Instructions for Filling out
the Questionnaire of the
Third National Population Census
State Statistical Bureau of the People's Republic of China
Article Three of the "Statute of the Third Population Census of the People's Republic of China" stipulates that "Everyone who holds the citizenship of the People's Republic of China and resides in the country must be enumerated". Article Five of the Statute stipulates that "The principle of permanent resident enumeration should be followed, and everybody should be enumerated at the place of his/her permanent residence. One person can only be enumerated in one place." This article further states that "These people should be enumerated in the local city/county": [these are people who . . .]
2. Have resided in the local city/county for more than one year but hold the household registration elsewhere;
3. Have resided in the local city/county for less than one year but have been away from their places of household registration for more than one year;
4. Happen to be in the local city/county at the reference time, but with the household registration yet to be settled;
5. Originally lived in the local city/county but do not hold the permanent household registration at the reference time for working or studying in a foreign country".
"One year" mentioned above means one continuous year. Some people in rural communes and production brigades often go to another city/county as peddlers, for construction jobs and other activities, and those who come back frequently should not be considered as being away for more than one year, but should be enumerated in the places of their household registration.
Those who are involved in the activities requiring geographical mobility, like prospecting, survey and drawing, construction, communications and transport as well as people living on boats and those engaged in mobile service [pg. 16] of handicraft and sideline production, are all to be enumerated at the places of their household registrations in order to facilitate enumeration and avert repetition or omission.
Those who originally lived in a local city/county but do not hold the permanent household registration at the reference time for working or studying in a foreign country are to be treated in accordance with the following stipulations given in Article Thirteen of the Statute:
2. Students and postgraduates studying abroad, no matter at their own expense or at government expense, should be declared and get enumerated by their families.
To prevent any omission of those people on the move to another city county, Article Seven of the Statute stipulates that all those who move out of the local city/county during the period between June 16 and June 30, 1982 are to be enumerated at the place of departure when they begin moving, by a staff member appointed by the population census office of the commune/street committee. Any birth or death occurring among those people during this period should be reported promptly to the related organ at the place of departure by the organ at the place of destination. People who move out of the local city/county before June 15 are to be enumerated at their immigration places; in case they fail to reach the destination at the time of field enumeration, a supplementary report should be made immediately after their arrival. The supplementary enumeration should be done no later than July 15. In order to avoid any omission of the people who migrate during this period, care must be taken to publicize and give an explanation to them in advance.
Those working on a farm, or in a forestry centre, or any similar enterprise which extends beyond one city/county are to be enumerated at their usual residence if their household registration is in another city/county. For example, an enterprise is in City A and its division is located in County B, people working in this division with their permanent household registrations in City A should be enumerated in County B as people defined in (2) or (3) of Article Five of the Statute.
If an administrative division of Province A or County A is located in Province B or County B with no common border with Province/County A, as is the case with Chongqing city's Shuangqiao district which is located in Dazu county having no common border with Chongqing city, the census in such "enclaves" should be taken in accordance with the existing administrative divisions, that is, the census in Shuangqiao district should be taken under the direction of the census organ of Chongqing city.
An enterprise or institution of Province A or County A which is located in Province B or County B is called a "flying unit." Following the principle of permanent residence enumeration, people working in such units are to be enumerated in the county where they usually live. In special cases which make the enumeration at the permanent residence difficult, they may be enumerated in the other county when an agreement has been reached between the census organs of the two counties.
In areas having a dispute over administrative divisions, census enumeration should be carried out in accordance with the existing administrative divisions.
A. In accordance with the relevant stipulations set forth in the Statute and within the enumeration area he/she is assigned to, the enumerator, when he/she sets out to enumerate, should first check against the "List of Heads of Households" that has been prepared beforehand to make sure that the household stated by the respondent belongs to his/her enumeration area. If the household is already on the list, the name of the head of household should be marked to indicate the completeness of enumeration of the household. In case there is any omission in the list, a supplement has to be made. The enumerator should tell those respondents where they should go if they get to the wrong place for enumeration.
