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Chile 1982

Enumerator Manual, XV National Population Census and IV Housing Census

[Pp. 1-8 were not translated into English.]

[p. 9]

A. People in the Household

In each household, you should enumerate:

--Every person who spent the night in the household the night before the day of the census, even if they are not present at the time you arrive.

--People who, being absent that night due to work or other special reasons, returned the morning of the census and have not been enumerated in another place. For example: night watchmen, physicians, nurses on-call, police officers, midwives, etc.

--All babies that were born before midnight and all people who died after midnight.

[p. 10]

Example:

In this box you should record everyone who spent the night in the household the night before the day of the census, following the order indicated on the form.

Don't forget to ask about babies and the elderly, since there is an unintentional tendency to forget them.

In Collective Households, don't fill in this box.

[The above directions refer to a picture of box "A" on the enumeration form, which has been filled in as an example.]

B. Number of People in the Household

Once the list of people in the household is finished, count them, by sex, and record the number of men, women, and the sum total of both.

If you have used more than one form, record this information only on the first one.

[The above directions refer to a picture of box "B" on the enumeration form, which has been filled in as an example.]

C. Type of Household

Private Household: Is one made up of a single person or a group of related or unrelated people who live together. That is, they eat and stay together.

Collective Household: Is one made up of a group of unrelated people who live together for reasons of health, work, religion, study, discipline, etc.

[The above directions refer to a picture of box "C" on the enumeration form, which has been filled in as an example.]

[p. 11]

II. Dwelling

A dwelling is any separate and independent place of habitation constructed, converted or prepared for permanently or temporarily housing people. A house, an apartment, a room in a tenement, a cabin, an improved shack, a hospital, a barracks, a boardinghouse, a hotel, are dwellings.

Data about the dwelling

Occupancy condition of the dwelling

Occupied with people present: if, upon visiting the dwelling, they open the door or answer

Occupied with people absent: if there are indications that the dwelling is occupied, but no one answers. In this case, investigate with the neighbors the reason for the absence. If it is momentary, you should visit again as many times as necessary on the day of the census. If, despite doing this, you are not able to enumerate the occupants, leave a citation and fill in the form with the information that the neighbors can provide you with about the number of people in the household; type of Household; data about the dwelling and the household. Furthermore, record this fact in the Route Form [Hoja de Recorrido: a form used to make a complete list of all buildings, dwellings, and households that exist in the Enumeration Sector on the day of the census], also noting on that form the number of people who occupy the dwelling.

Unoccupied: a dwelling that is not inhabited on the day of the census. The causes may be:

For rent or sale;
New: dwellings being finished or recently finished and awaiting their first occupants;
Temporarily unoccupied: vacation or summer dwellings; for workers that occupy them seasonally; etc.;
To be demolished;
For another reason

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 1 in this section of the enumeration form.]

Type of dwelling

The characteristics that correspond to some types of dwellings mentioned in the questionnaire are the following:

A. Private Dwelling:

House: permanent building; separate and independent with a direct entrance from the street, garden, or lot (cottage, bungalow, hut, etc.)

Apartment: a dwelling located in a permanently constructed building; has a separate entrance from a hallway, stairway, or other common space in the building, or direct access from the street. The occupants can come and go without passing through a premises occupied by others.

Tenement dwelling: is a room or group of rooms that make up an independent dwelling. [p. 12] They are located along a common-use hallway and have shared facilities. Also considered within this alternative are buildings rented completely by rooms or groups of rooms and which have shared facilities.

Squatter settlement: is a temporary building made from waste materials (cardboard, tin, waste construction materials). They make up groups of dwellings located in uncultivated areas belonging to others where there are neither urbanization nor hygienic conditions for living there. It is also possible to find squatter dwellings in isolated areas or constructed close to other dwelling groups.

Shack, rustic hut, cabin: is typically a rural building, separate or independent, made of light materials (clay with straw, reeds, sticks and mud, dried stone [pirca], etc.).

B. Collective Dwelling

Boardinghouse, Guesthouse: has the same structural characteristics as private dwellings.

Boardinghouses and guesthouses with a municipal license, regardless of the number of boarders, will always be included in this category.

Private dwellings with 6 or more boarders will also be included here.

If the dwelling has 5 boarders or fewer, the proper option within group A. Private Dwelling should be marked.

