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Chile 1970

Enumerator's Manual,
XIV National Population Census and III Housing Census

[Pp. 1-8 were not translated into English.]

[p. 9]

VII. Basic Definitions

In order to facilitate the use of the form and correctly interpret the terms, the most important definitions are given here.

Building: A building is any construction that constitutes a structurally independent enclosure, finished or not, made for the purposes of habitation, business, industry, or any other kind of activity.

Examples: Cottages, bungalows, callampas [improvised dwellings in a squatter settlement], sheds, factories, stores, silos, warehouses, and other structures.

Dwelling: Any structurally separate and independent premises or enclosure constructed, converted, or prepared for permanently or temporarily housing people.

Household: A single person or group of related or unrelated people who live together in a family system or for reasons of another nature and who occupy all or part of a dwelling.

The household can be:

[p. 10]

A private household: This corresponds to the currently common idea of a family, which is one that includes two or more related people, who satisfy their food needs together and occupy all or part of a dwelling. The household, in the majority of cases, is made up of a Head of Household, the head's relatives (spouse or partner in a consensual union, children, grandchildren, nieces and nephews, etc.), guests and boarders fewer than five (5), domestic servants that are lodged in the household, and any other occupant. A private household can also be made up of a person who lives alone.

A collective household: Formed by groups of, normally unrelated, people who share a dwelling due to reasons of health, discipline, religion, studies, etc. This is the case with boarding schools, schools, or university institutes; prisons and other correctional facilities; hospitals, barracks, convents, hotels, boardinghouses and guesthouses, as well as private households with six (6) or more boarders or boardinghouses with a municipal license, regardless of the number of boarders.

[Pp. 11-20 were not translated into English.]

XIV. How to fill in the Questionnaires

[p. 21]

B. dwelling

In the Housing Census, information should be collected about [p. 22]

I General Data about the Dwelling.
II Data about the Household.

If the dwelling is inhabited by a single household, you should fill in all of part B (questions 1 to 13) for this household.

If the dwelling is inhabited by two or more households, you should fill in all of part B for the first household. When enumerating the other households, you should only fill in questions 6 to 13 (Data about the Household).

Below are the specific instructions for completing sections I and II of part B of the form.

I. General Data about the Dwelling

Questions 1 through 5

Question No. 1--Type of Dwelling

The different types of private and collective dwellings are defined below. You should classify each house that you are responsible for enumerating and mark the appropriate choice from the 14 types of dwelling described.

A. Private Dwellings

01) House: A permanent building; separate and independent, with a direct entry from the street, garden or lot (cottage, bungalow, duplex, houses under constant construction, hut).

02) Apartment: Is located in a permanently constructed building; has a separate entrance from a hallway, stairway, or other common space in the building or direct access from the street. The occupants can come and go without passing through a premises occupied by others.

Apartments can also be found in commercial buildings and as separate and independent areas within institutions (apartment for the Director of a hospital or the caretaker of a commercial building).

03) Tenement (high-density slum) dwelling: Is a room or group of rooms that make up an independent dwelling. They are located along a common-use hallway and have shared facilities (generally in an old house).

04) Shack, rustic hut, or cabin: Is typically a rural building, separate or independent, made of light material (clay with straw, reeds, dried stone).

05) Improved shack [Mejora]: Is a construction made of light material put up to take care of a construction site or construction materials, etc., and is generally occupied by the caretaker and family.

[p. 23]

06) Squatter Dwelling: Is a temporary building made from waste materials (cardboard, tin, waste construction materials). They make up groups of dwellings located in uncultivated areas belonging to others where there is neither urbanization nor hygienic conditions for living there. It is also possible to find squatter dwellings in isolated areas or constructed close to other dwelling groups.

07) Dwelling in a structure or other premises not meant for residential purposes: This group includes dwellings under construction, wineries, granaries, garages, warehouses, etc., in other words, buildings that were not originally meant for residential purposes.

Included in this group are caves, mine entrances, etc.

08) Boxcar, boat, tent, etc.: Are types of mobile lodging or lodging made to be transported.

09) Other types of private dwelling: In this category you should include all other types of dwelling besides those already specified.

B. Collective Dwellings

10) Hotel, Motel, Inn: Is a dwelling where temporary or permanent lodging, with or without food, is provided. A hotel, motel, or inn is a building meant as a collective dwelling.

