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Chile 1960

Enumerator Consultation Manual,
XIII General Population Census, II Housing Census,
IV Agriculture and Livestock Census

[Pages 1-17 were not translated into English.]

[p.18]

[Chapter IV: Instructions for the recording of information on the population and housing Documents]

3. Basic Definitions

Building. A building is any construction that constitutes a structurally independent or separate enclosure, used or meant to be used for purposes of habitation, business, industry, or any other kind of activity. For purposes of control during the enumeration process, the following will be considered buildings, whether or not they are finished

a) any construction of one or more floors;

b) cottages, bungalows, etc.;

c) shacks and other similar constructions.

In some cases, it is possible that two or more buildings will give the impression of being only one, because of being separated from each other or because of the presence of a dividing wall that runs from the foundation to the roof.

Dwelling. A dwelling is any functionally separate and independent premises or enclosure that has been constructed, made, converted, or prepared for purposes of permanent or temporary lodging of people, as well as any type of accommodation, stationary or mobile, occupied as a place of lodging on the date of the census. Therefore, the following constitute a dwelling:

a) A house, apartment, flat, room or group of rooms, shack, etc., that is independent and meant for providing lodging to a group or people or a single person;

b) A craft (boat), vehicle, boxcar, tent, etc. as well as any other type of accommodation (granary, shed), occupied as a place of lodging on the date of the census.

Private or family dwelling. A private or family dwelling is one used as a separate and independent abode or domicile by a person who lives alone or by a family or a group of people, related or unrelated, who live together under a family system.

Collective dwelling or unrelated-group dwelling. This type of dwelling is used or meant to be used as a place of lodging for a group of people who are not necessarily related, but who generally live together for reasons of discipline, health, teaching, military or religious life, work, etc. Other such dwellings in this category are: correctional facilities, military barracks, hospitals, boarding schools, hotels, convents, boarding houses, retirement homes, workers camps, etc.

[p. 19]

Specific Cases

a) Dwellings with boarders. If, in a family dwelling, boarders (including those that only pay for a room [not meals]) are lodged, it will still be considered a family dwelling if the total number of boarders is five or less. On the other hand, if there are six or more boarders, the dwelling will be considered collective.

If, in a collective dwelling, for example a clinic or hospital, there is one or more housing unit in which the director or other employee lives with their family, such units will be considered private dwellings.

b) Dwellings in buildings not specifically meant for this purpose. Buildings exclusively meant for commercial, industrial, or service purposes, such as stores, warehouses, storage facilities, factories, etc., will not be considered dwellings unless there is an apartment, room, or group of rooms within them that is occupied as a dwelling by the owner, security guard, doorman, etc., either with or without their relatives. In such a case, the part occupied by this person/these persons will be considered a dwelling.

Census Household. A census household is any group of people, related or unrelated, that lives together under a family system or [lives together] for reasons of discipline, health, military or religious life, teaching, etc.

This general definition involves a distinction between the following two basic categories:

a) The private or family household

b) The unrelated or institutional group

Private Household. A private household includes all occupying members of a private family dwelling that live together under a family system and is composed, in the majority of cases, by the household head, this person's relatives (spouse or partner, children, grandchildren, nieces and nephews, etc.), close friends, guests, boarders, domestic servants, and any other occupant.

If, in a private dwelling, there are five boarders or fewer, it will still be considered private. But if there are six or more, it will be considered an unrelated group. Any person who lives alone in a dwelling constitutes a private dwelling.

Unrelated Group. An unrelated group includes all the inhabitants of a collective dwelling who, in general, are unrelated and live together for reasons of health, discipline, religious life, etc. Families with six or more boarders are also considered unrelated groups.

[p. 20]

[4. Geographic Identification data (Section "A") omitted from translation]

[p. 21]

Housing Questionnaire

Observations. The information corresponding to all dwellings that are occupied on the day of the census will be recorded. If the dwelling is unoccupied or closed (in the case of summer homes or others, temporarily closed), only information relating to the "geographic location," the "address," and also the "type of dwelling" will be noted; then the condition of unoccupied or closed will be recorded in the section of the form reserved for observations.

Occupied dwelling means any dwelling that is inhabited by a census household (private or collective) on the day of the census.

Unoccupied dwelling means any dwelling that can be inhabited but is not occupied on the day of the census, due to being for sale, for rent, or under repair.

Closed dwelling means any dwelling whose occupants are absent on the day of the census because the dwelling is used as a temporary residence (for vacation season, summer, and other similar uses).

[p. 22]

If, due to a large family, various enumeration forms are used, information about the dwelling will be recorded in Section "B" on the first document, and on each of the additional documents only the information pertinent to "dwelling address" will be repeated.

1. Type of Dwelling

Under this heading information will be collected on premises and enclosures identified as dwellings from the point of view of the following general characteristics: (a) purpose (constructed as lodging or not) and actual use (used for habilitation [sic]); (b) relationship of those living together (private household or community); (c) similar structural elements (house, apartment, rustic hut, etc.)