If the dwelling is found unoccupied and you have finished questions 1 and 2, end the interview.

If the dwelling is collective, complete only questions 1 and 2 of this section and continue on to

Section III. People in the Household.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 2 in this section of the enumeration form.]

Questions 3 through 16 will only be asked for occupied private dwellings.

What is the predominant construction material?

Specify the predominant construction material used in the construction of exterior walls, roofs, and floors. When in doubt, consult with the occupants of the dwelling. If more than one material was used in the construction, reference only the one used in greatest proportion. For example, if the roof has 1/4 slate covering and 3/4 tiles, mark only "Tiles."

A. In the exterior walls?: indicate the predominant material, taking into account all of the exterior walls of the dwelling.

B. In the roof covering?: do as in the previous case. For buildings more than one story tall, indicate the covering of the building's roof.

C. In the floor?: indicate the predominant material, taking into account all of the floors of the dwelling.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 3 in this section of the enumeration form.]

[p. 13]

4. Does it have electric lighting?
Fill in the oval that corresponds to the answer given by the informant.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 4 in this section of the enumeration form.]

5. Does it have piped water?
Fill in the oval that corresponds to the dwelling's water supply.

If the dwelling has piped water, it can be:

a) Inside the dwelling
b) Outside the dwelling: faucet in the yard, patio, site; Outside of the yard, patio, or site; From a tap in the street, etc.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 5 in this section of the enumeration form.]

6. What is the source of the water used by the dwelling?
This refers to the origin of the water consumed by the dwelling. It can be from:

a) a public network
b) a well or water wheel [noria]
c) a river, runoff, a brook, etc.
d) other sources, in which case you should specify. For example, in certain parts of the country water is distributed by trucks or hauled in by animals.

If it is provided by more than one source, write down the one most used.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 6 in this section of the enumeration form.]

7. How many households are there in this dwelling?
In order to have the correct answer to this question, we must remember what is meant by census household.

The census household is made up of related or unrelated people that live together.

It corresponds to the common and current idea of a family. Let us remember, also, that a person who lives alone constitutes a census household.

Fill in the appropriate oval, according to the number of households there are in the dwelling.

If there is more than one household in the dwelling, remember that you must use separate forms for each one of them. In these cases, you should fill in only questions 8 to 16 for the remaining households and continue with the questions in Section III. People in the Household.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 7 in this section of the enumeration form.]

[p. 14]

Household Data

8. Does it have a toilet?

If the household has a toilet, you should ask [Is it] for the exclusive use of this household?

Fill in the oval for "Yes" when the toilet is only used by the members of the household.

If the toilet is shared with another household, as would be the case with those who rent a room or rooms, or with relatives who cook separately, fill in the oval for "No."

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 8 in this section of the enumeration form.]

9. The toilet is?:

Refers to the toilet's drainage system.

Connected to a Sewer or Septic Tank, when the toilet drains into the public network's system, or into a well system that is similar to the sewer for purposes of drainage.

Above an Irrigation Ditch or Canal.

Above a Pit. Generally this type of toilet is found in camp dwellings or dwellings under construction. It is also typical of rural dwellings or those removed from urban areas.

Connected to another system. Fill in this oval if the emptying of the toilet takes place through a system that is different from those previously described.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 9 in this section of the enumeration form.]

10. Does it have a shower or bathtub?

If the household has a shower or bathtub, you should ask [Is it] for the exclusive use of this household? and fill in the oval that corresponds to the answer given by the informant.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 10 in this section of the enumeration form.]

11. What is the household's ownership condition?

Intends to establish if the dwelling that the household occupies is their own, rented, or in another condition.

Owned: if the dwelling that the household occupies is totally paid or being paid in installments.

Rented: is where the Head of Household is a tenant and pays a monthly rent.

Given in return for services: in this case there are doormen, butlers, watchmen, administrators, public employees, private managers and employees, school and high school headmasters, armed forces and border guard personnel, etc. who occupy the household as part of the pay for their jobs.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 11 in this section of the enumeration form.]

[p. 15]

12. Does it have a kitchen?

Fill in the oval for yes when the household has a special room or small space that is equipped for preparing the main meals and is used for this purpose.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 12 in this section of the enumeration form.]

13. What is the main fuel used for cooking?

Fill in the appropriate oval according to the fuel that is used.

If more than one fuel is used, mark the one that is used most.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 13 in this section of the enumeration form.]