11) Boardinghouse or Guesthouse: Has the same structural characteristics that private dwellings have. If the dwelling has 6 or more boarders it is considered a boardinghouse or guesthouse.

If the dwelling has 5 or fewer boarders it should be recorded as a private dwelling.

Boardinghouses and guesthouses with a municipal license will always be considered collective dwellings, regardless of the number of boarders.

12) Lodge: Is a dwelling meant to provide nighttime lodging. It is characterized by the renting of beds by the night.

13) Institutions: Are dwellings that are used as a place of lodging by a group of unrelated people who live together for reasons of health, religious life, discipline, work, etc. (hospitals, boarding schools, barracks, prisons, etc.).

14) Other types of collective dwellings: Other types of collective dwellings not among those already listed should be specified in this category.

[p. 24]

Question no. 2--Dwelling Occupancy

A. The dwelling is

1) Occupied: If you find occupants in the dwelling, mark box 1.

2) Occupied with residents absent: If it is evident that the dwelling is inhabited (it has furniture, the grounds are well kept, or based on other observations), you should find out from the neighbors if the dwelling is occupied and when the occupants will return.

There are two possibilities:

a) That the occupants are returning the day of the census. In this case you should note in the Observations column on the control sheet, on the line corresponding to the dwelling, that you should return later on to enumerate the occupants and complete the form.

b) That the occupants aren't returning on the day of the census (you've found out that they're on vacation, on a trip, etc.) In this case, you should mark box 2.

If the occupants aren't going to return on the day of the census but spent the night from April 21 to 22 in this dwelling, you should request, from neighbors who know the occupants, as much information as you can get, both about the dwelling and about the people who stayed there during the night in question, or at least the total number of people and their sex, not forgetting small children.

3) Unoccupied: If the dwelling doesn't have any occupants and there are no indications that it is inhabited, you should mark box 3. Signs like "For sale" or "For rent" are indications that the dwelling may be vacant.

B. For occupied dwellings

Number of households: Normally one household is found in a dwelling, but it can be the case that two (2) or more households live in the same dwelling. On this line the total number of households that live in the dwelling will be recorded.

C. For unoccupied dwellings

Three distinctions will need to be made, marking the appropriate option.

1) Seasonally unoccupied: A dwelling that is not occupied during certain times of the year, such as summer and winter houses. Also included are work dwellings that are periodically occupied, such as those belonging to farmers.

2) New, awaiting first occupants: Is completely new construction that has not been previously lived in.

[p. 25]

3) Unoccupied for other reasons: Is a previously inhabited dwelling that is not unoccupied for seasonal reasons at the time of the census.

If the dwelling was classified as "unoccupied" or "occupied with residents absent," it will not be necessary to fill in more information.

Question No. 3--Predominant material and state of repair

Mark accordingly the building material for the main walls, the roof covering, and the floors, and their state of repair.

A. Main Walls

Building materials

1) Concrete, Stone, brick, or cement block masonry: If the walls are not stuccoed, these materials are easily recognizable. If they are stuccoed, they are characterized by:

a) Their thickness of no more than 20 cm;
b) When knocking on them with the knuckles, they shouldn't sound hollow, but rather compact.

2) Wood, Covered Partition: (with sheets of iron, slate, or other materials). Wood is easily recognized. The covered partition structures are covered on one or both sides by planks, sheets of galvanized iron, slate, sheets of pressed wood, etc.; on the interior these walls can be covered with sheets of plaster or paper. Their thickness varies between 10 and 20 cm and their sound is hollow.

3) Mortared adobe: When it is not stuccoed, it can be recognized by its dried clay appearance. If it is stuccoed, it is recognized by:

a) Its thickness of from 35 to 65 cm;
b) Its especially muted sound.

4) Brick, vertical adobe, sticks and mud, clay with straw, dried stone: Characterized by its lack of thickness, of approximately 10 cm; moreover, it is easily recognizable by appearance.

5) Waste Materials: (Tin, cardboard, and/or various waste materials). These are badly constructed walls made of all kinds of materials. They are used in improvised dwellings. It is not difficult to identify them.

6) Other materials: If another material is encountered that is not mentioned above, mark this item.

State of Repair

[p. 26]

1) Good: If, upon sight, there are no apparent defects

2) Acceptable: When there are defects, but they do not affect the strength (water stains, superficial cracks, etc.).