B. In accordance with the stipulations of the Statute, the enumerator, in filling out the questionnaire, should find out by inquiring the details of every person and every household in the order of the topics in the questionnaire. Information in "Residence Registration Booklet" and "List of Heads of Households" compiled before the enumeration can only be used for reference, transcriptions are not allowed. Therefore, a note is printed on the questionnaire: "Respondents must provide information honestly, enumerators must record the answers accurately." When the information given by the respondent varies with the "Residence Registration Booklet" or "List [pg. 18] of the Heads of Households", the enumerator should check the fact by an appropriate method before filling out the column. In case an immediate result of the checking is not possible, a note may be put into the remarks column. However, verification should be made afterwards and the questionnaire be completed with another note in the remarks column.
C. The order to be followed in filling out the questionnaire. Topics concerning individuals should be completed before those concerning the household. Individual records should follow the order of the head of household, his/her spouse, their children and relatives.
D. There are two ways to record information in the questionnaire. (1) Circle a response code corresponding to the answer; (2) Enter words or numerals.
There are 8 topics that have possible answer categories. These are: relationship to the head of household, sex, household registration status of permanent residence, educational level, status of non-working population, marital status, birth order in 1981, and type of the household. When the information on an individual or the household conforms to a category, the code of that category should be circled. Take the topic of "marital status." A category of "married" with a code "2" is to be circled like [graph of a circled number "2"] for a person who has spouse. For every topic which requires an answer, neither omissions nor double selections are permitted.
There are 11 topics with no possible answer categories. They are: name, age, nationality, industry, occupation, number of children ever born and now living, household address, total number of persons in the household, number of births and number of deaths in the household in 1981, and number of people in the household who hold permanent household registration but have been away for more than one year. Information with regard to these topics is to be recorded in words or numerals. Words should be written vertically in columns of "name" and "nationality", but words or numerals for other columns should be written horizontally.
Of the 13 individual topics, six are intended for everybody; one for persons at age 6 and above; four for persons at age 15 and above; and the last two, one for women at age 15 to 64, the other for women of childbearing age between 15 and 49. The upper and lower limits of age mentioned above should, without exception, be the complete years of age at the reference time. A topic may be ignored by those whose age falls outside the limits.
Enumerators should not put anything in the small boxes at the bottom of each row during enumeration. Coders, however, are to fill codes into them for computer data entry when enumeration and verification are completed.
Each page of the questionnaire admits personal information for five individuals. Extra pages may be used for a household with more than five members, in which case all pages of the form should be glued together at the upper left-hand corner. Starting with Page 2 of the completed questionnaire, i.e., the extra page for the household with more than five members, the name of the head of household ought to be put at the lower right-hand corner preceding the number of pages for the household, in order to prevent confusion in case of detached pages.
In completing the questionnaire, number of total pages for each household and serial number on each page of the household as well as in the volume must be noted down. Information on household topics is only to be recorded on the front page when several pages are used for one household.
A collective household with less than 998 persons may enter them as one household into the questionnaire, which may have two hundred successive pages. In order to facilitate coding, a household with more than 998 persons has to be divided into several smaller ones for enumeration.
A fountain pen should be used to fill in the questionnaire both by circling and writing. Handwriting must be legible and clear, and no hasty or careless writing is allowed. A homonymous Chinese character cannot be used. The "Scheme for Simplifying Chinese Characters" published by the state must be followed in simplified Chinese characters. Arabic numerals have to be written down in the standardized form as "1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0" instead of in a free hand.
E. Method of correcting mistakes in the questionnaire. To reduce misrecording, the enumerators should get the accurate information on each topic before putting it down. When an error occurs, double horizontal lines are used to cross out an incorrect entry of words or numerals written in a horizontal way and the correct one is put above. Or the incorrect words written vertically should be crossed out with double vertical lines and the correct one put on the right. For example, when "5" is misused for a family of 4 members in the blank of "Total number of persons in the household", [picture of correction shown] is the way to correct it. Again, if Zhang San [Chinese characters shown] is recorded by mistake for a person named Li Si [Chinese characters shown], it ought to be corrected as [Chinese characters shown]. With respect to a mistake in circling, double lines have to be drawn through the [pg. 20] wrong circle and the answer category that follows, then a right code corresponding to the fact is circled. Example: when code "1" under the heading of sex is circled as a result of carelessness, the correction should be done as [example shown].
