwelling form in the second and the rest of the forms; simply write down the number and the letter mentioned before and cross out the Boxes of this form with a big "X".

General characteristics

Ask these questions to all persons

Line No. 1.-Name and Surnames

This line is meant for writing down the name and the two surnames of each person that lived in the Dwelling on the date of the Census.

[p. 42]

The space for making this annotation is divided into three parts, write down in the first, the name, in the second the first surname and in the third the second surname.

The enumerator should be sure that each person who is written down really belongs to the Census Home, according to what is explained in the previous points, and when finishing filling out the form, verify that all the members are included.

You should try to follow the following order in the enumeration:

1) The Head of the Census Home

2) A spouse or companion of the Head

3) Single children who reside in the Dwelling, beginning with the oldest and continuing in descending order of age.

4) Married children who reside in the same Dwelling and share meals with the family (remember that if the do not share meals they constitute another Census Family and you should include them in another form). Write down first the child and then their spouse, and after their children, that is, the grandchildren of the Head.

5) Other persons related to the Head through ties of blood, marriage or adoption, such as: the father or mother of the Head, the Head's siblings, aunt/uncles, niece/nephews, in-laws, etc. If within these groups there are also family members or descendents, write them down following the order that is specified in the previous paragraph.

6) Lodgers: Any person who resides in the Dwelling, without being related to anyone in the family except servants and boarders.

7) Servants and their family members: You should include them only if they reside in the same Dwelling and take meals in it. If they reside in the same Dwelling, but eat in another place, they constitute another Census Family and you should make another form, one for each case.

8) Pensioned: Persons who are not related to the family and who pay to reside in the Dwelling.

When s person that you are going to write down in a column has the same surnames that are included in the column above, write the name in the first space and mark a line (-) in the second and another in the third and so avoid repeating the surnames.

For married women you should write down, after the first single surname, that of her husband, preceded by the preposition "de"; en the case of widows, write, after the first single surname, that of her deceased husband, preceded by the words "Vda. de".

[p. 43]

Take special care of all the children born before 12:00 at night March 13, 1963 (Date of the Census), they are to be enumerated; so as not to include those who were born after this moment. Also when a member has died after this date and hour, you should include them in the form; but do you should not enumerate those who died before this moment.

It is necessary to know the characteristics of all of the population of Costa Rica such as it was the date of the Census; because of this the newborns born before this date and those who died after should be included, since the day of the Census they formed part of the population. Those born after and those who died before the cited date are excluded, because the day of the Census they did not form part of the population of the country.

You should place an X surrounded by a circle next to the name of a person who served as the person who supplied information for you. If the information was supplied by a person who does not form part of the residence family, record it as such in "Observations".

When the case of a newborn who still does not have a name presents itself, write "Without Name" or "Unnamed".

Line No. 2.- Relation With The Head

Mark the corresponding box according to the tie or relation of each person with the Head of the Census Home.

If a person is the spouse, companion, son or daughter of the Head of the Census Family, you should mark the box that corresponds. When a tie or relation is none of these, use the space "Others" and specify the relation, writing down for example: uncle, mother-in-law, son-in-law, granddaughter, nephew, father, grandfather, brother, servant, lodger, son of servant, etc.

In the case of Non Family Groups, write down in the space "Others" the word that best describes the position of every person within the group: for example: superintendent, lieutenant, pensioned, prisoner, patient, etc. Whatever doubt that arises you should write down in "Observations".

Line No. 3.- Sex

Mark the corresponding box. Ask the question if the name is not sufficient to determine the sex and can be, in many cases, applied to men or women; examples: Rosario, Carmen, Concepción, etc.

Line No. 4.- Age

Write in this space the age at the last birthday; if a person is younger than one year, the months and days up to the date of the Census.

[p. 44]

You should write only in one of the three lines that the space is divided into, agreeing with the following indications, that also appear in the form:

For persons of one year or more, write the number of years declared. If it concerns children one month or older, but less than a year, indicate the number of months. In the case of children less than a month, write the number of days old.