3) Bad: When there are deep cracks, the walls are not plumb, with holes, or eaten away at the base.

B. Roof covering (roof)

Building Materials

1) Sheets of zinc; copper; aluminum; slate; clay or cement roof tiles; wooden tiles; waterproofed paving stone.

Sheets of zinc, copper, or aluminum: Are sheets of variable dimensions that can be undulating, corrugated, or also flat, with joints [balletas] that stick out approximately every 80 cm following the slope of the roof. In the case of zinc or aluminum sheets, they are a whitish gray; when they are rusty they are dark red or brown and in the case of copper sheets, they acquire a grayish-green color.

Slate: These are sheets of variable dimensions that can be undulating or corrugated, of a gray color similar to that of cement. They are fragile and breakable when struck.

Clay or cement roof tile: Are no bigger than 20 by 30 cm; can be curved or flat. The normal color of cement tile is red or gray.

Wooden tile: It is generally made of reddish-brown larch wood. The apparent size is 10 by 20 cm. These roofs are characterized by the steep slope that they need for water drainage.

Waterproofed paving stone: This is a roof covering which, on sight, appears to be generally flat and black in color or made of small stones and which is found on modern houses. Tiled terraces also possess this type of roof covering.

2) Phonolite; cane and clay; reeds

Phonolite: This is a small sheet of black, corrugated tar paper.

Reeds, and cane and clay: These materials can be recognized on sight and are characterized by their short duration.

3) Waste Materials: (tin, cardboard and/or various waste materials). These materials can be recognized without difficulty and are characterized by their poor, improvised quality. Generally, tin, cardboard, etc. is used.

[p. 27]

4) Other materials: Indicate any other material not previously mentioned in this item by writing the name of the material here.

State of repair:

1) Good: Without apparent defects and leaks.

2) Acceptable: With defects that have been repaired or that can be repaired.

3) Bad: Roofs that are uneven or sunken, that have holes or are partially destroyed, and have leaks.

C. Floors

Building Materials

1) Platform or wood parquet; Plastics; Floor tile; brick; stone.

Platform or wood parquet: A platform is made up of connected (mortised) boards 5 to 15 cm wide, nailed onto wooden joists. They have a hollow sound when stepped on.

Wood parquet is made up of small wooden (cane) boards, generally attached on top of a cement mix. It is a compact floor where footsteps are not felt. In some high-quality older buildings, which are generally quite large, wood parquet can be found nailed to floor joists. In these cases, it makes some sound [when stepped on].

Plastics: These floors are characterized by their varied or combined (streaked) colors and their soft consistency which absorbs the noise of footsteps.

Floor tile: Made up of polished squares of different bright colors (gray, red, black, with pictures), generally 20 cm by 20 cm.

Brick: Made up of small clay tiles of a characteristic brick color.

Stone: These are floors that are easily recognizable on sight by their color and characteristic appearance.

2) Dirt: Floors without a covering, composed entirely of packed and leveled dirt.

State of Repair:

1) Good: Without apparent defects.

[p. 28]

2) Acceptable: Floor has fixable defects, such as breaks, detachments, burns, or cracks.

A dirt floor is acceptable as long as it is hard, level, and not wet. A dirt floor should never be classified as good.

3) Bad: The floor is noticeably uneven, moves when rotten or worm-eaten boards are stepped on, pieces of the flooring are missing, there are holes, water, or mud on dirt floors.

Question No. 4--Number of rooms in the dwelling

A room is any space, within a dwelling, that is enclosed by walls at least 2 meters high and that has a surface of at least 4 square meters, enough space to accommodate a bed.

A. Number of rooms used for residential purposes

In this item, you should include living rooms, dining rooms, bedrooms, studies, recreation rooms, servants' quarters, etc. The kitchen, bathroom, hallways, vestibules, etc. should be excluded.

B. Number of rooms used for commercial purposes

Rooms used as offices, stores, etc. should be included.

Question No. 5--Dwelling's Water Service

A. Water Supply

1) Has piped water inside the dwelling: Mark box 1 if the dwelling receives water through a faucet in the kitchen, bathroom, or any other place within the dwelling.

2) Has piped water outside the dwelling: In this case, the faucet is outside the dwelling and you should mark box 2, also noting the approximate distance from the faucet to the dwelling.