Within this definition, under the heading premises meant as dwellings, information will be collected by marking an (x) in the appropriate square located under each of the following subgroups: (a) family dwellings, and (b) collective dwellings. And under the heading: other premises that function as dwellings on the date of the census, information will be recorded on the corresponding dotted line.

Premises meant as dwellings. The options indicated within the subgroup family dwellings include almost all of the distinct types of family dwellings that actually exist in the country. As can be observed, both types of dwelling predominant in urban areas (houses, apartments, etc.) and those predominant in rural areas (shacks, rustic huts, etc.) have been listed, including also types of clandestine dwellings such as squatter settlements, mobile dwellings (trailers, boats) and others. Within the subgroup Collective Dwellings, as in the previous case, premises corresponding to the various types of institutions are listed with sufficient completeness.

Finally, under the heading other premises that function as dwellings on the date of the census, no list has been included. This space is reserved for specific notations on those premises that were not meant, constructed, built, adapted, or transformed to be lived in, but which in fact are used as a place of lodging on the day of the census. In the case of, for example, stables, granaries, garages, etc.

The following definitions will help to record each case properly:

Family Dwellings:

a) Private House. Private house, or more commonly "house," refers to a building or construction that contains only one family dwelling. Chalets, bungalows, duplexes and, in general, all buildings, whatever their style, along a street that constitute the abode of a private domicile should be recorded, therefore, as "house" or "private house."

[p. 23]

b) An apartment in an apartment building is the room or group of rooms which, inside a building, constitute a family dwelling, but occupy only part of the building. The building is always made up of various living units.

c) A hut (casita de cite) is a building that is part of an enclosed area, within which small, independent houses meant for family dwellings are distributed.

d) An apartment or room in a house is a room or group of rooms that, in compliance with the requirements of the definition of "dwelling" (see definition), are located inside a "house" or "private house."

e) An apartment or room in a school, factory, workshop, collective dwelling, etc. is a room or group of rooms that, in compliance with the requirements of the definition of "dwelling" are located inside the building or premises of a school, industrial workshop, factory, collective dwelling, etc., such as apartments or rooms meant for the use of doormen, security guards, directors of the institution or business or community, or some of its employees.

f) A room in a tenement (high-density slum) is a room among other similar rooms, located within a building that has shared bathroom facilities. A room generally constitutes a family dwelling.

g) An improvised dwelling (squatter settlement) is an edification made of waste materials, on uncultivated land belonging to others, where there is no urban infrastructure nor hygienic conditions for habitability. They generally make up settlements.

h) A shack, rustic hut, or cabin is a typical rural edification made of lightweight material. In the city, isolated dwellings put up to supervise a construction site or project, in which the supervisor usually lives with his family, should be recorded in this category.

i) A trailer, boat, boxcar is a type of dwelling constructed on a mobile structure for the purpose of recreation or because of convenience for work.

j) Others (tents, parked vehicles, etc.) are types of unstable, more or less temporary dwellings, or dwellings that have been specially adapted. Parked vehicle means the upper part of streetcars, boxcars, buses, etc. that was initially meant for the use of passengers but that, whether removed or not from the wheels, has been immobilized in some place through being used as place to live.

Collective Dwellings.

Reading this definition and that of particular types of collective dwellings will help greatly in notating [this section].

a) A boarding house or guest house is a dwelling with six or more boarders, considering as such even those who only pay for a room [not meals]. If there are five or fewer boarders, the dwelling should be considered a private dwelling. This definition should not be confused with that of apartment or room in a house, previously explained [p. 24], and which is an independent dwelling within a private house, and therefore a family dwelling.

b) A hotel is a dwelling in which temporary or permanent lodging is provided with food or without it.

c) A lodge is a dwelling generally meant to provide nighttime lodging.

Note: The rest of the collective dwellings listed don't need any definition. Just remember that in any type of collective dwelling there can be one or more family dwellings.

Premises that function as dwellings on the date of the census. Record the appropriate information, specifying the name of the premises (garage, granary, etc.)

2. Predominant Material

Under this heading record the requested information relating to a) Exterior walls; b) Roof covering; c) Floors.

It is evident that special technical knowledge is required in order to specify with precision the predominant class of materials and the state of repair of a dwelling. Nevertheless the enumerator is able to make a general assessment about these, through careful observation and questioning the residents.

In the three columns under this heading the predominant material of the walls, roof, and floor will be marked, indicating their state of repair.