Generally persons have the tendency to lower the number of years of some ages, others on the other hand prefer to raise them, principally in advanced ages.

Another inconvenience that is possible is meeting some persons with the tendency to declare their age approximately, principally stating the so called "attractive ages" like for example: 1-5, 10, 15, 18, 20, 25, 40, 60, 65 years old, etc. which generally have endings of 0 and 5. All good enumerators should insist in getting the exact age of every person, avoiding when possible, annotation of rounded numbers.

This information refers to the date of the Census and not the date of the visit. If the person is not sure of the age of a person, the enumerator should suggest that they consult the date of the birth document or proof of birth.

When it is impossible to get the exact age of a person, try to help the person to get approximate information, it being good to know local and national historic events. When the information that you write down is approximate, you should indicate it as such in the space for "Observations".

Line No. 5.- Marital State

For this characteristic you should mark the box that corresponds to the definitions that appear in the form and which are commented on here.

You should always write down the current civil state; like for example: if a person has separated from their spouse and currently lives in "Free [consensual] Union" with another, you should classify them as "Free [consensual] Union" since that is the current state.

Single: is one who never has married, except those who live in "Free [consensual] Union".

Married: is one who is legally married and lives in this state.

Widow: is one who has not married again after the death of their spouse, nor lives in "Free Union" at the moment of the Census.

[p. 45]

If a person has married again or lives in "Free Union", you should indicate the current civil state.

Divorced: one who has broken their matrimonial ties in a definite form through legal means, and also has not married again or lives in "Free Union".

Consensual Union: It is said that a couple lies in "Free Union" when without any marital ties existing that bind them, the members constitute alone or with other family members, a well defined family. This is a delicate aspect and you should proceed with tact and very gently in the interview, avoiding discussions or expressions that could spoil the success of your job.

Married Separated: is one who has separated from their spouse and does not live in free union. The separation can be de facto or separation "de cuerpos" declared by competent authority. It should not be confused with divorce, which is a total and definitive separation.

Keep in mind that the previous concepts are mutually exclusive and that therefore, you should mark only one box for each person.

When it is possible, the enumerator should abstain from suggesting the response of the person, over all in the case of Divorced, Married Separated, and Free Union; so you will avoid an unfavorable atmosphere when the person is very sensitive in this sense. Some times the person does not give this information in a truthful form, principally in some of the cases cited before; so for example, they say that they are married and in reality they live in Free Union. In many of these cases, the enumerator will realize the falseness of the information in the course of the interview, but you should never insist in this matter; when this happens you should explain it in the space for "Observations", and write down there the information that you consider correct. You should be careful to do it later after you have finished the interview, to avoid displeasure or resentment of the person.

Line No. 6.-How long have you lived in this canton?

Ask the question and write down the response in the corresponding space.

When a person has resided always in the same place in which you are interviewing them, simply mark with an "X" the box "Always"; in the contrary case, write down the number of completed years that they have resided in the canton. When a person has not resided a complete year in the canton, write "Less than 1" in the space that says: "No. of years".

Line No. 7.- In which canton did you live previously?

When you have marked the box "Always" in question No. 6, do not ask this question No. 7 and mark an "X" in the space meant for writing down the response.

[p. 46]

If a person has not always resided in the same place, ask and write down the name of the Canton where they resided before settling down in the current place of residence, or where you are interviewing them.

If the person does not know the name of the canton, write down the neighborhood, hamlet district and province.

If a person resided before abroad write down the name of the country.

Line No. 8.- Place of birth

By means of this question, knowing in which place the family of each person resided at their birth is desired to be known. One should not simply ask for the place of birth, because the majority of persons were born in hospitals, clinics, etc., that, generally, are not in the same place where the family resided. Because of this you should inquire about the place in which the mother of each person resided and make the annotation that corresponds agreeing with the following:

1) If when the person whose information you are writing down was born, the mother resided in the same canton in which the person resides now (that is, in the canton where being interviewed), you should simply mark an "X".

