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1991 Census Guide
and reasons why questions are asked
Statistics Canada

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Census Day: What is it?

Census Day is the day when all Canadians are counted for the latest portrait of Canada - a portrait crucial for planning the country's future.

How important are you?

You are the most important part of the census. Everyone is required to complete a census form because we need to count every Canadian for our new portrait. So please fill out your form and count yourself in!

How an accurate count affects Canada and you

The census is important to you in many ways. Census results are used in making decisions -- decisions that affect your neighborhood, province or territory..... the entire country.
You benefit because census results are used to plan health care and day care facilities, and to forecast the need for services such as roads, schools and public transit.
Census results also help to determine how much money will go towards pensions, housing, youth employment programs and the needs of persons with disabilities. These results are also used to determine the number of seats each province or territory is entitled to have in Parliament.
In addition, responses to census questionnaires may be used to help Statistics Canada develop sample surveys to address issues of such current social concern as aging, disability and housing.

The information you give is kept secret

The information you give is protected by law. Statistics Canada employees who are sworn to secrecy must keep your answers private and confidential or face fines and/or imprisonment. Information published from the census does not identify individual Canadians. No one - not even the police or other government agencies - can obtain personal information on specific people.
Your census information is securely stored at Statistics Canada. It takes about six months for your questionnaire to be processed. You can request to see your census form by writing to: Privacy Coordinator, Statistics Canada, R.H. Coats Building, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0T6.

Why we ask the questions and how to fill out your form
Step 1

We need your address to make sure that every household has been counted. Your telephone number allows us to contact you if any information is missing from your form.

Step 2

No instruction needed.

Step 3
It is important for us to ask this question because only Canadian residents are included in the census.
For census purposes, student authorization holders, employment authorization holders, refugee claimants and ministerial permit holders are not foreign residents and should be listed in Step 5.
If all persons in this household are foreign residents, mark the circle and mail the form back promptly. There is no reason to go further.

Steps 4 to 7

We ask Steps 4 to 7 to make sure that everyone is counted once, and only once. In this way we will have a complete count of the Canadian population.

Step 4

Answer this step only if all persons in this household are staying here temporarily on Census Day and have a usual home somewhere else in Canada.
Examples of persons staying here temporarily: students living here temporarily while going to school; business people on assignment; seasonal workers who are away from their usual home; families on vacation.
If all persons in this household are staying here temporarily, print the total number in the box provided and mail the form back promptly. There is no reason to go further. A census representative will contact you in order to obtain information about your usual home.

Step 5

Special situations: if parents have joint custody of their children, only one parent should include the children on his or her list; list any baby that was born on or before June 3, 1991, even if the baby is still in hospital. If the baby has not been named, simply list as "baby."

Step 6

If you have any trouble deciding whether or not to list a particular person (for example, a child or adult who has another home somewhere else in Canada), print the name of the person and the reason for the uncertainty in the boxes provided.

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Step 7

If there are persons with a usual home somewhere else in Canada who stayed here overnight between June 3 and 4, 1991, print the number of these persons in the box provided.

Step 8

This information is used to identify farm operators for the Census of Agriculture.
Operators are those persons responsible for the day-to-day decisions made in the agricultural operation of a holding.
A holding is considered to be agricultural if it produces any of the following products intended for sale: field crops; tree fruits, berries or grapes; vegetables; seed; livestock (cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, goats, rabbits, etc.); poultry (hens, chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, etc.); animal products (milk, cream, eggs, wool, furs, etc.); other agricultural products (greenhouse or nursery products, mushrooms, sod, honey, maple syrup products, etc.).

Step 9

No instruction needed.

Question 1: Name

Names are used in case we have to contact the household when answers about a particular person are not clear or are incomplete.

Question 2: Relationship to person 1
The relationships between household members tell us how many family, non-family and one-person households there are in Canada. This information is used to plan social programs such as old age security and family allowances. It also identifies future needs for housing and community services ranging from health and education to recreation and transportation.
Start with person 2. When you find person 2's relationship to person 1, mark the appropriate circle. For example, if John Smith lives with his father Thomas Smith and the father has been listed as person 1, then John Smith would mark the circle labelled Son/daughter of Person 1.
There may be someone in this household whose relationship to person 1 is not described in Question 2. In such cases, print the exact relationship to person 1 in the box provided. Other can include persons in this household who are either related (uncle, aunt, cousin, grandfather, grandmother, etc.) or who are not related (employee, landlord, employee's common-law partner, etc.) to person 1.
Stepchildren, adopted children and children of a common-law partner should be considered sons and daughters.
Foster children, wards and guardianship children who are not related to person 1 by blood, marriage, adoption or common-law should be listed as lodgers.

Question 3: Date of birth

Information on age is needed to help plan for such community needs as day care facilities, schools and senior citizens' housing.

Question 4: Sex

Information classified by sex is needed to understand the changing roles of men and women in our families, communities and in the work-force.

Question 5: Legal marital status
Information on legal marital status, when combined with other census questions, is used to study changes in family formation and to measure, among other things, the growth and structure of two-income families, lone-parent families and the elderly who live independently.
Mark the circle labelled Legally married (and not separated) if this person is a husband or wife, even if the person and his or her spouse are temporarily apart due to illness or work, but not if this person is separated or divorced.
Mark the circle labelled Legally married and separated if this person's spouse is still living but they no longer live together for any reason other than illness or work.
Mark the circle labelled Divorced if this person was once legally married, has obtained a divorce from that marriage and has never remarried.
Mark the circle labelled Widowed if this person was legally married or legally married and separated at the same time his or her spouse died and has never remarried.
Mark the circle labelled Never married (single) if this person has never been married.
If this person is living in a common-law relationship, choose the category in Question 5 which best describes this person's legal marital status (i.e. legally married and separated, divorced, widowed, or never married (single)) and mark the appropriate circle. Be sure to also mark this person's common-law status in Question 6.