Exterior walls. The material of the exterior walls of the dwelling, those that bear the weight of the roof or the upper floors, will be considered. Make the appropriate notations according to the following definitions:

a) Concrete wall. Like walls made of brick masonry or cement blocks or stone, they are easily recognizable when they are not stuccoed. When they are stuccoed, they are recognizable: a) by their thickness of no less than twenty centimeters (a hand, more or less, measured in the doorway); b) because, upon knocking on them, they should not sound hollow, but rather as if made of stone.

b) Mortared adobe. When uncovered, it is easily recognized by its appearance of dried mud. Covered, it should measure thirty-five or sixty-five centimeters. The sound is especially muted.

c) Exterior partition covered with sheets of galvanized iron, slate, or other siding. Constructed of wooden posts (placed vertically) and covered on one or both sides by flat or corrugated planks or sheets of galvanized iron or slate, or by sheets of pressed wood or plywood. On the interior, these walls [p. 25] can be covered by sheets of plaster, ebonite, or paper. Their thickness fluctuates between ten and twenty centimeters, and when knocked on they sound hollow.

d) Brick walls, vertical (parado) adobe, or cement partition. The characteristic thing about this type of partition is its lack of thickness: approximately ten centimeters. The bricks are placed on edge, that is, standing up.

e) Partitions of sticks and mud, rammed earth, waste materials, tin, cardboard, etc. These low-quality walls are generally uncovered and the enumerator can easily recognize them.

f) Other material. Here any other material not mentioned in the previous items should be recorded.

State of repair of the walls

a) Very good. Without any apparent defects.

b) Acceptable. Walls that have defects in their appearance, perhaps of some seriousness, but which in no way affect their strength. Examples: water stains, some stucco falling off, some superficial cracks.

c) Bad. Walls that have many cracks, are not square (crooked), are totally or partially detached from other walls in the dwelling, with holes, pieces that are detached, soaked, or eaten away at the base, rotten wood, tilted (azumagadas) at the lower end, especially the (vertical) posts. In general, it is of interest to know the condition of the walls, preferably with respect to their strength or grade of firmness. The enumerator should not judge exclusively by the appearance of the exterior nor by easily reparable deterioration, such as defects in the paint or stucco. A wall should not be classified as bad simply because of being in an old building.

Roof covering

a) Zinc, copper, or galvanized iron. Sheets of various dimensions whose general characteristic is undulation or corrugation. The sheets of galvanized iron, zinc, and slate are a whitish gray. The galvanized steel, when it is rusty, is dark red or brown. The enumerator must be careful not to confuse these sheets with phonolite sheets, which will be defined later on. In other cases, iron, zinc, and copper sheets are flat with joints that stick out every eighty centimeters following the slope of the roof.

b) Clay or cement roof tiles. The tiles have dimensions no larger than twenty by thirty centimeters; they can be curved or flat. The normal color of the cement tiles is red or gray and the clay tiles have the characteristic brick color, specific to baked clay.

[p. 26]

c) Wooden tiles. Generally made of reddish-brown larch wood. The apparent size of each tile is ten by twenty centimeters. These roofs are characterized by the steep slope that they need for water drainage.

d) Phonolite. Phonolite is a small sheet of black, corrugated tar paper.

e) Reeds, cane and mud, cardboard, waste material composed of tin or wood. All of these materials can be recognized upon sight and generally are part of improvised roofs of bad quality.

f) Others. Because of their small number, terraces and flat roofs will be grouped under this category. Three types will be distinguished:
i) Tiled terraces, that are generally in modern buildings
ii) Flat roofs, black, also found in modern buildings and houses
iii) The system of roofs commonly used in the Great North (Norte Grande) of the country, also called a terrace, which is a flat, wooden platform covered with mud and any other material that fundamentally keeps out the heat.

State of repair of the roofs

a) Very good. Without any apparent defects.

b) Acceptable. Roofs with repaired or repairable defects; without holes, advanced rust, or unevenness. Example: broken roof tiles, unscrewed sheets, occasional drips, or drips from the chimney or sewer system vent.

c) Bad. Uneven or sunken roofs, with holes or partial destruction; sheets eaten away by rust, a large number of broken tiles, beams rotting, sheets not adequately held down (stones on top of the roof).

Floors

a) Parquet or wood platform

Platform:
i) Made up of mortised boards between five and fifteen centimeters wide, nailed onto wooden joists, and have a hollow sound when stepped on.

ii) Parquet: Small wooden boards attached on top of a mix of cement. It is a compact floor upon which footsteps do not sound hollow.

b) Floor tiles or polished cement:

i) Floor tiles: Made up of polished, square elements of different colors (gray, red, black, with pictures), generally twenty centimeters by twenty centimeters.

ii) Polished cement. Flat floor made on site, which can be colored or gray. Appearance similar to that of a tiled floor.

c) Brick. Made up of small clay tiles of a characteristic brick color.

d) Plastic, rubber, linoleum, etc. These floors are characterized by their varied or combined (streaked) colors and their soft consistency which absorbs the noise of footsteps.

e) Dirt. Floors without a covering, composed entirely of packed and leveled dirt.

State of repair of the floors

a) Very good. Without any apparent defects.

b) Acceptable. Floor coverings that have fixable defects, such as detachments, burns, cracks, breaks in the canes (palmetas), as long as there aren't dangerous breaks, uneven spots, visible moisture, decay. A dirt floor is acceptable as long as it's firm, quite level, and doesn't have moisture (mud).

c) Bad. Dangerously uneven floors that move when walked upon by a person. Rotten or worm-eaten boards. Pieces of floor covering missing, holes, moisture or mud for dirt floors.