2) If the mother resided in another canton, write down the name of the canton, and when you cannot get the name of the canton, write down the neighborhood, hamlet, district and province.

3) If the mother resided abroad, write down the name of the country. It is necessary to take into account that these three questions (6, 7 and 8) are intimately related to each other, and also there should exist compatibility between the responses that are written down about the different people in the same group; that is to say that the enumerator should take the necessary care so that there are no contradictions in the responses written down, over all when relating the information of one member of the family with the information of others.

Some times these three questions get different responses for each person, but there are cases in which they have to be the same; such as for example, supposing that all members of a Census Family that you are enumerating, were born and have lived in the same canton, it will result that all the responses to be written down in these questions are equal, since, according to what was explained, the annotation in these cases is an "X" in each one of the spaces. Nevertheless, this situation can vary for the whole family or for some of its members, and then complications will arise. At times it will result that members were born in different cantons, have lived in different cantons and have different years of residing in the canton in which you are enumerating them; it is here when the enumerator should be very careful to avoid contradictions in the information that is written down.

[p. 47]

These observations will be amplified in the period of direct instruction, since expounding here about what constitutes the complications that arise with these three questions when doing the enumeration and how one should proceed to avoid errors may be very complex.

Line No. 9.- Nationality

Ask the question and write down the annotation according to the following:

1) If one is Costa Rican by birth, write down an "X".

2) If one is a naturalized Costa Rican, write down "NX".

3) If one is a foreigner, write down the nationality that the person reports. If a person has more than one nationality, write down the one corresponding to the country of birth.

Line No. 10.- Social Security

This question should be asked also to all persons. By means of it, what is to be known is the size and the location of the population that enjoys the protection of Social Security, through any of its regimes, such as Sickness and Maternity, Seniority, Handicap and Death; and in direct (direct insurance) or indirect (indirect or family insurance). The enumerator should be careful to ask if the Head of Family or the spouse has family insurance, in which case all children less then 18 years old will be protected by Social Security, it should be marked, for them, the box "Yes".

Also you should mark the corresponding box according to whether the person is protected or not in direct or indirect form, by any regime of Social Security.

Take into account that here Social Security is discussed or that is that administration of the Costa Rican Social Security Fund. Those who administer the National Institute of Security are "Individual Insurances:", and are not thought of in this question.

Educational Characteristics

Ask these questions only to persons seven years old or older.

When filling about these lines it is convenient to consult the age (line 4), so that compatibility exists in the responses.

For Census purposes, "regular education" will be understood to be that which persons receive in primary school, secondary schools, and universities.

[p. 48]

Normal schools are considered university level.

Line 11.- Do you attend currently

Primary school, Secondary school or University?

Mark the box "Yes", when a person 7 years old or older, attended, for at least one day during the month of March, a center of regular education, and the box "No" in the contrary case.

Other Centers of Education

If a person attended at least one day of the month of March in any center of education, write down the type of center: commercial school, vocational school, language school, etc. If a person did not attend one of these centers, simply write "No".

Line No. 12.- Last grade or year completed

Like the previous question, this one should be asked only to persons 7 years old or older.
Write the number of the highest grade or year that a person has passed. In this question it is necessary to insist a little, since, generally, a person tends to say the grade or year that the person is in; while the last passed is what is to be known.

You should write down the number of the grade or year in the corresponding line agreeing with the level of education. If a person does not remember the information exactly, but knows they attended primary school, secondary school or university, write down a "d" (which means unknown in the respective line.

Many university students take subjects of different years, always write down the last year that they have completely passed.

In the case of university graduates, who although they are have not taken the exams to obtain their professional title, the last year passed should always be written down. If a person has a university degree (medical, law, or economy, etc.), write a "G" (which means graduated) in the line that says "University".

When a person has not passed any grade, mark the box that has this name (No Grade); this box should be marked for two groups of persons, namely:

1) Those being 7 or more years old, never have attended school.

