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Instruction to Officers
1901 Census of Canada

1. The Fourth Census of the Dominion is required to be taken this year under the provisions of the Census Act (revised statutes of Canada, 1886, c. 58) so as to ascertain with the utmost possible accuracy for the carious territorial divisions of the country their population and the classing or grouping of it as regards age, sex, social condition, religion, education, race, occupation and other wise, and whatever other matters are specified in the forms and instructions to be issued and used as provided in the Act.

2. The Act does not specify the plan of the Census concerning details of information, forms to be used, procedure to be followed, or the dates with reference to which the Census is to be taken; but it provides that they are to be such as the Governor in Council shall by Proclamation direct.

3. The details of information and forms to be used for the Fourth Census are as indicated in the eleven schedules contained in the Proclamation of the Governor in Council made 8th January inst., and published on the 15th in an Extra of The Canada Gazette, and according to instructions and forms to be issued by the Minister of Agriculture for the working thereof.

The Proclamation also directs and provides:

"That the population to be recorded shall be the population in existence on the 31st day of March, A.D. 1901, and that other information to be gathered shall also have reference to the same date, unless otherwise determined by Our Minister of Agriculture for Canada as regards information under schedules 8, 9, 10 and 11. That the procedure to be followed for obtaining the enumeration of the population shall be in accordance with the system known by the name of the de jure system.

"That the division of the country into census districts and sub-districts shall correspond respectively as nearly as may be with existing electoral divisions and sub-divisions, and that except as may be otherwise directed by Our Minister of Agriculture the units of enumeration for census purposes shall be the pulling sub-division areas of the several electoral divisions adopted for the recent Parliamentary elections; but that in territories not so defined or situated as to admit of adhering to circumscriptions already established, special divisions and sub-divisions shall be formed for census purposes by authority of Our Minister of Agriculture.


"That the sub-districts of a census district shall ordinarily consist of townships, parishes, cities, towns and incorporated villages.

"That the census officers provided for in section 8 of The Census Act shall comprise four for each of the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec and one for each of the other Provinces and the Northwest Territories, whose duty shall be to instruct census commissioners in the method and work of the census.

"That there shall be a census commissioner for each census district, or two commissioners if the district is extensive or has a large bi-lingual population or comprises more than one county municipality, and one enumerator for each polling sub-division or for a group of polling sub-divisions when Our Minister of Agriculture in special cases so directs; and the duties of such officers and the period of time within which their returns and reports must be completed and made shall be as provided in the Act and according to the regulations and instructions authorized by the Act, or as in special cases Our Minister of Agriculture may direct.

"That as in the registration of diseases or causes of death the Bertillon nomenclature is already in use in the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec and in the Republic of Mexico, and has been endorsed for adoption on January 1, A.D. 1901, for a period of ten years by the delegates of eighteen countries to the International Commission which met at Paris during the year 1900 to deal with the subject (including the delegate of the United States), and as uniformity of statistics is essential in making comparative studies of mortality, it is advisable to follow the Bertillon of International nomenclature in taking the census of Mortality (schedule 3); and that, to ensure as complete a record of diseases or causes of death as possible, it is further advisable to obtain the co-operation of provincial or other local offices of Vital Statistics where such offices have been organized, under arrangements and terms to be sanctioned by Our Minister of Agriculture.

"That at the discretion of Our Minister of Agriculture, and subject to such limitations of territory and of industries as he may determine, the census of Manufactures (schedule 8) and the census of products of the Forest (schedule 9) may be entrusted to one or more special agents in each Province; the census of Fisheries (schedule 10), subject to limitations of territory, to one or more special agents, or to the Department of Marine and Fisheries, or, in the case of any Province which has assumed administration of the fisheries under the decision of the Privy Council, to the provincial officer charged with such administration; and the census of Mines and Minerals (schedule 11), subject to such limitations of territory and of classes of kinds of mineral products as Our Minister of Agriculture shall determine, to the regular enumerators, to special agents, or to the Geological Survey, as may in each case be deemed most advantageous and expedient."

4. The date selected for recording the population is the same as the date fixed by the Imperial Parliament for taking the census of Great Britain, being Sunday the 31st day of March. The decisive hour of reckoning is made 12 o'clock or midnight on the night of 31st March to 1st April, so that every one born before that hour and every one dying after it are to be counted in the population.

5. In providing that the census of the people is to be taken by the de jure system, the proclamation does not give a meaning to that term. Neither does the Census Act, nor any other statute. It must be determined largely by usage, and therefore the practice of former census in Canada should be followed with reasonable closeness. In the case of a great majority of the people, their home or usual place of abode is the place where they should be counted; but particular directions are given in dealing with schedule No. 1.