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Question 6: Common-law status

We ask this question to better understand the growth and structure of this important change in living arrangements.
Common-law refers to two people who live together as husband and wife but who are not legally married to each other.
Remember to mark each person's legal marital status in Question 5.

Question 7: Official language
This question indicates how many Canadians can communicate in English, French or both. It also provides information on the number of people who speak neither English nor French. The information is used to determine the need for language education and services in English or French.
Do not report English or French learned at school unless a conversation of some length on various topics can be carried on in that language.
For a child who has not yet learned a language, report the language used at home if it is either English or French. If both languages are used often, mark the circle labelled Both English and French. If neither language is used often, mark Neither English nor French.
If deaf or mute, report English, French or both provided that one or both of these languages is understood.

Question 8: Knowledge of other languages
The results from this question will indicate how many Canadians can communicate in languages other than English or French. This information is used to assess language diversity and retention.
If no languages other than English or French are spoken, mark the circle labelled None.
Do not report a language learned at school unless a conversation of some length on various topics can be carried out in that language.
For a child who has not yet learned a language, report a language other than English or French if used often at home.
If deaf or mute, report a sign language if used.
If a person speaks an Indian language (from India), do not report Indian but rather the specific language such as Hindi, Urdu or Punjabi.
If a person speaks an Amerindian (North American Indian) language, report the specific Amerindian language such as Cree or Ojibway.

Question 9: Home language
Information on the languages Canadians speak at home provides important data on language use and language shifts.
Report the language each person speaks most often at home. If you live alone, report the language in which you feel most comfortable. If two languages are used equally often, report both.
For a child who has not yet learned a language, report the language used most often at home. If two languages are used equally often, report both.
If deaf or mute, report the language used most often at home to communicate.
If a person speaks an Indian language (from India), do not report Indian as the language spoken at home but rather the specific language such as Hindi, Urdu or Punjabi.
If a person speaks an Amerindian (North American Indian) language, report the specific Amerindian language such as Cree or Ojibway.

Question 10: Language first learned at home in childhood
This information is used in programs which protect the rights of Canadians under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Report the first language learned at home before starting school. If this language is no longer understood, report the second language learned.
If more than one language is understood, report the language first learned at home. If two languages were learned at the same time, report the language spoken most often as a child at home. If both languages were used equally often, report both.
For a child who has not yet learned a language, report the first language this child will learn at home. If two languages will be learned at the same time, report the one which will be used most often to speak to this child. If both languages are used equally often, report both.
If a person speaks an Indian language (from India), do not report Indian but rather the specific language such as Hindi, Urdu or Punjabi.
If a person speaks an Amerindian (North American Indian) language, report the specific Amerindian language such as Cree or Ojibway.

Question 11: Place of birth
Information on place of birth, when combined with information from other census questions, can be used to review employment and immigration policies and programs, and to plan education, health and other services.
If born in an area of Canada which was part of the Northwest Territories at the time of birth, but which has since become a province of Canada, report place of birth according to present provincial boundaries.
If born in Newfoundland or Labrador before that province joined Confederation in 1949, mark the circle labelled Nfld. as place of birth.
If born in any of the six counties of Northern Ireland, mark United Kingdom. If born in one of the other counties of the Republic of Ireland, print Eire in the box provided.
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If a person is not sure of the country of birth because of boundary changes since the time of birth, enter the name of the nearest city or district.
When questionnaires were printed, East Germany and West Germany were separate countries. In the event of German reunification before Census Day, June 4, 1991, mark either West Germany or East Germany.

Question 12: Citizenship
Information on citizenship helps in planning for elections since, when combined with age data, this information can reveal the number of potential voters. It is also used by those who plan citizenship classes and programs.
Mark Canada, by birth for persons: born in Canada (see exception below); born outside Canada if, at the time of birth, one or both parents were Canadian citizens and if Canadian citizenship has been retained.
For example, if born in West Germany and, at the time of birth, one or both parents were employed with the Canadian Armed Forces in West Germany, mark Canada, by birth. Also mark Same as country of birth (other than Canada), if that citizenship is still retained.
Exception
Do not mark Canada, by birth if born in Canada and at the time of birth one parent was: (a) in the service of a foreign government, or (b) employed by a person in (a), or (c) in the service of an international organization whose personnel were granted diplomatic privileges, and, neither parent was a Canadian citizen or permanent resident (landed immigrant).
Persons who have become Canadian citizens by naturalization would normally have received citizenship certificates from the Canadian government.
For persons who have dual citizenship, mark all of the categories that apply; for example, Canada, by naturalization and Same as country of birth (other than Canada).
If born outside Canada and not a Canadian citizen, mark Same as country of birth (other than Canada) if this citizenship is still retained. Otherwise, mark Other country.
If former citizenship has been lost and if Canadian citizenship has not yet been obtained, or if a person has no citizenship for any other reason - mark Other country.

Immigration

We ask Questions 13 and 14 because information on immigration, when combined with data from other census questions, can be used to study the characteristics of Canada's immigrant population. Information on period of immigration is also important for studies of immigration trends.
Question 13: Landed immigrant

A landed immigrant is a person who is not a Canadian citizen by birth, but who has been granted the right to live here permanently by Canadian immigration authorities.
For persons who are: Canadian citizens by birth, student authorization holders, employment authorization holders, refugee claimants and ministerial permit holders, answer No to this question.