3) Doesn't have piped water supply: You should mark box 3 if the dwelling has a piped water supply neither inside nor outside.

B. Water source

1) From a public network: If the water that the occupants use is from a service connected to a public network, you should mark box 1.

[p. 29]

2) From a well or water wheel: If the water comes from a hole in the ground that collects potable, underground water, you should mark box 2.

3) Other source: If the water doesn't come from a public network, well, or water wheel, but rather from a canal, river, or lake, you should mark box 3.

II. Household Data (questions 6 to 13)

Question No. 6--Household's access to shower or bathtub

A. Exclusive use shower or bathtub

You should mark box 1 only if the household has a shower or bathtub that is for their exclusive use and which has hot water.

You should mark box 2 only if the household has a shower or bathtub that is for their exclusive use but which does not have hot water.

B. Common use shower or bathtub

You should mark box 3 if the shower or bathtub is used by 2 or more households that live in the same dwelling and has hot water.

You should mark box 4 if the shower or bathtub is used by 2 or more households that live in the same dwelling but does not have hot water.

C. No shower or bathtub

You should mark box 5 when the household's occupants don't have any type of shower or bathtub.

Question No. 7--household's access to toilet (WC)

A. Exclusive use toilet

You should mark the box [box 1] only if the household has a flush toilet that is for their exclusive use.

"Flush toilet" means that the toilet is connected by pipes to a water supply network.

You should mark box 2 only if the household has a non-flush toilet that is for their exclusive use.

B. Common use toilet

[p. 30]

You should mark box 3 if two or more households that live in the same dwelling use a flush toilet.

You should mark box 4 if two or more households that live in the same dwelling use a non-flush toilet.

C. No access to toilet

You should mark box 5 when the household's occupants don't have any type of toilet.

Question No. 8--household's sewer system

This question attempts to investigate the elimination of human waste. You should mark one of the following alternatives:

--Sewer: You will mark box 1 if the dwelling that this household inhabits is connected to a network of sewage receptacles.

--Septic tank: You will mark box 2 if the drains lead into a closed concrete tank where the product decants. These tanks drain by overflowing into an absorption well.

--Pit/latrine: You will mark box 3 if the waste flows into a hole in the land which was made for that purpose.

--Other system: You will mark box 4 if the waste flows into a canal, river, barrel, or other waste receptacle [abrómico], etc.

--None: You will mark box 5 if the dwelling that the household inhabits doesn't have any of the systems mentioned.

Question No. 9 - household's electric lighting

You should mark accordingly, whether the dwelling that the household lives in:

1) Has electric lighting
2) Does not have electric lighting

Question No. 10--Household's access to kitchen and household's fuel use

[p. 31]

A. Kitchen

1) Has kitchen: A kitchen is a room or space equipped to prepare main meals and used principally for this purpose (kitchen, kitchenettes, closet kitchens).

2) Doesn't have kitchen: This box should be marked if the household doesn't have a place meant exclusively for preparing meals.

B. Fuel used for cooking

You will mark one of the four alternatives, according to the fuel used in the kitchen.

If more than one fuel is used, you will mark the one that is used most.

Question No. 11--Number of rooms occupied by the household for residential purposes (excluding kitchen and bathroom)

Indicate the total number of rooms in the dwelling that the household occupies for residential purposes.

Question No. 12--Household's ownership condition

A. Ownership

This is the title that confers the right to occupy the dwelling. You should mark one of the following categories.

1) Owner: The Head or any member of the household is the owner of the dwelling.

2) Tenant: The Head of Household is a tenant and pays monthly rent.

3) Sublessor: The primary tenant rents a part of the dwelling to a Head of Household.

4) Usufructuary: He who occupies the dwelling or a part of it with the permission of the owner or tenant, without paying rent.

5) Other: Mark this choice for any other type of ownership, specifying what type it is.

B. If it is an Owner

The dwelling occupied by the household can be in two conditions:

[p. 32]

1) Totally paid off
2) Partially paid off

C. If it is a Tenant or Sublessor

You should find out the monthly rent in escudos [the local currency].

Question No. 13--Household's Vehicles and Equipment

Mark the various devices or vehicles that can exist in a household and that are currently in use. Mark box 3 "bicycle" only when it is being used as a means of transportation to go to work, to school, etc. Don't mark devices or vehicles that are broken and can't be fixed. If none of these devices exist in the household, mark box 8.