6. Census districts are required to conform as nearly as may be with the districts for the representation of the people in the House of Commons at Ottawa, and census sub-districts to the cities, towns, incorporated villages, townships and parishes which constitute an electoral district. But in order that the census work may be speedily and well done, polling sub-division areas are to be the units of enumeration as a rule. Where they are of small extent, or where the inhabitants are few, two or more polling sub-divisions may be assigned to one enumerator.

7. The Census Act provides for three classes of officers for the outside service. The first class are chief officers representing the Provinces and Territories of the Dominion, who will receive instructions at the Census Office in Ottawa in the method and work of the census, and will in turn give instructions to the commissioners. The second class are the commissioners, who will have direction of the work in the several census districts for which they have been appointed. They are required to instruct enumerators in the details of recording the census as required in the schedules, to revise the work when it is done, and to transmit all papers to the Census Office, with which they will conduct all necessary correspondence. The third class are the enumerators, to whom will be entrusted the actual work of the census, and upon whose judgment, discretion and intelligence the completeness and accuracy of it will to a very large degree depend. The census must be take and all the returns made to the office in Ottawa within a time to be fixed in the special instructions to each commissioner and unless otherwise provided in the instructions, every enumerator shall begin his work on Monday the 1st day of April, and he shall continue it day by day (except Sundays) until the canvass of his area is completed.

8. In taking the census of Mortality, the causes of death will be entered according to the Bertillon or International nomenclature (or names of diseases), printed on the back of Specimen schedule No. 3. Experience proves that except under an organized system of daily of weekly registration it is extremely difficult to get full returns of mortality extending over a period of twelve months, ant therefore it has been decided to supply commissioners with lists obtained from provincial or municipal registration offices where these exist, for the use of enumerators. These lists are for the first nine months of the census year, beginning with April and ending with December, 1900.

9. In the enumeration of inmates of asylums, hospitals, penitentiaries and education or other institutions, as well as the Treaty Indians, and in canvassing for statistics of manufactures, forest products, fisheries and minerals, it will generally be found advantageous to employ officials and other agents in place of the regular enumerators. In every such case the commissioner for the district will be notified, and he will be required to withdraw the schedules dealing with the particular subjects from the regular enumerators and to inform them accordingly.

10. The commissioners of census districts will be supplied from the Census Office at Ottawa with schedules, instructions and all other printed matter necessary for taking of the census, to be distributed to enumerators when these are called together to receive directions for their work.

11. A set of papers sufficient for the requirements of each enumerator, according to the extent and population of the territory assigned to him, will be put in a portfolio furnished for the purpose of keeping them in a safe and cleanly state throughout the progress of his work. It may frequently happen in localities that some of the schedules are not required at all, or only in very limited quantity, and it will be the duty of the commissioner in consultation with each enumerator to ascertain the kinds of schedules and the number of sheets of each that may be wanted. In villages and towns, for instance, a fewer number of schedules 4, 5, 6 and 7 will be required than of schedules 1 and 2, while in rural parts a comparatively fewer number of schedule 8 (Manufactures) will be required than in villages and towns. In the case of schedule 3 (Mortality) an estimate of the number of sheets required may be made on the basis of 20 deaths in the year to each 1,000 of the population.

12. Care will be exercised by commissioners to so direct the enumerators that they will fully and clearly understand every detail of their duties, -(1) as regards the portion of country or unit of enumeration each one is to canvass, (2) as to the entries to be made in the several schedules, and (3) as to making returns to the commissioners of all schedules and papers when the canvass of the portion of country assigned to each enumerator is finished.

13. One of the special duties of commissioners is to ascertain and define by written description for the guidance of each enumerator the boundaries of the territory allotted to him, so that no part of the census district may be missed, or be taken by more than one enumerator.

14. The work of taking the census should begin at some well established starting point, whether it is in a township or parish, or in a city, town or village, and should be carried on continuously and regularly, whether it be one or more polling sub-divisions or a tract of larger extent.

15. In a township, parish or other county district, where the houses are scattered, it is advisable to start on a road or highway at the border line of the district and visit in succession every occupied house until the other side of the district is reached, when the next road may be taken in the same way, and so on until the whole area assigned to the enumerator is covered, taking care to finish the census of one farm or lot before proceeding to the next.