3. Water Supply

Verify whether the dwelling has water service provided through pipes that come from a public supply network or from a private facility.

In cases where the dwelling doesn't have pipes for their water supply, verify if the water is hauled in.

Mark the appropriate situation with an "X" in the corresponding box.

Whatever the system that provides the water supply to the dwelling, be it through pipes or hauled in, the origin must also be indicated, in other words, whether it comes from a public network of pipes, from a well or a water wheel (noria), or from some other source (spring, river, irrigation channel, etc.)

[p. 28]

A well or water wheel is a hole in the ground through which potable, subterranean water is collected. Mark an "X" in the corresponding box, depending on where the water used in the dwelling comes from.

Note that in all cases one box should be marked under the heading "The dwelling receives water" and another under the heading "The water comes from".

For example: in the case of a landlord's dwelling (casa patronal) in the middle of a rural area that has pipes for water service, with the water coming from a well, from which it is extracted by means of a pump. In this case, under the first heading box one will be checked, and under the second heading box two [will be checked].

In the case of a squatter settlement where the dwellings don't have pipes installed, but whose residents haul the water from a faucet or tap, or spout, fed by a pipe from a public network, under the first heading box two will be checked, and under the second heading box one [will be checked].

4. Bath Services

Bath services means bathing facilities, be they a shower or a bathtub. As the case may be, mark with an "X" whether the bath has hot water (box 1) or only cold water (box 2).

In cases where no bath facilities exist, mark box 3.

Note that a dwelling should not be considered to have bath facilities simply because it has a wash basin (batea) or laundry room.

Finally, make the appropriate notation according to whether the bath facilities (bathtub or shower) are for the exclusive use of the family (box 1) or are used by more than one family (box 2).

5. Toilet Facilities

Under this heading information will be collected only: a) about the system for elimination of human waste, and b) about the exclusive use, or lack thereof, of the toilet facilities (lavatory, toilet, (excusados lavables), etc.), generically referred to as "toilets."

Take note of the following definitions of systems for elimination of human waste:

a) Sewer system. This term is used when the dwelling's facilities drain into the general receptacles of the sewer system.

b) Septic tank or well. This is used only when a sewer system isn't present. This term is used when the drain leads to a closed concrete tank, where [p. 29] a process of decanting and rotting takes place. These tanks drain, ultimately by overflow, into an absorption well.

c) Pit/latrine. Or absorbent well, is a hole, without further specifications, where waste materials end up.

The rest of the systems mentioned in the document don't need further clarification.

Mark the appropriate response for each of the two types of information requested.

6. Lighting

Note whether or not the dwelling has electric lighting, even if it has been temporarily interrupted.

If the dwelling doesn't have electric lighting and instead uses another system of illumination, it's sufficient to put an "X" in box 2 without including any further details.

7. Kitchen

Make a notation in the appropriate box according to the type of fuel used by the family for cooking.

Also, take care to record in the appropriate box whether the cooking device (kerosene stove, gas stove, wood stove, etc.) is in a room where someone sleeps.

8. Ownership

Write down how the dwelling is occupied, according to the following definitions:

a) Owner. If the dwelling belongs to the head of the family or to one of its members that resides there.

b) Tenant. If the family or group occupies and uses the dwelling through an agreement between the owner and the tenant, in exchange for a predetermined payment.

c) Sublessor. If the head of the family, a member of the family that lives in the dwelling, or the group that occupies the dwelling, rented it from someone else who, in turn, rented it from the owner.

d) Usufructuary. If the family or group that lives in a dwelling uses it with the permission of the owner, without paying rent.

e) Other

[p. 30]

Note that box 2 should be used both for "tenants" and "sublessors."

When any other type of occupancy is specified, in these cases mark box 4.

Make the notation according to what is indicated on the form.

[There is no number 9 in the original document]

10. Monthly Rent

The sum, in pesos, that the family pays monthly for the dwelling that they rent or sublet should be recorded in this category.

If that sum, in pesos, is for renting an unfurnished dwelling, record it on the first dotted line; if it is for renting a furnished dwelling, record it on the second dotted line.

11. Domestic industry

A domestic industry is one that is practiced in the dwelling, on one's own, in addition to household chores, making products for sale. Specify, according to the situation, the type or types of products produced, using the following examples as a guide: machine- or hand-woven fabrics {specifying, where possible, the types of articles woven}; jams, pastries, dress-making/tailoring, wicker baskets, farming tools, clay figurines and any other type of ceramics, etc.

Population Questionnaire (Section "C")

General observations

The XIII General Population Census will take place in Chile, as has already been indicated, on November 29, 1960. This date will be known by the term: "Day of the Census".

Likewise, this census operation will technically constitute what is known as a "de facto" census, following the Chilean tradition. It is called this because all inhabitants, domestic and foreign, should be enumerated wherever they are on the day of the census, without taking into account their usual residence.

With regard to the type of enumeration, the interview method will be used, that is, information about each person will be obtained and written down on the census form by an enumerator who is authorized to complete the task.