2) Children or any other person who is taking first grade in primary education.

[p. 49]

Line No. 13.- Do you know how to read and write?

This question is included with the purpose of knowing the literacy and should be asked only for persons 7 years old or older.

Mark the box "Yes" when a person can read and write a simple paragraph in any language. The box "No" should be marked for four groups of persons, namely:

1) Those who do not know how to read or write a simple paragraph

2) Those who only know how to read.

3) Those who only know how to sign and/or write their name, and

4) Those who at one time knew how to read and write, put have forgotten it.

In the case of persons who currently are taking classes in the second grade of primary education or any other higher grade, it is not necessary to ask the question; mark the box "Yes" automatically.

Occupational Characteristics

Ask these questions only to persons 12 years old or older.

This part of the form joins many interesting aspects relative to the occupation of the individuals. By means of these six questions it will be able to be known where and in what the Costa Rican population works, how many are employees, employers or exclusively students; how many women work only in the house, and much more information.

Logically to arrive at obtaining comparable information, all the enumerators should follow the norms and established definitions.

Line No. 14.- General classification

By means of the mark that you make in the appropriate box, the whole population will be classified, agreeing with its primary occupational characteristics.

You should only mark one box for each person. Ask what a person does and then include it in the line that corresponds, according to the following definitions that are given:

Employed: is each person 12 years old or older who, during the reference period (March 1963), has worked for at least 6 days or work days. If they were absent from their job because of vacations, sickness, involuntary stoppage of work or strike, consider them as employed. Take them as such, since by having worked an occupation they have received or not, directly or indirectly, a payment in cash, in kind, or in both forms.

Student: is any person 12 years old or older who is dedicated exclusively to studying. If a person as well as studying, worked 6 or more days during the reference period (March 1963) consider them as "employed".

Unemployed: is all persons 12 years old or older capable of working (that is to say, they worked before and look for work) not one who looked for it for the first time), who during the month of March 1963 did not work any occupation, for at least 6 days or work days.

If a person12 years old or older, capable of working, worked less than 6 days or work days in the month of March, write them down as "Unemployed".

If a person 12 years old or older, capable of working, is not working on the date of the Census, or when the enumerator interviews them, but worked for a space of 6 or more days or work days in the month of March, they should be classified as "Employed", since this information does not refer to the date of the Census nor to the interview that the enumerator did, but rather that there is for them a period of reference: the month of March 1963.

Keep in mind that in this group also are included all persons, capable of working, who did not work during the reference period; therefore do not include here the incapacitated (blind, paralytic, etc.), who do not work due to their physical condition, nor pensioners, who are included in another group.

Domestic Craft: In this group are included women 12 years old or older who dedicate their time to chores of the home and do not work any other occupation, except pensioners or retirees. Generally they are understood to be a mother or daughters, also any other relative who resides in the Dwelling.

Servants and other employees are "Employed" and should be written down as such in the form.

Other: You should include in this group all persons 12 years old or older who are not included in the previous concepts. The persons referred to in this group are:

a) Pensioner and retirees; or that is those who live exclusively on a pension or retirement payments. They should always be written down even if they do domestics chores in their home.

[p. 51]

b) Rentiers; or those persons who draw investments from any origin and live exclusively from them. They should always be written down even if they do domestic labors in their home.

c) Persons interned in institutions; who are residents in jails, hospitals, convents, asylums, etc., permanently. Temporary interned (or that is who are going to remain there less then a year) who have an occupation, which they are not doing because of being interned occasionally in the institution should not be included among these; such persons should be classified as "Employed".

Other persons; includes persons such as blind, beggars, paralytics, etc. always who do not have any occupation, nor are interned in institutions.

When a person should be included in this group, it is necessary to specify, writing down that which corresponds to concepts a), b), c) and d).

Line No. 15.-Occupation

Ask this question only for "Employed" or "Unemployed".