Question 14: Year of immigration
If the response to Question 13 was No, do not answer this question.
For persons who have immigrated to Canada more than once, enter the year that landed immigrant status was first obtained.

Question 15: Ethnic origin
This question provides information which can be used extensively by ethnic or cultural associations to study the size, location, characteristics and other aspects of their respective groups.
While most people of Canada view themselves as Canadian, information about their ancestral origins has been collected since the 1901 Census to reflect the changing composition of the Canadian population and is needed to ensure that everyone, regardless of his/her ethnic or cultural background, has equal opportunity to share fully in the economic, social, cultural and political life of Canada. Therefore, this question refers to the origins of this person's ancestors.
Ethnic or cultural origin refers to the ethnic "roots" or ancestral background of the population, and should not be confused with citizenship or nationality. Canadians have many ethnic or cultural origins - such as Inuit, North American Indian, Métis, Irish, Scottish, French, Ukrainian, Chinese, Japanese and East Indian (from India).
When determining cultural origin, report the specific ethnic group or which ancestors belonged rather than the language they spoke. For example, report Haitian rather than French, or Austrian rather than German.
For persons of South Asian origin, do not report Indian. Please specify Indian from India, Indian from Fiji, Indian from Guyana, etc., or indicate the group such as Punjabi, Tamil, Pakistani.

Question 16: Registered Indian
This question identifies those persons who are registered under the Indian Act of Canada and their band or First Nation affiliations in order to determine this population's social and economic characteristics and its geographical distribution.
A Yes response to this question should include those persons who are registered as status Indians as defined by the Indian Act of Canada. Also answer Yes to this question if Indian status has been regained since June 1985, when the Indian Act of Canada was amended by Bill C-31.
All other persons should answer No to this question. Also answer No to this question for persons: (a) who lost or never had Indian status according to the Indian Act of Canada;
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(b) whose Indian status was not regained under Bill C-31; or (c) who have applied to the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs to regain Indian status, but whose status has not yet been approved.
For persons who are members of an Indian Band or First Nation (for example, the Musqueam Indian Band), indicate this in the box provided.
For persons whose Indian status has been regained under Bill C-31 and who are not members of an Indian Band, leave the Indian Band or First Nation box blank.
Registered Indians who are not band members for any other reason should leave the Indian Band/First Nation box blank.

Question 17: Religion
Information on religion is used to trace fundamental changes in Canadian society. When combined with age data, information on religion is used to assess the need and potential for separate religious schools in some provinces. Federal and provincial human rights legislation depends on this information to protect Canadians from discrimination based on their religious beliefs.
Print a specific denomination or religion even for persons who are not currently practising members of that group.
For infants or children, indicate the denomination or religion in which they will be raised.
For persons who are members of a specific group within a larger religion, specify the particular name or term for this group.
For persons who have no connection or affiliation with any religious group or denomination, mark the circle labelled No religion. However, specify atheist or agnostic if these forms of belief apply.

Activity Limitations

Questions 18 and 19 provide new information on the numbers of mentally and physically disabled Canadians as well as those with chronic health problems which limit activity. The results will be used to help Statistics Canada design new surveys to find out more about the barriers persons who are disabled face in their everyday lives.

Questions 18 and 19: Activity limitations

A long-term physical condition, mental condition, health problem, disability or handicap is one that has lasted or is expected to last six or more months. Measure the period of time from the time the condition or problem began.
Whenever possible, the answer to these questions should be provided by the adult to whom the information refers.
The answer for persons less than 15 years of age should be provided by a parent or guardian.

Step 10
Answer Questions 20 to 45 for each person aged 15 and over, that is, for each person born before June 4, 1976.

Mobility

We ask Questions 20 to 22 to get a picture of where Canadians are moving to and from, and who is moving in terms of age, sex, education, occupation, etc. This information is important to all levels of government, to municipal planners, as well as to various private sector businesses. It is used in determining future needs for such things as housing, education and social services.
In these three questions, the term "address" refers to the address of residence, not the mailing address (P.O. Box, etc.). Please be sure to base all answers on the address of residence.
Question 20: Mobility -- Place of residence one year ago

Mark only one of the four circles provided to indicate each person's usual place of residence one year ago (on June 4, 1990), even if the person was not at home on that date.
For persons who lived at the same residence on that date, mark Lived at the same address as now. For persons who lived at a different residence but within the same province or territory, mark Lived in the same province/territory, but at a different address. For persons who lived in a different province or territory in Canada on that date, mark that circle and print the name of the province or territory in the box provided.
For persons whose usual residence was outside Canada on that date, mark that circle and enter the name of the country according to present boundaries.

Question 21: Mobility -- Same or different address five years ago
Mark only one of the two circles provided to indicate each person's usual residence five years ago, even if the person was away temporarily on June 4, 1986.
For persons who currently live at the same address of residence as they did five years ago (on June 4, 1986), mark Yes, lived at the same address as now and skip to Question 23. For persons who do not live at the same address of residence now as they did five years ago, mark No, lived at a different address and go to Question 22.
Question 22: Mobility -- Place of residence five years ago
Only answer this question for persons who do not currently live at the same address of residence as they did five years ago. Mark only one of the three circles provided.
For persons who lived at a different address of residence five years ago in the same city, town, village, township, municipality or Indian reserve, mark that circle and go to Question 23.
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For persons who lived in a different city, town, village, township municipality or Indian reserve, mark that circle and print the name of the place in which they lived five years ago in the boxes provided. Enter the name of the city, town, village, etc.; county, regional municipality or district; and province or territory. For persons who lived in an area where the same name was used for both the city, town or village as for the parish, township or municipality, indicate which is correct by specifying the type (for example, St. Andrew's town or St. Andrew's parish; Granby city or Granby municipality; or Kingston city or Kingston township).
For persons who lived outside Canada five years ago, mark that circle and enter the name of the country in which they lived according to present boundaries.