C. Data on the people in the Household)

Questions 1 through 17

This part of the form is divided into four sections, namely: General Characteristics, Educational Characteristics, Economic Characteristics, and Fertility Rate. Further on, specific instructions will be given for completing each one of these parts.

In order to facilitate your job and collect all of the required information in order, you should first complete, horizontally, question No. 1, dealing with the first and last names of all members of the household, in the order indicated further on. Then, in the same way, horizontally, you should ask question No. 2, which refers to the family or other relationship of each member of the household to the head of household. Finally, after having ensured that you have collected the information from the first lines for all members of the household, proceed to fill in the information for the rest of the questions vertically. That is, complete first all of the information for this part of the form for the Head of Household, then for the person in the second column, and so forth.

You should try to obtain from the informant all the data for all members of the household. Only if, after exhausting all efforts to get the informant to give a concrete answer, one is impossible to obtain, should you mark the box "unknown" or write the word "unknown," as the case may be.

I. General Characteristics

This part of the census form is meant for investigating the composition and distribution of the population according to sex, age, marital status, place of birth, and place of residence. These questions, except numbers 5 and 9, should be asked of all people enumerated, without exception. Question 5 about "Current Marital Status" will be asked only of those 12 years and older, and question 9 regarding "Place of Residence in April of 1965" will only be asked of people 5 years old and older.

[p. 33]

Question No 1.--First and Last Names

Mark on the respective lines the first and last names of all people who spent the night in the household on the night of April 21 to 22, in the following order:

a) The Head of Household
b) The [Head's] wife, husband, or partner;
c) The [Head's] unmarried sons and daughters in order of decreasing age;
d) The [Head's] married sons and daughters who are part of the household, followed by their spouses and children, all in order of decreasing age.
e) Other relatives (parents or in-laws, aunts and uncles, grandparents, nieces and nephews, brothers- and sisters-in-law, etc.);
f) Other non-relatives (close friends, boarders or guests, domestic employees and their children and relatives)

Head of Household means the person that the rest of the household recognizes as such, and can be either a man or a woman.

You should also include people who normally reside in the home but who, on the night before the census, due to work or other special reasons, where out of the home. Examples: night watchmen, doctors, on-call nurses, police officers, midwives, partygoers, wake-goers, and those people who left the household after midnight on the night before the day of the census and who are traveling.

It is important that you remember to enumerate children born before midnight of the 21st and those who died after midnight on the 21st.

If the name of any person who spent the night of April 21 to 22 in the household is unknown, you should enumerate them as N.N. In the case of a newborn that doesn't have its own name, you should also mark N.N. and the paternal and maternal last names.

Question No. 2--Family or Other Relationship

Keep in mind that what we want to find out is the relationship (bond) that the person being enumerated has with the head of household at the time of the census.

For the purposes of the census, people will be classified in seven (7) groups. The title "Head" is printed in the first column; therefore, it is only necessary to mark the box after the word "Head."

In the following columns you should mark the family or other relationship that ties the rest of the household members to the head of household.

Question No. 3--Sex

Mark the box that corresponds to the sex indicated by the informant for each of the people that spent the night in the household.

[p. 34]

Question No. 4--Age

You must remember that the information requested is the number of years that the person being enumerated has completed and not the number of years that they will have completed. You should exhaust all resources in order to obtain the exact age. If, despite you efforts, it is impossible to obtain it, estimate the age of the person if the person is present or, if absent, ask the informant for an estimate.

If the person being enumerated is less than one year old, write down zero, zero (00).

Question No. 5--Current Marital Status

Only for those 12 and older

When asking this question, you should mention one marital status at a time and await a response before mentioning the next one. Be careful not to alter the order of the alternatives.

There are five marital statuses that we are interested in knowing about, and they are defined as follows:

1) Married: A person who has entered into matrimony before an appropriate authority and who lives in this state with their legal spouse.

2) Consensual Union: A person who lives maritally with another in a stable situation, without having legalized the union and who can have any of the other legal marital statuses.

3) Widowed: A person who, after the death of their spouse, has not remarried nor lives in a de facto union.

4) Separated or annulled: A person who, having been married or in a stable de facto union, doesn't live with their spouse or partner.

5) Single: A person who has never married and doesn't live maritally with another person.