F. A production team/residents' group is taken as a basic unit in filling out the attached form, the "Registration Form of the Deaths in 1981 by a Production Team or a Residents' Group", with the information to be obtained from the grassroot cadres by inquiry. The number of deaths in this form should be checked against the sum total declared by the households. If the two figures do not match, investigations should be made first among quarters concerned, or the households concerned may be interviewed when necessary.
G. When an enumerator has completed a questionnaire for a household, he/she should read it out to the respondent for checking. Both the respondent and the enumerator should sign their names or affix their seals at the lower left-hand corner when everything is found in good order.
H. An appropriate arrangement for private enumeration should be made for those who so request in consideration of keeping their personal information or information of their families confidential. Census workers are also obliged to keep the secret on certain topics when the respondents do not want others to know. For instance, cohabitation without any legal marriage registration, or a pre-marital childbearing, or adopted children in the household.
1. Name. Formal name should be given. An alias or nickname should not be used. In case there is no formal name, record the infant name or X nee X (for a woman). With a child who has not been given a name, just write down "not given a name". The enumeration should not be taken as a chance to alter names. This could be done, if somebody wants to, at a household registration agency before the census; and an application is necessary. If the respondent finds a mistake with a name in the household booklet and requests a correction, the enumerator should record the correct name, and make a statement in the remarks column.
2. Relationship to the head of household: Draw a circle on the code before "head of household" for the first person recorded in the family. Other members are identified according to their respective relationship to the head of household. When the respondent is not the head of household, remember not to make such a mistake as recording the relationship from the standpoint of the respondent. That is, if the respondent is the son of the head of household, be sure not to circle "parent" to identify the relationship of the spouse of the head of household from the standpoint of the respondent instead of from the head of household.
In the answer categories under this topic, "child" includes son-in-law/ daughter-in-law. "Grandchild" includes grandson-in-law/granddaughter-in-law, great-grandson/great-granddaughter and great-grandson-in-law/ great-granddaughter-in-law. "Parent" includes father-in-law/mother-in-law. "Grandparent" includes grandparent and great-grandparent-in-law. Circle "7" for brother, sister, aunt, cousin and other relatives. Circle "8" for housekeeper, colleague, schoolmate and other non-relatives. The relationship to each other in a collective household is to be circled as non-relatives.
When the head of household has been away for more than one year, another person should be appointed by this family to replace him/her, and recorded at the number one person's place. The relationship of other members to the new head of household should be identified accordingly. For the convenience of circling, the order of categories and their codes under this topic are not arranged by the seniority in family, but in the light of the structure of most families (generally, it is formed by the head of household, his/her spouse and their children, there are not many cases in which three/four generations live together). Explanation should be given if somebody misunderstands it as disrespect to elders.
4. Age. With regard to the date, month and year of birth, the Gregorian calendar is recommended. If it is recorded in Lunar calendar, fill in the questionnaire as it is, and conversion is not needed. Complete years of age is counted from the date of birth to the reference time. Just write down the number of years as counted, leave out the months. For example, for a child who is two years, eleven months and twenty-nine days old, "2" should be placed preceding the printed characters of "years of age"; for an eight-month-old baby, "0" is put before the printed characters of "years of age". Those who only know their nominal age [pg. 22] or zodiac sign or the sexagenary cycle may work out their complete years of age in reference to the "Age Conversion Table". The date of birth and the complete years of age should be written in Arabic numerals.
5. Nationality [Ethnicity]. Consult the "List of Nationalities" and record the answer. Take the name of the nationality the person belongs to. If one belongs to Hui nationality, put a "Hui" before the printed character of "nationality". Follow the name given in the list even if there is a different name locally. For those nationalities not included in the list, just record the name popular among themselves. Abbreviations should not be used here. For instance [Chinese characters shown] (Ewenki) nationality should not be shortened into [Chinese characters shown] nationality, because there is another nationality called [Chinese characters] (Oroqen).