Question 23: Number of births
Information on the number of children born to women is used to estimate the long-term growth of the population. Such information is also needed for understanding the difference in childbearing patterns between various social and economic groups.
Only complete this question for women who are 15 years of age and over. Mark the circle labelled None if the woman has never given birth to a live infant. Otherwise, enter the number of children born to her in the box provided. Do not count stillbirths, stepchildren, foster children or adopted children, but include children who are not now living, and those who are currently living somewhere else.

Education

We ask Questions 24 to 29 because finding out the education qualifications of Canadians helps us to understand the make-up of the labour force (whether we have an abundance or a lack of human resources in a particular area). The results are used to plan schools and training programs in response to the changing technological needs of our work-force.
Information on the trends in college and university attendance by those aged 15 and over is vital for the planning and financing of postsecondary and adult education in both full-time and part-time programs.

Question 24: Highest level of elementary or secondary schooling

In the box provided, enter the highest grade or level ever attended according to the province where school was attended.
For persons who now live in a province where the educational system is different, do not attempt to convert to the system of the province where they now live.
For persons who obtained their education outside Canada, estimate the equivalent level of schooling according to the educational system of the province where they now live.
For persons who studied in the classical colleges of Quebec, equate Versification with Grade 11.
For persons who are currently completing a regular school grade by private instruction or correspondence, or who are attending school part time during the day or evening, use the equivalent grade in the regular daytime program.
For persons who attended special education classes, or an institution where classes were ungraded, estimate as closely as possible the equivalent level in the mainstream school system of the province where they now live.

Question 25: Years of schooling (university)
Indicate the number of academic years successfully completed regardless of the length of time it may have taken. For persons who attended a university on the semester system, consider two semesters with a regular course load the equivalent of one academic year.
For persons who received university training by correspondence, or attended classes part time during the day or evening, covert their accumulated credits to the equivalent number of years in the full-time regular program.
For persons who studied in the classical colleges of Quebec, consider Philo I and Philo II as first and second year equivalents to university, respectively. Do not, however, include Belles-Lettres and Rhétorique with university education.
Teacher training received from a faculty of education that was associated with an accredited university should be reported as university education. Otherwise, this type of training should be included in Question 26.

Question 26: Years of schooling (other)
Include schooling in all institutions other than university, secondary or elementary schools - including non-university teachers' colleges, or police colleges - whether or not a high school diploma was required for entrance.
Do not include any courses taken for leisure, recreation or personal interest.
Indicate the number of academic years successfully completed, regardless of the length of time it may have taken. For persons who received non-university training by correspondence, or attended classes part time during the day or evening, convert their accumulated credits to the equivalent number of years in a full-time regular program.
CEGEP (general) or pre-university courses and CEGEP (professional) or career-terminal technical-vocational courses are postsecondary programs in the province of Quebec and are similar to community college programs in other provinces.
For persons who studied in the classical colleges of Quebec, consider Belles-Lettres and Rhétorique first and second year equivalents to other non-university training.

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Question 27: School attendance
Do not include any courses taken for leisure, recreation or personal interest.
For persons who have been enrolled in school at any time since September 1990, even if they were registered but subsequently dropped out, report their attendance. The same thing applies for persons who have been enrolled in any educational institution (including seminaries, schools of nursing, private business schools, technical institutes or colleges, private or public trade schools, vocational schools or schools for the blind or deaf) that provide a general education.
Mark the circle labelled Yes, full time for persons who were taking 75% or more of the regular course load in the grade or year in which they were registered. Consider any day courses of six weeks or less as part-time attendance. For persons who attended both full time and part time since last September, mark only the circle labelled Yes, full time.

Question 28: Degrees
Mark the circle labelled Secondary/high school graduation certificate or equivalent for persons who graduated from high school, or obtained sufficient credits to constitute the equivalent of high school graduation.
Mark the circle labelled Trades certificate or diploma for persons who received a certificate or diploma through apprenticeship or journeyman training and/or in-school training, trades-level vocational and pre-vocational courses at community colleges, institutes of technology and similar institutions where the minimal entrance requirement was less than secondary/high school, junior or senior matriculation, or equivalent.
Mark the circle labelled Other non-university certificate or diploma when a certificate or diploma (other than a trade certificate or diploma) was granted by: a community college (both transfer and semi-professional career programs); CEGEP (both general or professional); institute of technology; or any other non-degree-granting educational institution.
Mark the circle labelled University certificate or diploma below bachelor level when a teaching certificate was awarded by a provincial Department of Education at an approved institution such as normal school or college of education. For persons who earned their teaching qualifications at an accredited university's faculty of education, mark the circle labelled Bachelor's degree(s).
For persons who have a diploma, certificate or license awarded by a professional association and whose course of study was conducted through a university mark the circle labelled University certificate or diploma below bachelor level (provided that a bachelor degree was not a prerequisite). Mark University certificate or diploma above bachelor level if a bachelor degree was a prerequisite.