16. In an unincorporated village is included in the enumerator's district he should take the census of it separately from the rural portion proper, but on the same schedule. A short line drawn across the left hand margin above the number of the first family and another line below the number of the last family of the village as entered on the schedule, will be a sufficient mark of separation. But if the village have a distinct name it should be written along the left hand margin of the schedule, between the upper and lower lines. This separation will facilitate the tabulation of agricultural statistics, and it may have value as a record for historical use in tracing the origin and rise of future towns in the country. The census of unincorporated villages, however, will be included as heretofore with the statistics of rural sections.

17. In cities, towns and incorporated villages, where the land is usually laid out in blocks or squares bounded on four sides by streets, the enumerator should start at one corner of the block and proceed around and through it, entering every occupied house or building in regular order and collecting all the information called for in the schedules before proceeding to the next block or square, and should so continue until the whole of his census district is finished.

18. If the enumerator's district is partly in an incorporated town or village and partly in the country, he should take the two portions separately as described above in No. 16, and distinguish the portions so carefully that no mistake of mixing rural and urban statistics can be made in the tabulation work of the Census Office at Ottawa.

19. Where grain, fruit and root crops are grown, and domestic animals are kept, and ornamental or other trees are planted, in cities, towns and villages, the statistics of them (including values) should be taken as carefully as the statistics of crops and animals on farms; as also the area of land occupied and the number of barns and other buildings in use by the head of each family or household, or by any member of it.

20. The head of every family or household (or whoever gives the information for it) should be asked particulars concerning all the schedules, unless any one of them has been withdrawn from the enumerator, in order that full and complete particulars may be gathered covering the whole scope of the census for every part of the country.

21. If the schedules have been withdrawn, it will still be the duty of the regular enumerator of a district to make inquiry and report the institution or industry and the name and address of its owner, manager, agent or officer in charge to the census commissioner of his electoral district, who will at once forward the particulars of the information to the Census Office at Ottawa for the use of the special agent who may be appointed to take the census of such institution or industry.

22. Every commissioner, enumerator or other person employed in the execution of the Census Act must take and subscribe an oath binding him to the faithful and exact discharge of his duties under the provisions of the Act, and in all respects as required by the forms and instructions issued by the Minister of Agriculture; and every such person who makes willful default in any matter required of him by the Act or the instructions, or who willfully makes a false declaration touching any such matter, is guilty of a misdemeanor.

23. Every officer or other person employed in any capacity on census work is required to keep inviolate the secrecy of the information gathered by the enumerators and entered on the schedules or forms. An enumerator is not permitted to show his schedules to any other person, nor to make or keep a copy of them, nor to answer any question respecting their contents, directly or indirectly; and the same obligation of secrecy is imposed upon commissioners and other officers or employees of the outside service, as well as upon every officer, clerk or other employee of the Census Office at Ottawa. The facts and statistics of the census may not be used expect for statistical compilations, and positive assurance should be given on this point if a fear is entertained by any person that they may be used for taxation or any other object.

24. No result of the enumeration may be given to the public in advance of the printed bulletins or reports, except by the head officer of the census acting under the authority and direction of the Minister of Agriculture.

25. It is not permitted to a commissioner, enumerator or other employee of the census to engage a substitute or farm out his work to another. The position to which he is appointed must be filled by himself, and its duties must be performed by himself. Prompt and expeditious service is required from the time that the work is commenced until it is finished.

26. It is the duty of an enumerator on entering a house to act with civility, to state his business in a few words, to ask the necessary questions, to make the proper entries, and to leave the premises as soon as his business has been transacted. His conduct must be judicious, and it is only when persons refuse to answer questions or to give the required information that legal proceedings may be taken against them.

27. Unless otherwise specified in the detailed instructions, the census year shall be the year beginning April 1, 1900, and ending March 31, 1901, for all questions and subjects under schedules 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, and the year beginning January 1 and ending December 31, 1900, for all questions and subjects under schedules 8, 9, 10 and 11.

28. Unless otherwise instructed for particular localities, enumerators are required to begin the canvass of their respective districts on Monday the first day of April, and to prosecute it continuously from day to day, except Sundays, until the work is completed.

29. The day's work of census officers, commissioners, enumerators and other employees for the taking of the census will consist of eight hours of proved effective service, and all overtime work will be allowed as part of a day at the same rate of remuneration as is provided for a day's work. Ten hours of proved effective service will count as one day and one-quarter, and twelve hours as one day and one-half.