If the parents are not of the same nationality, it is up to them to decide the nationality of their child under age 18. Persons above 18 are to choose their father's or their mother's nationality by themselves. According to the stipulations in the "Circular Concerning the Principle for Handling the Cases of Resuming and Changing Nationality" issued by the State Commission on Nationalities Affairs, the Population Census Leading Group Under the State Council and the Ministry of Public Security on November 28, 1981, those who want to resume or change their nationalities should go through the formalities at the household registration organs before June 30, 1982. A foreigner who has acquired Chinese citizenship, if his/her original nationality is the same as one of ours, should fill out this column with this one. For example, a Korean having acquired Chinese citizenship should put down Korean nationality in the questionnaire. Otherwise, just fill it with "acquired citizenship", a short form for a foreigner having acquired Chinese citizenship.
6. Household registration status of the permanent residence. Circle the answer as applicable. Part I of the Instructions gives the explanation for what each of the five answer categories under this topic refers to.
7. Educational level. People age 6 and above should provide the information on the topic according to their last record of formal schooling at the reference time, or their schooling equivalent to their present educational level. University level is divided into two categories: graduate and undergraduate. Undergraduate refers to one who once studied at university but did not finish. Postgraduates should draw a circle on "Graduate". Make no distinction between "graduate" and "undergraduate" when the educational level involved is senior middle school and [pg. 23] below. For instance, people who have graduated from, or studied, or are studying at the senior middle school, all circle on "Senior middle school".
"University" includes colleges and junior colleges. People who have passed examination and obtained a certificate through self-study and taken advanced courses of a university curriculum can also be considered as "Graduate". Radio and television university, factory-run university, correspondence and night courses, and courses of other forms run by university can be regarded as universities only if they follow the teaching plan or programme (full course) of the college; those which follow the teaching plan or programme of the secondary vocational or technical school are regarded as secondary vocational schools or secondary technical schools. Those who take a single radio, T.V. or correspondence course should not be marked down as having a university education. Those who are studying or have graduated from secondary technical school should be classified in senior middle school. Those of vocational school at junior middle school level should be classified in junior middle school and vocational school of senior middle school level should be classified in senior middle school. Those who are studying in or have graduated from secondary technical school after having graduated from senior middle school still mark themselves down as senior middle school. The enumerator may choose a certain educational level for those who studied under private tutors according to his or her own declaration.
People age 6 and above who are illiterate or know less than 1,500 words with which they cannot read simple language books and newspapers or write a simple message, should circle on "illiterate or semi-literate". People who know more than 1,500 words and can read simple language books and newspapers and write simple message, are considered as having reached non-illiterate level. They may be put down as having primary school level.
According to state stipulations, people age 12 years and above who declare themselves to be "illiterate or know only a few words'' should be counted as illiterate or semi-literate. Some people between age 6 and 11, who mark themselves down as "illiterate or semi-literate", would not be counted as such in tabulations.
8. Industry. People who are fully 15 years old or above with an occupation should declare the industry he/she is engaged in. The working population refers to those who derive an income from a certain kind of social labor or business. China's employment policy is one of [pg. 24] "combining employment through the introduction of labor department, employment through voluntary organization, and self -employment under the state's overall planning and guidance". Anybody who gets a job through any of the three means, whether he/she is employed in a unit of the state or collective ownership or self-employed and whether the job is a regular or a temporary one, should be considered as employed persons. They include:
(2) Those who do not have a regular job. Anyone with a temporary job on June 30th, 1982, and have participated in social labor for an accumulative period of 16 days in June should be regarded as employed. Their occupations may be qualified with the word "temporary" when filling in the form. For example, temporary bricklayers, etc.
Under the topic of industry, employees should fill in the full name of his/her establishment (including private ones). The name of the establishment should be an independent accounting unit whether of state ownership or collective ownership. When referring to a state-owned complex or large scale factory/mine (e.g. a company, an associated plant etc.), the name of the secondary unit (e.g. a factory, an affiliated factory etc.) should be made clear. For instance, X X Iron Works of X X Iron and Steel Company, X X Poultry/Eggs Department of X X Agriculture-Industry-Commerce Joint Enterprise. For commune members, the industry should be recorded as: X X Agricultural Production Team, X X Forestry Production Team and X X Animal Husbandry Production Team. Self-employed laborer should put down the same name marked on their signboard, e.g. "Wang's Teahouse". If there is not a signboard, the form should be filled in with the business they are engaging in, e.g. "private teastand", "private vegetable [pg. 25] vendor", etc. In the case of an individual or an enterprise doing two or more kinds of work concurrently, the work on which most of the time is spent is accepted as the industry.