Question 29: Field of specialization
For persons who earned more than one highest degree (for example, two bachelor's degrees or two master's degrees), indicate the field of study for the degree most recently earned.
For persons who specialized in more than one field of study while earning their degrees, indicate the area in which the greatest number of credits or courses were earned.
Wherever possible, indicate the subfield of specialization within a broad area of training - especially in the case of graduate studies or other advanced training.

Work

We ask Questions 30 to 34 because labour force data are useful in the development of social and economic programs. Information on the labour force, its composition and characteristics is one of the most widely requested blocks of census data.
The census is recognized as a valuable source of detailed labour information and the only source of this information for small geographic areas.
For example, federal, provincial and local day care programs require data (for small areas) on the employment of persons in households and families so that they can assess the need for such services and plan for their delivery.
Question 30: Number of hours worked

Enter the total number of hours worked last week. Remember to include the following situations:
Working without pay in a family farm or business
This means working without regular money wages for a spouse or a relative who is a member of the same household, at tasks which contribute to the operation of a farm or business run by the relative (for example, bookkeeping for a farm or business owned by a spouse).
Working in his/her own business, farm or professional practice, alone or in partnership (i.e. self-employed with or without paid help)
Include any fishing, trapping or hunting for profit or for the maintenance of family or community, undertaken with his/her own or rented equipment or with the equipment in which he/she has a share.
The hours worked should include all time spent preparing, maintaining and administering the operation of a farm, business or professional practice. Farmers should include hours spent maintaining farm fences, buildings or machinery, as well as cultivating, sowing or milking. Fishermen should include time spent preparing and maintaining boats, nets, etc. If the number of hours is not known, enter the best estimate.
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Working for wages, salary, tips or commission
Turn to Question 41 in this Guide for more complete definitions of these situations.

Question 31: Work absence
This question should be answered only for persons aged 15 and over who did not work in the week prior to Census Day (June 4, 1991).
Mark the circle labelled Yes, on temporary lay-off for persons who expect the return to the job from which they were laid off, regardless of how long ago the lay-off occurred.
Mark Yes, on vacation, ill, on strike or locked out, or absent for other reasons for persons who had a job or business last week from which they were absent for the whole week (with or without pay) for one of the reasons indicated. Include absences for maternity leave, bad weather, fire, personal or family responsibilities. For paid workers, only report absences on training courses if they are receiving wages or salary from their employer.
Question 32: New job arrangements
This question should be answered only for persons aged 15 and over who did not work in the week prior to Census Day (June 4, 1991).
Question 33: Recent job search
This question should be answered only for persons aged 15 and over who did not work in the week prior to Census Day (June 4, 1991).
Question 34: Availability for work
This question should be answered only for persons aged 15 and over who did not work in the week prior to Census Day (June 4, 1991) and who had actively looked for work in the four weeks prior to Census Day.
Mark the circle labelled No, personal or family responsibilities for persons who could not have started work last week because of family illness, child care difficulties, jury duty, etc.
Mark No, other reasons only for persons who did not already have a job, were not temporarily ill or disabled, did not have personal or family responsibilities, or were not going to school (for example, if they were no longer interested in working or if they were out of town last week).

Question 35: Last date of work
Information on the last period of work is used to identify persons with recent job experience. This information can be combined with other data such as industry and occupation to provide a profile of Canada's labour supply.
For this question, only include work done in order to obtain compensation, that is, work for wages, salaries, tips, commissions, piece-rate payment, payment in kind or the net income from self-employment. Also include work done, without formal pay arrangements, by family members for family businesses, farms or professional practices. Do not include volunteer activities, housework, or other activities such as home maintenance that people do for themselves.

We ask Questions 36, 37, 39 and 40 because detailed information on industry and occupation make it possible to analyze and look ahead into the future demand for jobs based on industry growth trends. This information is essential for developing and evaluating programs such as those concerned with education, human resource training and affirmative action.
Question 36: Name of employer

For persons who are self-employed, enter the name of their business in the boxes provided. If the business does not have a name, enter their name.
For persons whose wages are paid by an agency which hires out their services, enter the name of the agency.
For persons who work as employees in a private household, enter the name of the family for whom they work and enter private household.
Question 37: Kind of business
Provide as much detail as possible to accurately describe the type of business.
For example, rather than: agriculture, auto parts, furniture, school, aluminum, police. A more complete response would be: wheat farm, motor vehicle parts manufacturing, retail household furniture and appliance store, secondary school, aluminum rolling, casting and extruding, municipal police department [respectively].

Question 38: Place of work
Information on a person's place of work is used to show local and regional commuter patterns and to determine what transportation networks would be needed to service the demand.
Indicate the regular places of work for all household members who are working, even if they are away from work temporarily on assignment, training or holidays.
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If Worked at the address specified below was marked, give as complete an address as possible. For persons who worked in an area where the same name is used for both the city, town or village as for the parish, township or municipality, indicate which is correct by including the type (for example, St. Andrew's town or St. Andrew's parish; Granby city or Granby municipality).
Mark Worked at home for persons whose place of work was in the same building or residence as where they lived. Examples might include dressmakers, apartment building superintendents or business owners who live above their store.
For persons who work in a different job site or location every day, or travel as part of their job, enter: (a) the address or name of their headquarters or depot if they report there before starting work each day; (b) the address or building name if they work part of the time at a fixed address; (c) no usual place in the space for address if they go directly from their home to various work locations.