Write down in this space the word or expression that describes clearly the nature of the job that a person did during the reference period (March 1963). When a person has had more than one job in this period ask and write down the principle one, or that is the one which reported the largest wages.

Write down words and definitions that define the nature of the job in a precise form; for example: farm worker, carpenter's aid, street salesperson, civil engineer, lawyer, cashier, nurse, sanitary inspector, carpenter, mason, teacher.

Avoid the use of generic terms such as: worker, aid, owner, day laborer, etc., which say nothing about nature or class of work that a person did during the period of reference, which is what is wanted.

When it concerns "Unemployed", ask and write down the last occupation the person had, it does not matter how long ago it was.

Keep in mind that here what you should write down is the occupation and not profession. Of course, it can happen, and it is very frequent, that both (occupation and profession) coincide; but also it can happen that they do not; for example: it is common that doctors, engineers, lawyers, etc. work in the same profession; nevertheless also it is frequent that a Doctor is the Administrator of a hospital, or an Engineer the Manager of a company; cases in which the occupation of a person does not coincide with their profession.

[p. 52]

It is evident that in the last two examples, the occupation of the doctor is "Administrator" and that of the engineer is "Manager". Because of this is, precisely, why the enumerator should ask for the occupation, and in the case of professionals, insist more from the person to determine if the profession or occupation coincides, that is to say, if the doctor works as a doctor, the lawyer as a lawyer, engineer as engineer, etc.

Line No. 16.- Branch of activity [Industry]

Ask this question only for the case of "Employed" and "Unemployed".

This question is intimately related to the previous, you should write down the branch of activity that corresponds to the occupation written down in it, that is to say, the type of industry, business, institution, agricultural operation, public dependence, etc., in which the person did their occupation. Write down expressions like: car repairs, shoe factory, Ministry of Government Work, local store, bar, magistrate, hospital, bank, Ministry of Health, shoe store, pharmacy, etc. Here also you should avoid generic terms such as: workshop, factory, government, commercial establishment, etc., which say nothing about what is wanted to be known.

When it concerns a commercial establishment, specify if it is "Wholesale" or "Retail".

If a person works for a company that manages more than one activity, write down the one that you are informed is most important.

Line No. 17.- Occupational category

This question should only be asked to "Employed" and "Unemployed".

By means of this question every person is wanted to be classified writing down the occupational position that is corresponding, according to the following definitions.

Employer: is the owner of any company, big or small, or one who manages a profession or craft and has one or more remunerated workers. One who does not have remunerated employees is not an employer.

Family Worker: is a person not remunerated, who manages an occupation in an economic company run by a member of the Census Home.

Worker with Remuneration: is a person who receives remuneration in the form of salary, wage, commission, paid by the job or in kind and who works for an employer, it being either a person or a public or private entity.

Worker for their Own Account: is a person who is dedicated to an occupation, profession or office, in an independent form, that is, without remunerated employees, nor being employed by anyone.

[p. 53]

One who has no remunerated employees also is included in this category. A worker by their own account can work alone or with an associate.

You should, according to these definitions, assign to each person their category and mark the corresponding box; in no case should you mark more than one box. When you are found with any special situation that you consider doubtful, write it down in the space for "Observations".

Line No. 18.- Wage or salary

Ask this question only for "Worker with Remuneration". In this space you should write down the amount of the wage or salary yielded by each person during the month of March 1963. This information can correspond to one or more occupations, according to whether the person did only one or more than one occupation in this month.

Where it is possible you should obtain exact information of the wage or salary without deducting Social Security fees, premiums of the National Insurance Institute, special pension funds, or any other deduction of the wage or salary of the person.

Getting this information is difficult, since the person possibly will be suspicious about the use that you will give it. You should display the most ability possible to make them understand that their fears are unfounded, because the law guaranties the confidentiality of the information; you should insist also that the information will not be used for purposes outside of Census purposes, nor for tax purposes, which is one of the causes for which the person fears giving this information. It is advisable also that you make them understand that this information is of great importance, and that when supplying it correctly, they will be contributing to the knowledge of a statistic of much national interest, since it is necessary to know what resources the working class counts on to satisfy their necessities, since this is one of the principal aspects to consider when the economic and social development of the country is being planned.