All information that is recorded on the population form should correspond to the day and time indicated. Under these rules, the population census should enumerate all people who were in the Republic's [Chile's] territory at midnight on the day prior to the Day of the Census. In this way, if any census household is enumerated after the Day of the Census, for example one or more days after, that information that is collected should [p. 31] refer to the "Day of the Census". Therefore, children born after midnight on the night before the Day of the Census should not be enumerated, but those who were born before that time and those who died after that time should be enumerated.

A practical rule to follow for the enumeration is to investigate all people who spent the night in the dwellings the night before the Day of the Census.

Domestic servants should be enumerated as part of the households if they sleep in the same dwelling occupied by those households.

Besides the people that spent the night before the Day of the Census in the household, the following should also be enumerated in the same dwelling:

a) those members of the family who, because of work or special circumstances, did not spend the night in the dwelling and were absent (security guards, doctors, on-call nurses, police officers, midwives, partygoers, wake-goers [asistentes a un velorio], etc.);

b) those members of the family that left on a trip after midnight on the night before the Day of the Census and are traveling.

Personal Characteristics

Column 1: First and Last Names. Start the enumeration of the private household with the first and last name of the head of household and continue in the order indicated in the instructions at the top of the column. The head of household is the person who, because of age or being the principal financial supporter of the family, or for other reasons, is recognized as such, and can be either a man or a woman. In all cases, write down the complete first and last name. For married women, write down their first name and their first last name from when they were single, followed by the last name of their spouse preceded by the word "de" [of]. In the case of widows, [do the same] preceded by the expression "Vda. de" [widow of].

Write down the names of the different members that make up the private household in the following order:

a) Head of household
b) Partner of the head of household
c) Unmarried sons and daughters in order of decreasing age
d) Married sons and daughters, who are part of the census household, followed by their spouses and children. All in order of decreasing age.
e) Other relatives (grandparents, aunts and uncles, nieces and nephews, brothers- and sisters-in-law, etc.)
f) Close friends
g) Boarders and guests
h) Domestic workers and their children and relatives

[p. 32]

In the case of members of unrelated groups, first record the name of the director or head and the names of the employees of the institution that don't have an assigned private dwelling, and then the names of the rest of the members that make up the group.

If the name of any person that should be enumerated is unknown, or it is a minor who still doesn't have a name, write down just "N. N." [name unknown]

First and last names are only recorded to facilitate enumeration. In the census information, each person and their respective individual data becomes one simple unit of a global figure, without their name being published in the results of the census. It is convenient to mention this fact in cases where there is resistance to provide census data.

Column 2: Sex. Write down the appropriate sex.

Column 3: Family relationship or other relationship to the head. The title "head" is already printed on the first line of the form. On the following lines, that correspond to the rest of the family members, write down the family or other relationship that connects them to the "head," for example: wife, son, son-in-law, domestic employee, etc.

If the family is based on a consensual union, write it down as a reciprocal relationship between the man and the woman: or conviviente [partner, companion].

In the case of relatives of workers, boarders, close friends, guests, domestic employees, etc., write down: son of boarder, son of domestic employee, nephew of close friend, as the case may be. In the case of unrelated or institutional groups, write in this column the person's rank, in other words, whatever rank was used to determine the order in which you wrote their name in column 1; in other words, in the case of the heads of the institution: Director, Alcalde [generally a mayor, but can be used also for other director/leadership/administrative positions], Superintendent, Inspector, etc., and for the rest of the group: patient, asilado [person living in a retirement/nursing home], inmate, boarder [in a boarding school, for example], etc., as the case may be. If two or more people who are not relatives occupy the same dwelling, record one of them as the "head" and the other(s) as "companion(s)".

Column 4: Age. Age in completed years means the age that the person reached upon their last birthday. One way to verify the correctness of the age stated by the person being enumerated is to ask for their date of birth, if they are able to provide that information.

The enumerator must take into account the common tendency of people to round their age, particularly to figures that end in zero or five. It is especially important to find out the date of birth in these cases.

If the person doesn't know their age, and you can't find any way to determine it, be it by using documents belonging to the individual or references from neighbors, make an estimate of their age. If not present, use information from people present who know the person being enumerated. For those under one year of age, don't forget to write the word "month(s)" immediately after the corresponding number. So, 1 month, 3 months, etc.

[p. 33]

Column 5: Marital Status. Write down [the appropriate status for] each case, according to the following definitions:

Single: One who has ever been married and doesn't live in a marital situation [maritalmente].

Married: One who has established marital bonds (civil or religious, or both) and continues in that state.

Consensual Union: One who, without having married another person, lives in a marital union with that person.

Widow/er: One who, having been married, has had their spouse die and who has not remarried nor lives in a marital union.

De facto separated: A married person who lives separately from their spouse without a judicial ruling of legal separation or annulment of the marriage.

Legally separated: One who, having been married, lives separately, temporarily or transitionally, from their spouse due to a judicial ruling and who does not live in a marital situation.