Questions 39 and 40: Kind of work and most important duties
Descriptions should be as precise as possible. Two or more words may be needed in both questions. Rather than using the terms employee or worker, use specific descriptions of the kind of work done. Be sure to indicate supervisory or management responsibilities if they apply.
For example, rather than: maintenance, repair work, office work, clerical, inspecting, supervising. A more complete response would be: maintaining electrical equipment; repair and maintenance of electrical motors; type, general office work; typing and filing; inspecting electronic equipment; supervising assembly of electronic equipment [respectively].
For persons who are members of a religious order engaged in teaching or nursing for example, report these secular activities rather than the religious activities.

We ask Questions 41 and 42 to learn about the contribution of paid and self-employed workers in various industry and occupation groups. The dependence of industries such as agriculture and retail trade on unpaid family workers can also be determined.
Question 41: Class of worker

Mark the circle labelled working for wages, salary, tips or commission for persons who reported that in the job they worked: for wages and/or salary; for tips; on commission as a salesperson for only one company and did not maintain an office or staff; for payment in kind (room, board) in a non-family enterprise (for example, as a member of a religious order); for piece-rates; as a member of the Armed Forces; an hour or more for pay, in a job such as cleaning or baby-sitting (in another person's home); as a "paid" housekeeper or nanny.
Mark working without pay for his/her spouse or another relative in a family farm or business for persons who reported that they worked without money wages for a spouse or relative who is a member of this household at a task which contributed to the operation of the spouse's or relative's farm or business.
Do not include volunteer work, housework, or home maintenance or repairs.
Mark self-employed without paid help or self-employed with paid help for persons who reported that they: operated their own business, farm or professional practice (alone or in partnership) even if no goods or services were sold or rendered; operated their own business, farm or professional practice (alone or in a partnership) whether it made a profit or suffered a loss; operated a farm, whether or not they owned or rented the land; worked on a free-lance or contract basis; provided meals and/or room or day care services in their own home for boarders, roomers or neighbours' children; operated a direct distributorship selling and delivering products such as cosmetics, newspapers, brushes or soap products; fished, trapped or hunted for profit or for the maintenance of family or community, with their own equipment or with equipment in which they had part ownership; were setting up a business, farm or professional practice.

Question 42: Incorporation status

Specify whether or not a business is incorporated only for persons who indicated in Question 41 that they were self-employed.

We ask Questions 43 and 44 because information on the number of weeks worked full time or part time is important in evaluating trends in such areas as seasonal or part-time work.
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Question 43: Weeks worked

Count as a week any week in which a person worked, even if only for a few hours.
Report 52 weeks for persons who were paid for the full year or who operated a farm, business or professional practice for the full year, even if they may have worked less than a full year (for example, a school teacher paid on a 12-month basis).
Include weeks on paid vacation but exclude weeks on leave without pay.

Question 44: Full time/part time
For persons who worked 30 hours or more per week, mark Full time (30 hours or more per week). For persons who worked less than 30 hours per week, mark Part time (less than 30 hours per week).

Question 45: Income in 1990

Information on income provides the most important indicator or the well-being of Canadians: of men and women, young and old, of trades and office workers, artists and scientists and of families and households. No other source - not even income tax records - can provide this level of detail.
Governments use the detailed analysis made possible by the census to develop income support programs, welfare provisions and social services.
Businesses use census income data in marketing products, in locating retail and wholesale sites near the appropriate groups of consumers, and in developing new products and services.

Statistics Canada does not publish personalized income information. The information collected from these questions is used to look at general trends and does not in any way identify individuals.
Information on this census questionnaire is strictly confidential by law and no individual, government department or agency outside of Statistics Canada has access to it. The Statistics Act prohibits Statistics Canada from disclosing any information that can be related to any individual person or company.
Answer every part of this question whether or not a person was working. For each part, the income reported should be the total money income received during the calendar year 1990. For persons who had no income, mark the circle labelled No. In the case of a loss, report the amount in the box provided and mark the circle labelled Loss.
If unsure of an answer, consult relevant documents such as income tax returns. Otherwise, make your best estimate.
For persons who received income from abroad, report this income in Canadian dollars. However, for persons who immigrated to Canada after January 1, 1990, do not report any income received before arrival in Canada.
Do not report either the Family Allowances (baby bonuses) received from the federal and provincial governments or the Child Tax Credits. These allowances and credits will be estimated for each family from the number of children shown on the questionnaire.
Do not include as income: gambling gains and losses, lottery prizes, money inherited during the year in a lump sum, capital gains or losses, receipts from the sale of property, income tax refunds, loan payments received, lump-sum settlements of insurance policies, rebates received on property taxes or refunds of pension contributions.

Part (a): Total Wages and Salaries
Report total wages and salaries from all jobs before deductions for income tax, pensions, hospital insurance, etc. (do not report take-home pay).
Include military pay and allowances.
Include tips and cash bonuses received during 1990. Also include all types of casual earnings whether or not T4 slips for income tax have been issued.
Include commissions. However, for salespersons who worked for more than one company, or who maintained their own office or staff, report such income in part (b). Also, for persons who baby-sit in their own home or who are newspaper delivery persons, report their income in part (b).
Do not include the value of taxable allowances and benefits provided by employers such as free lodging, free automobile use, bursaries, traveling expenses of a spouse or contributions towards medical insurance.
If consulting T4 slips to answer this question, report employment income shown in box 14, less the value of taxable allowances and benefits shown in boxes 30 to 40.
For persons who own an unincorporated business or farm, report the net income from that business or farm in part (b) or (c), whichever is appropriate.