14. How many rooms does this household have?

Fill in the oval that corresponds to the quantity of rooms that the household has, understanding room to mean any room that has space for an adult bed.

You should not include: kitchen, bathroom, hallways, or balconies; except when these are used by people for permanent lodging.

The number of rooms should be recorded according to the specifics on the form.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 14 in this section of the enumeration form.]

15. How many beds are usually used in the household?

Ask for the precise number of beds that are used and fill in the oval that corresponds to that number.

Baby cribs that are in use on the day of the census should be counted as beds.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 15 in this section of the enumeration form.]

[p. 16]

16. Does the household have any of the following devices or vehicles?

Ask the informant if they have any of the devices or vehicles mentioned in the questionnaire. Do this by reading, in the order indicated, each one of the alternatives and filling in the appropriate ovals according the answer given by the informant.

Remember that this is the only question for which more than one option is possible as a response, meaning that for this question various ovals in the same column can be filled in.

If the household doesn't possess any of the devices or vehicles mentioned, fill in the oval for none of those mentioned. In this case it should be the only oval filled in.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 16 in this section of the enumeration form.]

III. People in the Household

Remember that, on the first page of the form, in box A. People in the Household, you already recorded everyone that you should enumerate. In the same order that you recorded those people, fill in, for each one of them, a page of the Census Form.

In the upper part of each page, copy the first and last names of each one of them, with their same order number.

Questions 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 will be asked of everyone

1. What is your relationship to the Head of Household?

Each private household must necessarily have a head, who is the person recognized as such by the other members of the household.

In the case of a group of unrelated people, who lodge and eat together, someone should be recognized by the group as the head.

In a case where, because of absence, the head is not to be enumerated in that household, another member should take their place (wife, oldest son, brother, etc.). The family relationships of the other members will be established with respect to the replacement.

The head's spouse should be enumerated second whether or not she is legally married.

Under Other Relative, record: brothers and sisters, aunts and uncles, nieces and nephews, cousins, brothers- and sisters-in-law of the head of household.

Considered Non-Relatives are: other people who live in the household. For example: close friends, boarders (up to 5) and domestic service people when they live and sleep in the household.

[p. 17]

If the Household that you are enumerating is Collective, don't ask this question, since there is no family relationship between the people in that household. Fill in the oval for the Collective option right away.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 1 in this section of the enumeration form.]

2. Are you a man or a woman?

Fill in the oval that corresponds to the sex of the person being enumerated, judging by their name. When the name is subject to confusion, ask the question.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 2 in this section of the enumeration form.]

3. How old are you in completed years?

Fill in the ovals that correspond to the person's age in completed years on the date of the census, not the number of years that will be completed [at the next birthday].

For people who are less than 1 year old, fill in the ovals 0 and 0.
For people younger than 10, fill in 0 for the first oval and the age of the informant for the second.
For people 10 and older, fill in 10, 19, 23, 46, 54, 85, etc., as appropriate.

For people over 99, fill in the ovals 9 and 9.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 3 in this section of the enumeration form.]

4. In what municipality were you born?

If the person being enumerated was born in the same municipality as you are enumerating, fill in the oval corresponding to in this municipality.

If the person reports having been born in another municipality different from the one you are enumerating, write down the name of that municipality and the province to which it belongs.

If the person being enumerated was born abroad, write down only the name of the country.

When in doubt, remember that the question refers to the municipality where the person being enumerated's mother was usually living when the person being enumerated was born.

You should always ask all people who report having been born abroad "What is your current legal nationality?"

Fill in the oval for Chilean if the person has adopted Chilean citizenship. Otherwise, fill in the oval for Foreign.

[p. 18]

A foreigner is considered to be anyone who is from or comes from another country and has not adopted Chilean citizenship.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 4 in this section of the enumeration form.]

5. In what municipality do you usually live?

The municipality where a person usually lives is the one in which the person is established because of work, business, family life or other, for a period of six months or more, even though the person may have no intention of settling in that municipality, or for a lesser period if the person has come with the intention of settling in the municipality.

If the person lives in the same municipality that you are enumerating, fill in the oval for in this municipality.

If the person is in that municipality by chance, since they usually live in another municipality, write down the name of the municipality where the person usually lives and the province to which it belongs.

If the person usually lives abroad, write down only the name of the country.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 5 in this section of the enumeration form.]