Write down the information about the daily or monthly wage, according to what is supplied to you, in the corresponding space. It is absolutely indispensable to write down, also the number of days that corresponds to this remuneration.

When a person does not know the salary of another member of the Census Home, is will be necessary to request that they estimate or calculate it, since this question, like all the rest, should have its response that always corresponds, that is to say, in this case for all of the "Workers with Remuneration". With the purpose that such an estimation be the most exact possible, the enumerator should help the person, basing themselves on the knowledge that the person possesses about salaries, and in other information that they have obtained from persons with related or equal occupations; so that like in the conditions of the life of the family, or other aspects they can give an approximate idea about the incomes of its members.

When, with the purpose previously mentioned, you make use of the obtained information in other Census Homes, remember that you should not mention to whom it belongs for any reason, since all the information that is compiled is strictly confidential. You can consult this information to help the person, but without saying that they gave you a specific piece of information in another Census Home, but rather it is better to use such information as general knowledge that you have acquired on this matter. Example: in a Census Home they have informed you that one of their members is a carpenter and earns 20.00 colones a day; you go to another Dwelling in which another carpenter lives, and he does not know his salary. You can help him estimate his salary, using as a resource, the information that they told you in the first Census Home; without saying, later, that it is information that they have supplied to you before.

Line No. 19.- Length of Employment

This question should be asked to all persons 12 years old or older.

In this space you should write down the number of months that a person was working last year (from April 1, 1962 to March 31, 1963). If a person had different jobs at the same time, write down the months worked in each one and write down this information; when you write it indicate in "Observations" that this information corresponds to two, three, four, etc, occupations.

When a person has worked less than a month during the period mentioned, write "Less than 1" in the space that says "No, of months". In the other cases, write down the number of complete months: that is to say, if a person worked 3 months and 20 days, write down 3 months; if 9 months and 4 days were worked, write down 9 months, etc.

Observations

At the bottom of the form appear some lines that are included so that you make all explanations that you consider necessary to clarify or complement any of the information with which you have filled out the form.

It is absolutely indispensable that you explain in this space all your doubts. Only in this manner can the information from the form that it submitted to the final revision be interpreted correctly. Also, in this form you can economize your effort and time in additional visits to the Dwelling.

3.- Revision Of The Form

Before requesting information for the Agricultural and Livestock Census, you should revise carefully the information written down, assuring yourself that no contradictions exist in it and that you have not omitted any question.

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This is the last chance to assure yourself that you have finished a complete enumeration, that is to say, you have included all the members of the Census Home. Once you have done the revision of the information written down, count the number of persons included in the form, separating them by sex and compare the information with that written down in question No. 16 ("Residents in this Dwelling") from the Dwelling form. If this information does not coincide, you should repeat it with the person to determine if any person in the Population form was not there or was left out, or it is was that the person made a mistake when giving the response to question No. 16 from the Dwelling form. In all those cases the number of men and women included in the Population form has to be equal to the information written down in question No. 16 of the Dwelling form.

Special emphasis to be is made that it should be asked if there are children under 1 year, and proceed to enumerate them if they were born before 12:00 at night March 31, 1963; this is because frequently the enumerated person tends to omit them. Equally it is advisable to remember here that the enumerator should ask in all Dwellings, if any member of the Census Home is found to be interned in an institution (hospital, jail, school, etc) and proceed according to what is explained in the point titled "Persons Interned in Institutions" that appears on page 51 of this manual.

Remember that, after revising all the annotations in the Population form, and having proceeded as indicated previously, you should ask the enumerated person if any administrator or Farm Producer resides in the Dwelling, find them and interview them to fill out the forms corresponding to the Agricultural and Livestock Census.