Annulled: One who ceased to be married because their marriage was annulled by a judicial ruling, and who does not live in a marital situation.

If the first and last name of a woman who declares herself to be married don't include the last name of her spouse, the enumerator should make sure that this is the true marital status. Nevertheless, this question should be asked very discretely, as in any case where there is doubt about the reported marital status.

Column 6: Number of children. This question should be asked only of all women 12 years old or older. Record the total number of children born alive, including children who have died and excluding both aborted children and stillborn children. If one reports not to have had any children born alive or who have died, draw a short horizontal line. The question should be asked of all women over the age specified [12 or over], without taking into account the marital status they have reported.

It should be noted that there is a tendency to forget or not report live-born children who are not at home with the mother, because of living at teaching establishments or living with other relatives, which tends to happen with children from previous marriages and consensual unions.

For this reason, the enumerator should try to obtain the most precise figure possible of the total number of live-born children the mothers have had. At the same time, they must use extreme courtesy and discretion when asking the question. Despite everything, just because someone refuses to answer or criticizes the enumerator's questions about possible children of a single mother, this should not be a reason to stop asking the same question in all households to be enumerated, explaining that this is a necessary piece of data in order to know the fertility in our country.

[p. 34]

Column 7: Place of birth. For those born in the country, record the name of the province where they were born. If the person being enumerated doesn't know the name of the province, record the name of the municipality, and if that name is not known either, record the name of the locality or town where they were born. For those born abroad, record the name of the country in accordance with the borders and name of the country on the date of the Census. If the person doesn't know or has doubts about the name of their country [of birth] on the date of the census, record the name of the country on the date of the person's birth, but in this case it should appear in the "Observations" section.

Migration

Column 8: Year. Record the year in which the person came to live or reside at the place being enumerated.

Place of enumeration means the population entity, such as: city, town, large farm fundo, camp, etc., of whatever population size, where the dwelling of the person being enumerated is located.

Living or residing in an enumerated place means being established in that place because of work, business, family life, or any other socio-economic reason for a period of six months or more, or for less time if the person has come to settle in the place. A person should not be considered to be residing in the place of enumeration if that residence is used for vacation, visiting relatives, a study trip or for another similar cause, for less than six months.

If a person has changed dwellings from one neighborhood to another, within the same city, town, or village or, in the case of the city of Santiago, from one municipality to another, this should not be considered a change of residence for the purposes of this investigation.

In accordance with these definitions, if the person has always lived in the place of enumeration, write down the word: always. Otherwise, write down the year that the person established residency in the place of enumeration. If the person doesn't remember the year that they established their residency in the place of enumeration exactly, record the year that seems most likely to the person.

In the case of people who have been in the place of enumeration for purposes of vacationing, visiting family, studying, or other similar reasons for less than six months, and without settling in that place, write down the word: temporary.

In the case of a person who has returned to the place of enumeration after having resided elsewhere, whenever the absence from the place [of enumeration] has been for more than six months, record the year of their last return to the place [of enumeration]. If the absence was for less than six months, even if it had been to settle in another place, or if it was for vacation, a study trip, etc., such an absence should not be considered, and the word always will be written down.

Column 9: Previous Residence. Province or country resided in prior to the stated year. Only for anyone who reported having settled in the place of enumeration in a certain year (Column 8), write down the name of the province or country they came from.

[p. 35]

If the person migrated within or outside of the province because of the earthquakes last May, add a "D" (Displaced), even if the person stated in column 8 that they moved temporarily.

Column 10: Area. Locality resided in prior to the stated year. If the person being enumerated came from a city, town, or village, put U for Urban; in all other cases, put R for Rural.

Religion and Education

Column 11: Religion. According to what each person states, record the religion professed, be it Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Muslim, etc. If a person states that they don't practice any religion, record: None.

Education: The following three questions should be answered by all people five years or older.

Column 12: Literacy. Find out whether the person knows how to read and write, and write yes or no, as the case may be. If the person only knows how to read or only knows how to sign their name, record no in both cases.

Column 13: Educational Attainment. Information should be collected on the last grade or the most advanced year of studies that the person has passed, not the grade that they are currently in or studying, nor the grade that they've been in or studied, but without having passed. Record, for example: 2nd [year of] primary [school]; 5th [year of] secondary [school]; 3rd [year of] law school, etc.

In the case of a person who has studied and passed courses abroad, record the equivalent grade or year in the corresponding Chilean educational system.

For those who have never attended school, record: "O". [Translator's note: this appears to be the letter "O" and not the number "0".]

Column 14: School Attendance. The person will be asked if they are attending a regular teaching establishment, with the grade or year being attended and type of instruction being received will be recorded.

Regular teaching refers to that given in public and private teaching establishments under a teaching plan or program that has been officially approved in the country.

Take into account, therefore, schools, primary schools [colegios], high schools [liceos], universities, academies, institutes, night schools, "popular" universities [universidades populares], home-schooling, etc.

In accordance with this definition, record the year or grade and the type of instruction that is being received, for example: 3rd year of high school; 4th year of Social Sciences, etc.