Question No. 6--Religion

If the person being enumerated is Catholic, mark box 1. If the person being enumerated is of any other religion, you should record it by name after the expression "other."

Question No. 7--Place of Birth

For this question, you should obtain the municipality or country where the person being enumerated was born.

If the person reports being born in the same municipality in which the enumeration takes place, mark the box following the word "here" and continue with question No. 8.

[p. 35]

If the person was born in another municipality, write down the name of that municipality and the province to which it belongs.

If the person was born abroad, record only the name of the country of birth.

Question No. 8--Current Habitual Residence

Place of habitual residence means the place in which the person is established because of work, business, family life, etc. for a period of six months or more, even though the person may have no intention of settling in that place, or for a lesser period if the person has come with the intention of settling in that place.

If the person being enumerated has their habitual residence in the same municipality where the enumeration is taking place, mark the box after the word "here" and continue on to question No. 9.

If the person has their habitual residence in another place, you should record the name of the municipality or place where the person being enumerated habitually resides and the province to which that municipality or place belongs.

If the person being enumerated maintains their residence abroad, record only the country where the person habitually resides.

Question No. 9--Habitual Residence in 1965

This question should only be asked of people 5 years and older. The name of the municipality or place and the name of the province where the person being enumerated lived in April of 1965 should be obtained, if the person was living in Chile on that date. If the person was living abroad, the name of the country of residence should be obtained.

When the response is the same as the place of enumeration, mark the X following the box "here" and continue on to question No. 10.

If the response is different [from the place of enumeration], find out the name of the municipality and province of residence in 1965 if the person lived in the country, and the name of the country if the person lived abroad.

II. Educational Characteristics

Questions 10, 11, and 12 refer to the studies that the person being enumerated has undertaken or is undertaking; therefore, they will be asked only of people at least 5 complete years old and older.

Question No. 10--Level of Instruction

This is the last level or year, within the most advanced instructional cycle in the regular educational system, passed by the person being enumerated.

In this question, you should obtain two pieces of information.

[p. 36]

Last level finished or passed, which you will mark in one of the 8 boxes indicated after the first part of this question, and

Type of Instruction, which you will mark in a box corresponding to one of the 11 alternatives indicated on the form.

Question No. 11--School Attendance

You will mark box 1 if the person currently attends any regular educational establishment, recording the year and level attended.

For example: 4th [year of] basic; 2nd [year of] middle; 1st [year of] university; etc.

You will mark box 2 if the person doesn't attend and box 9 if not known.

Question No. 12--Literacy

Any person able to read and write a simple paragraph in any language is considered literate.

This question will only be asked of those who answered "none," "primary," or "basic" to question No. 10.

If the person being enumerated only reads or only writes, you will mark box No. 2, that is, following the word "No".

III. Economic Characteristics

Questions 13 through 16, included under this title, will only be asked of people 12 and older.

Question No. 13--Type of Activity

The purpose of this question is to determine what part of the population 12 years and older is "economically active," and, of that part, how many can be considered "employed" and how many "unemployed."

The responses are exclusive, it being unacceptable to mark more than one response.

Faced with this question, you will read each one of the alternatives that appear as a response, pausing between alternatives in order to permit the informant to precisely determine which of the responses describes their situation during the week of April 13 to 18.

The questions: "Did you work?," "Did you not work but were employed?," etc. should be asked in the order that they appear on the census form.

[p. 37]

You will mark only one of the alternatives, according to the following guidelines:

0) Did you work? If the person performed compensated labor during the week of April 13 to 18 of a continuous nature equivalent to at least one day of work.

1) Did you not work but were employed? Mark this box if the person didn't work during the week of April 13 to 18 but had a job or business and was temporarily absent because of vacation, sickness, or another reason.

2) Did you look for work and had worked before? (Unemployed). You should mark this box in the case of people who didn't have a job during the week of April 13 to 18 because they withdrew from their job, because of being let go or for another reason, and who are waiting to be called again or are looking for a new job.

3) Did you seek work for the first time? You will mark this box if the person has never had a compensated job and, during the week of April 13 to 18 they took steps to get a job.

4) Retired or Pensioner? You will mark this box if the person didn't do any compensated activity during the week of April 13 to 18 but receives a retirement or dependent's pension in return for services previously rendered, by him or his relatives.

5) Rentier? Is he who didn't do any compensated activity during the week of April 13 to 18, and lives off of the profits of his capital.