30. The Census Act published with theses instructions (pp. 32-37) should be referred to for other duties of census officers of the several classes, especially as proved in sections 11 and 12 of the Act; and also for the authority under which they may proceed to collect every particular of information called for in the schedules, as provided in 16, 17, 18, 19 and other sections of the Act.

Instructions Relating to All Schedules.

31. The commissioner will fill the blanks in the heading of each schedule with the name of the Province or Territory, the name of the electoral district, the number of the polling sub-division or other unit of enumeration, and the name of the city, town, village, township or parish in which the polling subdivision or unit of enumeration is situated, according as the blanks in each schedule heading requires; and he will furnish each enumerator with a written or printed copy of the boundaries of the area assigned to him, whether a polling sub-division or an area of greater or less extent.

32. The enumerator will study with great care the written description of the boundaries of the territory assigned to him (as provided, in Instructions 13 and 31), so that he may have a thorough knowledge of it. He should make himself acquainted not only with the precise boundaries of his territory, but with every portion of it which may be rural or urban, so that farm lands may be distinctly separated from towns, villages and hamlets or parts of such centers of population. He should be careful to set at rest any doubt that may arise as to boundaries between his own and adjoining enumeration territories in order to assure himself that no single house or portion of land is omitted from the enumeration and that none is included which belongs to the territory of another enumerator.

33. In some sparsely settled regions several townships or parishes may be grouped to form one polling sub-division or unit of enumeration assigned to one enumerator, and where this occurs, the name of each township or parish should be entered in the blank line. But in every such case the name of each township or parish should also be written by the enumerator on the left hand margin of the sheet, as required in No. 16 of these Instructions, in order that the census of each may be kept separate and distinct.

34. Where two or more townships or parishes are united to form one municipality the same instruction should be followed, for the purpose of future reference and comparison when each one of such townships or parishes may become organized as a distinct municipality.

35. The number of each page will be entered consecutively on the sheets in the blanks left for it in the headings, and when a page is filled the enumerator will sign his name in the blank left for it in the heading. He should also enter after the world "Enumerator" the day or days on which the sheet was filled, thus: April 2, or April 3-5, or as the case may be.

36. The enumerator is required to make all entries on the schedules in ink of good quality, and every name, word, figure or mark should be clear and legible. If a schedule cannot be read, or if the entries are made with a poor quality of ink, or in pencil, or if they are blurred or blotted, the work of the enumerator may be wholly wasted. The census is intended to be a permanent record, and its schedules will be stored in the Archives of the Dominion.

37. Every sheet of the schedules and other special forms, whether filled or not and whether spoiled or not, must be returned by the enumerator to the commissioner, and by the commissioner to the Census Office at Ottawa.

38. Census commissioners and enumerators should read all Instructions in the light of the Specimen schedules 1, 2, and 3, which are supplied to illustrate clearly the sense in which every schedule of the series is required to be filled. If there is any doubt in the mind of the enumerator on any point, either before or after the work of the census has commenced, he should communicate at once with the commissioner of his census district; and if there is any uncertainty in the mind of the commissioner he should apply either to the Census officer who has instructed him, or to the chief officer of the Census at Ottawa.

Instructions For Schedule No. 1.

40. Schedule No. 1 is framed with the object of enumerating the population of the country by name. Every person whose habitual home or place of abode is in an enumerator's district in any part of the Dominion is to be entered on the schedule by name, irrespective of age, sex or condition -- the head of the family or household to be taken first and the other members in regular order.

41. In columns 1 and 2 the dwelling house and the family or household will be numbered in the order of visitation, and as in the same house there may be one or more families or households the numbering under the two heads of the schedule will not necessarily correspond. As defined in the Census Act, the term "house" includes ships, vessels, dwellings or places of abode of any kind. Any structure which provides shelter for a human being is a house, and if it has only one entrance it counts only as one dwelling house, no matter how many families it may shelter; but if there are two front or principal doors leading into separate parts, the structure will be counted as two houses.

42. The population is grouped for census purposes under the heads of families, households and institutions. In the restricted sense of the term, a family consists of parents and sons and daughters united in a living and housekeeping community: but in the larger sense it may include other relatives and servants. A household may include all persons in a housekeeping community, whether related by ties of blood or not, but usually with one of their number occupying the position of head. But single persons living alone who have a special dwelling and carry on their own housekeeping are also to be regarded as households. Other persons living alone, as persons who rent rooms and only sleep in the house, will be included in the list of those households which carry on housekeeping for them, although they may take meals elsewhere. An institution household includes such establishments as hospitals, asylums, poor house, prisons, penitentiaries, schools of learning, barracks, etc., whose inmates, if they have no home or domicile elsewhere outside of the institution, are to be entered under the name of the institution. The attendants, cooks, etc., of an institution are not to be counted with the guests or inmates, but with the household of the head of the institution, or with their own or other household of which they form a part.