Nothing will be recorded for people who are only taking correspondence courses or piano, cooking, or embroidery classes, or shorthand or typing classes by [p. 36] the hour, as a complement to the education they've received. Both for these people and for those who don't attend any center for regular teaching, record "Doesn't attend".

Occupational Characteristics

Observation: Under the general title "Occupational Characteristics" are the four general subjects indicated in columns 15 through 18. By means of the information collected, the whole population of the country must first be grouped into two large, primary groups: a) the economically active population and b) the population that is not economically active. Each one of these two large groups is then subdivided into subgroups, each and every one of which is specified in the header row of column 15.

Thus, secondly, details will be available about the occupations of economically active individuals (Column 16), the industries in which they practice these occupations (Column 17), and the category or rank under which they practice: employee, manual laborer, etc. (Column 18).

But to arrive at a reasonable grouping, numerous individual situations must be taken into consideration. These situations are adjusted to ever more refined definitions and instructions by economists, sociologists, and census technicians. In order to apply these norms and obtain precise information, the response must pertain to the situation of the person being enumerated on the day of the census.

The information requested for the subjects indicated in columns 15 through 18 is intimately related.

This means that no information should be noted in columns 16 through 18 without first having clarified whether or not the record comes from information in the previous column. Of course this requirement does not hold for column 15, which should always be filled in, because it is the starting point in this study of occupational characteristics.

Column 15: Employment Status. The employment status or occupational situation of people on the "Day of the Census" will be recorded in this column, with the different situations being distinguished by various groups identified by the letters indicated in the header row [of this column]. The type of people that make up each group is specified below:

Group "OC": (Employed). Includes all people employed on the day of the census, that is, that have a job.

The following classes can be distinguished:

a) People that work for another person who is not a relative, receiving monetary (salary, commission, etc.) compensation or payment in kind (house, food, etc.), whatever the type of work they do;

[p. 36]

b) People who work on a large farm, in a business or industry, or practicing a profession, be it by themselves or with the help of one or more people they pay;

c) People who work for a member of their family on a large farm, in a business, industry, or office, etc., with or without compensation.

In this last situation (without compensation), the person must work at least three hours per day, or its equivalent of two eight-hour days per week.

Also included in group "OC," that is, considered to be employed, will be those people who, on the date of the Census, are not working because of health reasons, vacation, strike, a temporary interruption of their job, or any other reason other than having permanently left [the job].

Group "CE": (Unemployed). Includes people who, on the date of the Census, do not have an occupation or paid job, but who have worked and who are looking for work. Also included are those who aren't looking for work because they have gotten a job that will start after the date of the census.

Group "BT": (Seeking work). Includes people who have never worked and who are seeking their first job.

Group "QH": (Household duties). Includes people who devote themselves to household duties in their own households.

When this work is compensated (monetarily or in kind), as is the case with domestic workers, the person in question will be recorded as employed within group "OC."

Group "ES": (Student). Includes students who devote themselves exclusively to studying.

If a person devoted to "household duties" or a "student" has a compensated occupation on the date of the Census, the person will in fact be part of the group "OC."

[Translator's note: please see comment at beginning of document]

Group "RT": [from Rentista] (Rentier). Includes those who don't work at any compensated activity and live off the profits of their capital.

Group "JB": (Retiree or Pensioner). Includes those people who don't work at any compensated activity and who, because of having done so before under certain conditions, receive a pension. Also included in this group are widows and other people who receive a dependent's pension or a granted pension [pensión de gracia].

Group "IR": (Disabled or Imprisoned). Includes all those people who are unable to work at a compensated activity because of a physical or mental handicap, living a cloistered lifestyle, or because of their legal situation (prisoners). If the handicap is temporary, the person will be classified under the group "OC," as long as the person has some form of work secured.

[p. 38]

Group "OT": (Others). Includes all people that can't be classified in any of the previous groups, like minors that don't attend school, the elderly without any economic resources, etc.

Once the information for each case has been recorded in this column, continue with the information pertinent to the next column, column 16, only for those who have been classified in the groups: "OC," "CE," and "BT."

For the rest of the people who belong to any one of the other groups ("QH," "ES," "RT," "JB, "m" [sic, census form states "IR" instead of "m"], and "OT"), that is the end of the census and a horizontal line should be drawn across columns 16, 17, and 18 for the corresponding entries on the enumeration form.

Column 16: Occupation on the day of the Census. Write down the specific profession, trade, or type of job practiced on the day of the census, only for people classified in the previous column (Column 15), under one of the following groups: "Employed" (OC), "Unemployed" (CE), and "Seeking work for the first time" (BT).

Avoid vague designations such as: assistant, manual laborer, machinist, office worker, seller, etc.; instead, use designations that give the best possible idea of the person's occupation, for example: agricultural engineer, movie projectionist, fruit vendor, travel agent, cobbler's apprentice, etc.

There are some manual labor, artisan, and professional occupations that are precise simply by nature of their name, like: carpenter, bricklayer, plumber, physician, attorney, etc.