6) Student? You will mark this box if the person being enumerated was attending school the majority of the time during the week of April 13 to 18.

7) Household duties? You should mark this box if the person be enumerated dedicated him or herself to the care of the household the majority of the time during the week of April 13 to 18.

8) Other? You should mark the box after the line "other" if the person being enumerated was not, during the week of April 13 to 18, in any of the situations previously listed: for example, disabled persons or shut-ins who don't work.

Question No. 14--Main Occupation

What trade, profession, or type of work was performed the week of April 13 to 18, or before in the case of an unemployed person?

You should ask this question only of people who worked or didn't work but were employed (boxes 0 and 1 from question 13) and of those who looked for work and had worked before (box 2 from question 13). The response should be noted in the space reserved for this purpose opposite the question.

[p. 38]

If the person being enumerated reports having more than one occupation, you should record only their main occupation.

"Main Occupation" means the one that provides the greatest income.

In the case of a person who worked before but wasn't employed during the week of April 13 to 18 (unemployed), record the "last occupation."

Avoid vague designations such as: assistant, machinist, office worker, seller, etc.

Use designations that give the best possible idea of the person's occupation, for example: agricultural engineer, fruit vendor, taxi driver, typist etc.

Question No. 15--Occupational Category

This question will only be asked of those people who responded with boxes 0, 1, and 2 to question 13.

You will mark one of the following alternatives, as appropriate:

1) Employer or boss: If the person being enumerated ran their own business, or practiced a profession or trade on their own and had one or more wage-earning or salaried employees or manual laborers during the week of April 13 to 18.

2) Own-account worker: If the person ran their own company or practiced a profession or trade on their own, but did not have any wage-earning or salaried employees or manual laborers during the week of April 13 to 18.

3) Employee: A person who works for an employer or boss and makes their tax contributions [imposiciones] to an Employees' Social Security Fund [Caja de Previsión de Empleados], as for example the Private Employees' Fund, the Public Employees Fund, etc.

4) Manual Laborer or Day-Laborer: A person who works for an employer and contributes to the Social Security Service or another Manual Laborer Social Security Fund.

If the person doesn't make contributions or doesn't know which fund they contribute to, the person should be classified as an employee or manual laborer based on whether intellectual or physical effort, respectively, prevail in their work.

5) Domestic Worker: If the person worked for an employer or boss and worked at activities related to household service during the week of April 13 to 18 and received compensation in the form of a salary.

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6) Unpaid family member: If the person worked, during the week of April 13 to 18, without compensation in a business run by a relative, for at least a third of the normal work week.

For those who worked previously but were unemployed during the week of April 13 to 18, record the category (employee, manual laborer, etc.) that they had in their last occupation.

Question No. 16--Industry

As was the case with questions 14 and 15, this question should be asked only of those who responded with boxes 0, 1, and 2 on question 13.

Record the industry of the establishment where the person worked during the period of reference (April 13 to 18). Example: poultry farm, mining, construction, Ministry of Education, cotton fabric factory, cement factory, etc. Avoid vague terms like: farm, factory, office, etc.

For those people who were unemployed during the reference week but who had worked previously, record the industry of the establishment where they last worked.

IV. Fertility Rate

Only for women 15 and older

The questions included under this title should be asked of all women 15 and older, regardless of their marital status. Ask the questions exactly as they are written, waiting for a response to each item (A, B, C, etc.) before continuing on to the next one.

If the answer to item A) How many live-born and stillborn children have you had?, is "none," record zero, zero (00). Conversely, if the response is affirmative, record the number of children and ask all of the following questions, even though they may seem obvious.

If the number of children had by a woman is unknown, or if the person doesn't respond to this question, record XX after item A).

In order to answer the questions, it is necessary for you to remember the following definitions:

Born alive: A child who, upon being born, breathes, cries, or moves. If the child demonstrated any of these signs of life and then died, it is a "child born alive."

Stillborn: A child who, upon being born, doesn't show any sign of life. That is, the child doesn't cry, breathe, or move.

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Question No. 17--Number of Children

A. You should record here the total number of children had by the woman, including live-born and stillborn children.

B. Record here, separately, the total number of stillborn children.

C. Again separately, record in this item the total number of children born alive.

D. Of the children born alive, record in this item how many are currently alive.

E. From the total of children born alive, record in this item how many of them have died.