Questions 6, 7, 8 and 9 will be asked of all people 5 and older.

6. In what municipality did you usually live five years ago?

If the person lived in the same municipality in which they are being enumerated, fill in the oval that corresponds to the option in this municipality.

If the person who is being enumerated lived in another municipality 5 years ago, write down the name of that municipality and the province to which it belongs.

If the person was living abroad 5 years ago, write down only the name of the country.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 6 in this section of the enumeration form.]

7. Do you attend or did you attend an educational establishment?

This question refers to attendance of any regular educational establishment, public or private, at pre-school (kindergarten) level; elementary or primary; middle or secondary and post-secondary [superior] or university.

Not to be considered: nursery school; preschool; secretary, fashion, hairdressing, mechanic, radio and T.V. schools; INACAP [Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion: National Training Institute] courses, etc.

[p. 19]

If the person being enumerated is currently attending a regular teaching establishment, fill in the oval corresponding to the option Currently Attends and you should ask about the level and type of instruction being received, recording this information on the corresponding line.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 7 in this section of the enumeration form.]

8. What is the last level that you passed and in what type of instruction?

Both for those who currently attend and those who attended, ask about the last level passed and not about the one they are currently in.

Fill in the ovals corresponding to the level and type of instruction reported to you by the informant.

For those who are going to school this year for the first time, whether it be to kindergarten or the first year of elementary school, you should mark the oval for the option None.

If the informant has doubts, read them the different response choices.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 8 in this section of the enumeration form.]

9. Do you know how to read and write?

Ask this question only of those who reported passing less than the fourth year of elementary or primary school, or none.

If the person only reads or only writes, fill in the oval for the no option.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 9 in this section of the enumeration form.]

Questions 10, 11, 12 and 13 will be asked of everyone 15 and older.

10. What did you do the majority of the time last week?

These questions should refer to the activity done during the period of time between Monday and Sunday of the week prior to the day of the census.

When asking the question, read the alternatives in order just as they appear on the questionnaire until you get an affirmative response.

Ask questions 11, 12 and 13 only if you get a response to one of the alternatives in group A.

[p. 20]

Worked in an occupation that gave them money: if the person performed a paid job that gave them any earnings

Worked for a relative without receiving monetary payment for the work; for example, the wife who usually helps out her husband; the son who works with his father without receiving monetary payment, etc.

Had a job but did not work; a person who, having a job or employment, did not perform it last week because of: vacation, sickness, permission, temporary suspension of activities, etc.

Was unemployed: a person who didn't have a job or employment last week, but who had worked before. For example: because of a closing or reduction in personnel at factories, businesses, mines, or other [places]; dismissals or another cause.

If you get a response to one of the alternatives in group B or C, continue on to question 14, if the person being interviewed is a woman, and to question 18, if the person being interviewed is a man.

Looked for work for the first time: a person who never before had a job and who was actively seeking employment last week.

Household duties: a person who was totally dedicated to the care of the household. It does not include domestic service, which should be considered under the alternative worked in an occupation that gave them money.

Student: a person who, the majority of the time last week, attended classes in a regular teaching establishment and didn't dedicate themselves to any other activity.

Since the question refers to Economic Activity, if the person works the majority of the time and also studies, you should register the information under the alternative worked in an occupation that gave them money or worked for a relative without receiving monetary payment for the work, as appropriate.

Retired or pensioner: a person who lives only off of their retirement funds, pension, or dependent's pension and doesn't perform any other activity.

Permanently unable to work: a person permanently impeded from working. For example: disabled people, the mentally ill, etc.

Other situation: this alternative includes those people who can't be classified under any of the previous alternatives. Example: a temporarily ill person who doesn't work and doesn't have a job; a prisoner who doesn't work, etc.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 10 in this section of the enumeration form.]

[p. 21]

11. Describe the occupation, trade, or type of work that you do (or used to do if the person is unemployed).

It's very important that the answer to this question be requested with the greatest detail, since general answers don't provide the required information.

For the Occupation, Trade, or Type of Work a complete description is needed. This is especially important when talking about little known activities. Other cases involve well known occupations, but for these it is nonetheless necessary to add details that specify them.