Certain commercial occupations, however, require more specific information, such as: selling agent, counter attendant, etc. Also, in the case of office workers, clarify if the person is a typist, cashier, treasurer, accountant, filing-clerk, etc.

In the case of professionals like physicians, attorneys, engineers, etc., that profession should normally be recorded. However, there are cases where these people don't practice those professions and instead devote themselves to other activities. For example, an attorney who works solely in bank management; a physician who devotes himself exclusively to teaching in a university. In these cases, record the latter profession, such as manager or university professor, as the case may be. For government employees write down their specific occupations, in accordance with the examples given previously, avoiding the designation "public employee."

If the person is a member of the armed forces, (not including police officers), whatever the class or rank, record "Military."

For domestic workers, it should be specified whether they are, for example, a cook, launderer, nanny, butler, etc. Likewise, for those who perform agricultural activities, the term "farmer" should be reserved for those who operate a farming/livestock facility, and not for those who perform general activities in the capacity of administrators, [p. 39] cowboys, shepherds, tractor-operators, cheesemakers, milkers, unskilled laborers, etc., for whom should be written down their specific occupation.

For unemployed people (Group "CE"), record the last occupation practiced.

For people who are seeking work for the first time (Group "BT"), record the profession, trade, or type of work for which they are qualified or prepared or, if they are not qualified or prepared for any, simply record: "none." Once this notation has been made, the census has ended for this group of people. Draw a horizontal line across columns 17 and 18 of the corresponding entries on the enumeration form for these people.

Column 17: Industry. Industry means the type of business, establishment, office, organization, company, institution, etc., where the person practices the previously-mentioned occupation.

Write down this information only for those who have an occupation recorded in the previous column (Column 16) and who belong to either group "OC" (Employed) or "CE" (Unemployed).

As in the case of occupation, try to record as specifically as possible, avoiding unclear terms, the type of establishment in which the person works or worked (if unemployed). So avoid terms like workshop, office, store, factory, business, etc., and instead specify in the following way: shoe factory, radio repair shop, electronics warehouse, carpet store, air transport company, etc.

Avoid using terms that specify only the name of the establishment, like "La Violeta" factory, "Casa Fénix", etc.

If the person is a fiscal, semifiscal, municipal, or public service employee, on the other hand, record the proper name of the ministerial division, government agency, office, or service in which the person being enumerated practices their profession.

If a person practices the same profession in more than one business or industry, the type of establishment from which greater compensation is received should be recorded. For example, in the case of a commercial accountant who does the books for a glass factory, a store, and a transportation company, receiving the greatest income from the glass factory, this [the glass factory] should be recorded as the industry.

If the person practices their profession in a company that carries out two or more different industrial activities, the industrial activity to which the person is directly tied should be recorded, as long as this is a main, not a secondary, activity. [p. 40] For example, in the case of a company that has a refrigerator and a furniture factory, an employee's industry should be recorded as refrigerator factory or furniture factory, depending on whether the employee works in the first or second of these.

For domestic workers, "family house" or "community house" should be recorded.

Column 18: Occupational Category. The information about occupational categories should be obtained based on the following definitions:

Group "ER": (Employer). A person who runs their own company or who practices a profession or trade on their own and who has one or more compensated workers, not counting domestic workers. [Translator's note: In the value labels (categories 1 and 3) employee (employee) appears twice due to a typo. In this case, it definitely refers to the employer, corresponding to category 3 in the value labels.]

Group "TCP": (Self-employed Worker). A person who runs their own company or who practices a profession or trade on their own, but does not employ any compensated workers. Can work by themselves or in association with others.

Group "EM": (Employee). A person who uses more mental than physical effort in their job and who is compensated for work done for a public or private employer of whose census household that person is not a member. Also considered to be employees are managers, administrators, and other managerial personnel. Some special laws assign the designation of employee to people in certain professions, such as hairdressers, chauffeurs, etc., according the welfare system [previsión social] to which the person being enumerated has recourse.

Group "OB": (Manual Laborer). A person who performs a predominantly manual activity and is compensated for work done for a public or private employer of whose census household that person is not a member. When there are doubts about classifying someone as a manual laborer, refer to the welfare system to which the person being enumerated has recourse.

Group "ED": (Domestic Worker). A person devoted to activities related to household service (waiter, butler, cook, servant girl, cook, housekeeper, nanny) and who is compensated for work done for a public or private employer of whose census household that person is not a member. This category of people have "family house" as their industry.

Group "FR": (Paid Family Worker). A person who is compensated for work done for a company run by a member of their family.

Group "FNR": (Unpaid Family Worker). A person who is not compensated for work done for a company run by a member of their family, and who practices that profession at least three hours a day (two days a week).

Record this information for all people whose occupation has been recorded and who belong to either Group "OC" (Employed) or Group "CE" (Unemployed).

[p. 41]

Summary: Once the enumeration is finished, make sure that you haven't forgotten to enumerate anyone, and write down separately the number of men, the number of women, and the total number of people.

[Pages 42-49 were not translated into English.]