9. Occupation. Working people age 15 and above should report their occupation. Under this topic, specific types of work these people are doing should be written down. For example, workers should register as "spinner", "fitter'', "typesetter", "driver", etc. Peasants should register as "grain grower", "cotton grower", "pig breeder", "poultry raiser", etc. Commercial and service trades personnel may be identified as "shop assistant", "chef", "conductor", etc. Government staff may be classified as "X X section chief", "typist", etc. The answer should not be in such general terms as "workers", "peasants", or "cadres".
When a person is holding two or more jobs, the one he/she spends most of his/her time on counts. If their responsibilities are inconsistent with their titles, describe their present jobs. For example, for a worker who is released from production to do administrative work, fill in this column with "workshop statistician", "clerk of X X section" etc. Those who are not at their post presently on account of illness, injury, holiday-leave, being released from work to study, enterprise readjustment, labor-reform, etc., should register under the original work. Apprentices should register under the trade they are learning to do. If his/her trade is still undecided, the person can put down "type of work undecided".
10. Status of non-working people. Non-working people age 15 and above, should circle one answer category accordingly.
For student now studying at school, draw a circle on "student at school".
Those who are doing mostly housework belong to "doing housework". Those people who engage in sideline production at home as their major means of upkeep should fill in under the employed population and should write down their industry and occupation and should not mark down as "doing housework".
Young people attending continuation courses or studying on their own in preparation for entering a school of a higher grade may circle on "awaiting school enrollment" if they so wish.
Graduates from institutions of higher learning, technical and vocational middle school as well as demobilized soldiers in city/town who are [pg. 26] waiting for state assignment, should be identified as "awaiting state employment".
Jobless people living in urban areas who are of working age and are capable of and willing to work, (the definition of working population is given in item 8 of Chapter III in the Instructions), draw a circle on "awaiting job assignment in city/town".
The difference between "awaiting school enrollment" and "awaiting job assignment in city/town" lies in the fact that the former do not want a job while the latter has applied for a job. To differentiate between the two, the answer categories under the topic should be circled according to the respondent's statement.
Retired cadres, workers and staff and those who have quit the work, as well as peasants living on pension, should be recorded as "retired or resigned", their industry or occupation before retirement should not be taken. Neither should they circle "doing housework" even though they do look after the house. Retired workers and staff who participate in a kind of social labor at the census time and earn a supplementary income making up his/her pension to become 100% of the original pay should fill in their industry and occupation rather than circling on "retired or resigned". Those who do not belong to any of the above-mentioned categories, for instance, someone incapable of work due to deformity, should circle on "other"; people being arrested and serving a sentence are dealt with in the same way as well.
11. Marital status. People age 15 and above should register their marital status. Those who are not married at the census time should be recorded as "never married"; whoever has a spouse at the census time including those who remarried after being bereaved or divorced should be classified as "married". Those who remain single since bereavement or divorce at the census time, should be identified as "widowed" or "divorced" accordingly.
The real marital status should be reflected in the form, notwithstanding the illegal status of the marriage.
12. The total number of children born and the number remaining
alive. All females of child-bearing age between 15 to 64 should be inquired of. The topic includes two questions: Firstly how many children ever born alive to the woman, namely the total number of live-born children (including children who died shortly after birth); and secondly the number of children [pg. 27] living at the reference time, irrespective of whether they are living together with their mother or not; but the children who are dead at the reference time should be excluded. The total number of children born and the number remaining alive refer only to the children the woman bore herself, not including those left behind by a previous wife or adopted from a relative. Generally speaking, adopted children are not included either. However, with some women who have kept adoption a secret she can register her adopted child as her own-born and presently alive child. The upper age limit for this topic is fixed at 64 to acquire fertility information of pre-liberation days for comparison's sake. The women above 65 years old need not be asked.
13. Bore the following in 1981. Women of child-bearing age between 15 and 49 (their completed years of age at reference time) should give an answer to this topic. It means this woman should declare the order of live birth (including the birth of a baby that died shortly afterwards) given by her (in or out of wedlock) in 1981. Twins, triplets or even more babies born at a single birth should be counted as one birth order. All child-bearing age women, married or unmarried, who did not give birth in 1981 should mark down "0" in the form.