The examples that are on the form and these others will help you achieve greater precision in the response: insurance agent, crane operator, car washer, journalist, upholsterer, stenographer, mail carrier, mechanical engineer, mine technician, veterinarian, fashion designer, waiter, geologist, galvanizer, stucco worker, dent remover for metal bodywork, civil construction worker, surveyor, attorney, fisherman, surgical doctor, dietician, hairdresser, elementary school teacher, television reporter, etc.

If the person being enumerated has more than one occupation, write down the occupation to which the person devotes the majority of the time.

If the person has two or more occupations to which they devote an equal number of hours, write down the occupation that the person considers to be the main one.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 11 in this section of the enumeration form.]

12. In this job are you (or were you)?

The goal of this question is to specify the position of the person being enumerated in carrying out the job, trade, or type of work reported previously in question 11.

The conditions of [White-Collar/Office] Employee, Manual Laborer or Day Laborer, Own-Account Worker, Non-Compensated Family Member, and Household Domestic Service can present some difficulties, and for that reason some explanations will be given.

Self-employed: is a person who works independently and without employing compensated personnel. For example: businesspeople without wage-earning employees; independent professionals and technicians, taxi drivers, street vendors, etc.

It is then, a person who runs their own business or practices a profession or trade on their own. The person may work alone or in association and may or may not have the help of family members who are not monetarily compensated.

Uncompensated Family Member: is a person who doesn't receive a salary or wage for the work that they do in a company or business that belongs to a family member, and who works at least a third of a normal work week.

Household Domestic Service: is carried out by the person who does work related to the house and for which they are paid a wage or salary. These people should be included in the household [p. 22] that is being enumerated only if they slept there the night prior to the day of the census. People who do this type of work and usually sleep in their own houses (live-in worker) will only be included if they slept in this household that night, and therefore were not enumerated in their own houses.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 12 in this section of the enumeration form.]

13. Describe what the establishment, company, business, factory, etc. where you work (or worked if unemployed) principally does or what products [it principally makes].

Give a specific idea of the activity of the establishment, business, factory, etc., avoiding general terms. For example:

If they tell you an industry, ask what type of industry (textile, metallurgic, plastics, etc.)

If they tell you a clinic, ask what type of factory (footwear, clothing, candy, etc.) [Translator's note: There appears to be an error in the original. The intended wording, most likely, was: "If they tell you a factory . . ."]

If they tell you a clinic, ask what the specialty is (maternity, traumatology, etc.)

If they respond with a store, ask the type of products (merchandise, cosmetics, groceries, etc.)

If they answer a large farm [fundo], ask if it is for livestock, lumber, dairy, agriculture, etc.

In the case of companies that have establishments dedicated to different activities, for example: production and commerce, the activity performed by the unit where the person being enumerated works should be recorded.

If the person does not employ their services in one of the places mentioned above, as in the case of street vendors or workers who perform their services in the home (without having any establishment), taxi drivers or hauling contractors who use their own vehicle, etc., you should ask them to describe what they produce, repair, clean, transport, etc. For example: household appliance repair, woolen fabrics made by machine or woven by hand [a palillos], buying and selling of magazines, medical consultation, etc.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 13 in this section of the enumeration form.]

Questions 14, 15, 16 and 17 will be asked of all women 15 and older.

14. Have you given birth to children born alive?

Born alive means one who, at the moment of being born, showed signs of life (cried, breathed, moved). If the child died after the delivery, it should still be considered born alive.

If the response is negative or the person doesn't know, continue on to question 18.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 14 in this section of the enumeration form.]

[p. 23]

15. To how many children born alive have you given birth?

Inquire about the total number of children born alive and fill in the oval corresponding to the number of children reported to you.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 15 in this section of the enumeration form.]

16. Of these, how many are currently alive?

Fill in the oval corresponding to the number of children currently alive reported to you.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 16 in this section of the enumeration form.]

17. In the last 12 months, have you given birth to children born alive?

If the response is affirmative, you should ask how many and fill in the corresponding oval according to the number of children reported to you.

It is important that these questions be asked of all women 15 and older, regardless of their marital status, since for the purposes of this study it is necessary to have complete responses.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 17 in this section of the enumeration form.]

Question 18 will be asked of all people 15 and older.

18. What is your marital status?

Read the alternatives in the order in which they appear on the questionnaire. You will ask about the marital status of the person being enumerated on the day of the census.

[The above directions refer to a picture of question 18 in this section of the enumeration form.]

[P. 24 was not translated into English]