Part (b): Net Income from Unincorporated Non-farm Business, Professional Practice
Report an amount in the box provided for persons who owned and operated a non-farm, unincorporated business or professional practice during 1990, alone or in partnership. In the case of a partnership, report only their share of the net income. Report receipts from incorporated businesses in part (a) and/or part (h).
Report net income (gross receipts minus expenses of operation such as wages, rents or depreciation). Do not subtract personal deductions such as income tax and pensions.
Report net income from employment activities for self-employed fishermen, trappers and hunters in this part.
Report net income for persons who baby-sit in their own home, operate a direct distributorship such as selling and delivering cosmetics, newspapers, or obtain contracts or agreements to do odd jobs.
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Report net income from free-lance activities (for example, artists, writers, music teachers).
In the case of a loss, report the amount and mark the circle labelled Loss.
Part (c): Net Farm Self-employment Income
In the box provided, report an amount only for persons who operated a farm in 1990, alone or in partnership. In the case of a partnership, report only their share of the net income.
Report net income (gross receipts from farm sales minus depreciation and cost of operation). Include cash advances in gross receipts for the year in which they are received. Also include government supplementary payments. In the case of a loss, report the amount and mark the circle labelled Loss.
Exclude the value of income "in kind" (for example, agricultural products produced and consumed on the farm).
For persons who employed a manager to run their farm, deduct the manager's salary as expenses. For persons who rented out their farm, report the net rent received in part (h). Similarly, report income from incorporated farms in part (a) and/or part (h).
Agricultural operations include the production of field crops, vegetables, fruits, greenhouse/nursery products and seeds, maple products, poultry and livestock, animal products such as eggs, milk and wool, fur farming, and beekeeping.

Part (d): Old Age Security Pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement
In the box provided, report Old Age Security Pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement (for persons 65 years and over) received from the federal government only. For persons who are 60 to 64-year-old spouses/widow(er)s of Old Age Security Pension recipients, report Spouse's Allowance received from the federal government.
Report provincial income supplements in part (g). Report retirement pensions of civil servants, RCMP and military personnel in part (i). Report old age, retirement and war pensions and other similar payments received from foreign governments in part (j).

Part (e): Benefits from Canada or Quebec Pension Plan
Report benefits received under the Canada or Quebec Pension Plan (such as retirement pensions, survivors' benefits and disability pensions) in the box provided.
Do not report lump-sum death benefits.
Do not report contributions to the plan, but report the benefits from it.
Report retirement pensions of civil servants, RCMP and military personnel in part (i).

Part (f): Benefits from Unemployment Insurance
Report total unemployment insurance benefits before income tax deductions in the box provided. Include benefits for sickness, maternity, work sharing, fishing, retraining and retirement received under the Federal Unemployment Insurance program.

Part (g): Other Income from Government Sources Including Provincial Income Supplements and Grants and Social Assistance
In the box provided, report payments received from provincial or municipal programs for people in need such as mothers and/or fathers with dependent children, persons temporarily or permanently unable to work, elderly individuals, blind individuals and disabled individuals. Include cash benefits covering basic needs such as food, fuel, shelter and clothing, plus cash benefits for special needs.
Include provincial income supplements such as payments to seniors to supplement Old Age Security Pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement as well as payments to seniors to help offset accommodation costs.
Include any amounts received in 1990 for refundable provincial tax credits, federal sales tax credit and federal Goods and Services Tax Credit. Quebec residents should report "Real Estate Tax Refund."
Include all other transfer payments such as workers' compensation, veterans' pensions, war veterans' allowances, pensions to widows and dependants of veterans, or benefits under the Canadian Jobs Strategy.
Do not include Family Allowances and federal Child Tax Credits.
Report retirement pensions of military personnel, civil servants, etc., in part (i).

Part (h): Dividends and Interest on Bonds, Deposits and Savings Certificates, and Other Investment Income
For dividends received from Canadian corporate stocks, report the actual amount of dividends received, not just the taxable amount.
Report dividends received from foreign stocks.
Report interest from deposits in banks, trust companies, co-operatives, credit unions, caisses populaires, as well as interest on savings certificates, bonds and debentures.
Report net rents from real estate (including farm land), mortgage and loan interest received, regular income from an estate or trust fund, and interest from insurance policies.
Include investment income received from abroad.
If total investment income is a loss, report the amount and mark the circle labelled Loss.

Part (i): Retirement Pensions, Superannuation and Annuities
In the box provided, report any income received as a result of having been a member of a pension plan of one or more employers; payments received from all annuities, including payments from a matured registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) in the form of a life annuity, a fixed term annuity, a registered retirement income fund or an income-averaging annuity contract; pensions paid to widow(er)s or other relatives of deceased pensioners; pensions of retired civil servants, Armed Forces personnel and RCMP officers; and annuity payments received from the Canadian Government Annuities Fund, or from an insurance company.
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Do not include lump-sum death benefits, lump-sum benefits and withdrawals from a pension plan or RRSP, or refunds of overcontributions. Enter severance pay and retirement allowances and pensions from outside Canada in part (j).

Part (j): Other Money Income
Include all other regular cash income not covered in the questions above.
Examples: alimony; child support; periodic support from persons not in the household; net income from roomers and boarders; income from abroad (e.g. pensions) except dividends and interest which should go into part (h); non-refundable scholarships and bursaries; severance pay and retirement allowances; royalties; strike pay.
Do Not include: Family Allowances (baby bonuses) and federal Child Tax Credits; cash refund of pension fund contributions; lump-sum death benefits or any other one time lump-sum payment.