Live-borns are babies who breathed or had other phenomenon of life such as heart-beats, umbilical cord throbbing or voluntary muscle systole after leaving its mother's womb (disregarding the number of months of pregnancy).
Under the "address of the household" in the questionnaire, one should record the county, commune, production brigade, production team, or city, street, neighborhood committee, residents' group to which the household belongs; the name of the street/lane and the house number should be written down in parentheses; in rural areas where there is no house number, the number can be left out. To save time, the name of a city/county may be stamped on questionnaires for the same area, if possible. "Collective household" should take on the name of the unit to which this collective household belongs.
(1) Type of household. Choose either domestic household or collective household accordingly. People living together in one family should be registered as one household and should not be looked upon as two, disregarding the fact that certain members might be working in a government [pg. 28] organization, an enterprise or an institution, or other members might be counted as rural population, or some members have commodity grain while other members have not. It is up to the public security organ to decide on the filling of the household registration booklet. For a collective household, a circle should be drawn on "2", the name of the collective household should also be written on the upper right-hand corner of the questionnaire following the "name of collective household".
(3) Number of people in the household. Refers to the number of people that should be enumerated as stipulated in Article Five of the "Statute of the Population Census". People having the permanent household registration but "have been away from their place of household registration for more than one year" should be excluded.
(4) Number of births in the household in 1981. The number and sex of the babies born alive between O hour of January 1st, 1981 and 24 hours of December 31st, 1981 should be registered. Attention must be paid not to omit those live-born babies who died immediately after birth during this period; particularly those born that died immediately in hospitals. For the enumeration of the newly born population, attention must be paid to clearly demarcate the end of 1980 from the beginning of 1981 and the end of 1981 from the beginning of 1982. Try to avoid any confusion. Households without new born babies in 1981 should have "0" marked in the column of "Number of births in the household in 1981". There should be no omission. The figure should also be checked with the enumeration under ''Bore the following in 1981" to avoid duplications and omissions.
(5) Number of deaths in the household in 1981. Number of deaths occurring in the household between O hour of January 1st, 1981 to 24 hours of December 31st, 1981 and sex of the deceased should be written down in the questionnaire. If there is no death in the household mark a "0" in the column of "Number of deaths in the household". There should be no omission.
With cases of birth or death that occurred in 1981 in this locality, but the family has moved to another place, then the births and deaths should be enumerated at the new residence.
For the purpose of calculating the life expectancy of China's population, infant mortality rate and conduct population forecast, information on [pg. 29] death occurring between O hour of January 1st, 1981 to 24 hours of December 31st, 1981, should be recorded in the "Registration Form for Deaths in the Year of 1981" attached to the questionnaire, with production team or residents' group as a unit. The name, sex, age at death, date of birth, date of death and name of the head of the household should all be entered. An infant that died without a name should be put down as "not been given a name". When filling the attached form, the enumerators should make investigations among heads of production team or residents' group. Attention should be paid not to omit collective households here.
In cases of death in a single person household and of a whole family that occurred in 1981, the production team or the residents' group should be held responsible for registering. Such died-out households should not be calculated in the tabulation of the total number of households. These forms should be placed at the end of the volume bound with production team or residents' group as a unit. Mind any omission of the recorded death figure in tabulation.
(6) Number of people with the permanent household registration but away for more than one year. This refers to those who have permanent household registrations in the local county/city but have been away for more than one year. In addition to the number, their name and sex should also be entered in the column "annex: registration of persons with permanent household registration but absent over one year" on the right-hand side of the questionnaire. If there are more than four persons of this kind, fill in the "Continuation Form for Population with Permanent Household Registration but Away for More Than One Year", and glue it onto the questionnaire. If there are no such case in the household an "0" should be put down after the printed character of "total" under this topic.
A household with all its members away for more than one year (i.e. "empty household") cannot be counted as one household in the tabulation. When bound into a volume with production team or residents' group as a unit, these questionnaires should be bound at the last pages. Take care not to omit the recorded number of people with permanent household registration but away for more than one year.