Step 11

Answer Questions H1 to H8 about this dwelling.

Housing

Shelter is one of the basic necessities of life and these questions are asked in order to evaluate present conditions and future housing needs. The data compiled from these questions are used by municipal planners, provincial housing ministries, developers, and members of the construction and real estate industries.
H1. Household maintainer(s)

If more than one household member contributes to living expenses such as rent or mortgage, taxes and electricity, enter the name of the person who usually pays the largest amount first. Then enter the name(s) of the other household members who make such payments. If two or more household members contribute equal amounts, list their names in the order in which they were listed in Step 5 of the census form.

H2. Tenure
Mark the circle labelled owned if you and/or another member of this household own or are buying the dwelling in which you live, even if the dwelling is on rented or leased land, or if it is part of a condominium.
For census purposes, a condominium is a multi-unit residential complex in which dwellings are owned individually while land is held in joint ownership with others.
Mark the circle labelled rented in all other cases, even if the dwelling you occupy is provided without cash rent or at a reduced rent (for example, a minister's residence or a superintendent's dwelling in an apartment building). Also, mark the circle labelled rented if the dwelling is part of a co-operative.
For census purposes, a co-operative is jointly owned by all members who occupy their dwelling units under a lease agreement.

H3. Number of rooms and bedrooms

Information on the number of rooms/bedrooms in houses across Canada, when combined with data on the number of persons in households as well as shelter costs, provides another dimension for measuring the economic situation of Canadian families and, in particular, for measuring crowding and the quality of life.

Part (a): Number of rooms in dwelling
Do not enter half-rooms (for example, instead of 1 1/2, enter either 1 or 2, depending on which best describes the dwelling.)
Include as separate rooms, partially divided rooms which you consider to be separate because of fixed or movable partitions or because of their use (for example, L-shaped living- and dining-rooms).

Part (b): Number of bedrooms
Include all rooms designed and furnished as bedrooms and used mainly for sleeping purposes, even though the use may be occasional, as in the case of a spare bedroom.
Do not include rooms used for one purpose during the day and for bedrooms at night (for example, a living-room used as a bedroom during the night).
Enter a zero in the box provided if no rooms in the dwelling were used primarily for sleeping purposes.
Also enter a zero for one-room dwellings or bachelor apartments.

We ask Questions H4 and H5 because specific details such as period of construction and state of repair are important for evaluating the quality of Canada's housing stock and for identifying the need for neighbourhood improvement programs.

H4. Period of construction

It is only necessary to know whether older structures where constructed in 1920 or before.
If you can recall how old the building was when you moved in, it may help to estimate its age.
In condominiums, large apartment blocks or other rented dwellings, the manager or superintendent may know the building's age.
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In owned dwellings, insurance policies and documents pertaining to the purchase of the dwelling may indicate a dwelling's age.
If a single house was constructed in 1925 and remodelled in 1947, mark the circle labelled 1921-1945 not 1946-1960. Similarly, in the case of an apartment building where some units were added later, the date for all units would be the earlier one.

H5. Need for repairs
Regular maintenance includes only those activities that must be performed on an ongoing basis to prevent the house from deteriorating (for example, painting, furnace cleaning, electrical fuse replacement, and hinge oiling).
Minor or major repairs indicate that some part of the dwelling is damaged, defective or not operating properly. Minor repairs include replacing missing or loose floor tiles, bricks or shingles, repairing broken windows and waterproofing bath-tubs. Major repairs include structural repairs to walls, floors or ceilings, the installation of a new roof, and the replacement of deteriorated external siding.
If a dwelling is in need of both minor and major repairs, mark only the Yes category for major repairs (do not mark both circles).

H6. Yearly payments

Parts (a) to (c)
If you have occupied this dwelling for less than a year, estimate and report the yearly amount based on either your payments up to this date or on other available information.
For condominium owners, if electricity or other service charges are included in the condominium fee, mark the circle labelled Included in rent or other payments.
Part (b)
If uncertain about the total annual cost of fuel, multiply the amount consumed (such as liters of oil, containers of propane gas, cords of wood or tons of coal) by the per unit price.

H7. Shelter costs - Renter
Enter the total rent paid by all household members for the dwelling you now occupy. Include parking fees paid with rent, if any.

H8. Shelter costs - Owner
Part (a)
Mortgage payments are sometimes made in other than monthly installments (for example, once a year, twice a year, every three months or weekly). In such cases, to obtain the average monthly amount paid, add all payments made in the last 12 months and divide the total by 12.
Part (b)
If the regular monthly mortgage payments shown in part (a) include municipal property taxes but exclude school taxes, mark the circle labelled No in part (b) and enter the amount of annual school taxes paid directly to school tax collectors in part (c).
Part (c)
Include local improvement taxes with property taxes, even if they are billed separately.
Part (d)
For single dwellings, state the value of the entire property (including the value of the land it is on) and the value of any other structure on the property (for example, a garage).
If this dwelling is located in a building which contains several dwellings or includes both residential and business premises, estimate and report the portion of the market value that applies only to the dwelling in which you live.
Part (e)
Include as condominiums those dwellings which are in the process of becoming registered condominiums.
Part (f)
Condominium fee payments are sometimes made in other than monthly installments. In such cases, to obtain the average monthly amount paid, add all payments made in the last 12 months and divide the total by 12.

Step 12

Please mail your form back promptly. Thank you for making the census a success.
Telephone assistance service: If in answering your census questionnaire you have any difficulty, please call us free of charge at one of the telephone numbers provided on page 28 of the questionnaire.