43. The heads of families, households and institutions are required to furnish the enumerator with all particulars regarding every person in the family, household or institution, as called for in the schedules.

44. In making the entries of the names of all persons in a family or household in column 3, there will be no doubt as regards a very large majority of the population. Their homes are fixed and known. But in every case where members of a family or household are temporarily absent from their home or usual place of abode, their names and records should be dealt with so as to conform as nearly as may be with the general conception of a de jure system of enumeration. The Christian name and surname of each person should be entered in this column in full, but if the person have a middle name it will only be necessary to write the initial of it.

47. The races of men will be designated by the use of "w" for white, "r" for red, "b" for black and "y" for yellow. The whites are, of course, the Caucasian race, the reds are the American Indian, the blacks are the African or negro, and the yellows are the Mongolian (Japanese and Chinese). But only pure whites will be classed as whites; the children begotten of marriages between whites and any one of the other races will be classed as red, black or yellow, as the case may be, irrespective of the degree of colour.

48. In column 6 the head of each family or household will be entered as such, and all others according to the relationship -- as wife, son, daughter, servant, boarder, lodger, partner, etc. The persons in an institution may be described as officer, inmate, patient, prisoner, pupil, etc.

49. Under column 7 the description will be given by the use of the initial letter of "s" for single, "m" for married, "w" for widowed and "d" for divorced. Persons separated as to bed and board will be described as married.

51. In describing the country or place of birth it will suffice in the case of all persons born out of Canada to give the name of the country, as England, France, Germany or the United States, without giving the names of smaller sub-divisions. If born in Canada, the name of the Province or Territory should be given, as it will be serve to indicate the tendency towards migration. In all cases, too, it is important to know whether the person is country born or town born, which will be denoted by the addition of the letter "r" for rural or the letter "u" for urban, as the case may be. Thus, a person born in a town in Nova Scotia will be described in column 11 as "N.S. u," or if born on a farm in Quebec as "Q. r."

52. If the person is foreign born the year of immigration to Canada will be entered in column 12; and if born in some other country than the United Kingdom or any of its colonies or dependencies, the year in which the person has been naturalized and has acquired rights of citizenship should be entered in column 13. If the person has applied for papers, but has not yet reached the full status of citizenship, the fact should be indicated by writing in the column the letters "pa".

53. Among whites the racial or tribal origin is traced through the father, as in English, Scotch, Irish, Welsh, French, German, Italian, Scandinavian, etc. Care must be taken, however, not to apply the terms "American" or "Canadian" in a racial sense, as there are no races of men so called. "Japanese," "Chinese" and "negro" are proper racial terms; but in the case of Indians the names of their tribes should be given, as "Chippewa", "Cree", etc. Persons of mixed white and red blood -- commonly known as "breeds" -- will be described by addition of the initial letters "f.b." for French breed, "e.b." for English breed "s.b." for Scotch breed and "i.b." for Irish Breed. For example: "Cree f.b." denotes that the person is racially a mixture of Cree and French; and "Chippewa s.b." denotes that the person is Chippewa and Scotch. Other mixtures of Indians besides the four above specified are rare, and may be described by the letters "o.b." for other breed. If several races are combined with the red, such as English and Scotch, Irish and French, or any others, they should also be described by the initials "e.b." A person whose father is English, but whose mother is Scotch, Irish, French, or any other race, will be ranked as English, and so with any others -- the line of descent being traced through the father in the white races.

54. Nationality is a term of more or less conventional meaning. But as it applies by right of established usage to the citizens of Canada -- the expression 'new nationality' was in sense introduced in the speech with which the Governor General opened the first Canadian Parliament -- it is proper to use Canadian in column 15 as descriptive of every person whose home is in the country and who has acquired rights of citizenship in it. A person who was born in the United States, or France, or Germany or other foreign country, but whose home is in Canada and who is a naturalized citizen, should be entered as a Canadian; so also should a person born in the United Kingdom or any of its colonies, whose residence in Canada is not merely temporary. An alien person will be classified by nationality according to the country of his birth, or the country to which he professes to owe allegiance.

55. The religion of each person will be entered according as he or she professes, specifying the church or denomination to which the person belongs or adheres, or which he or she favors. If the sons or daughters belong, or adhere to, or favor another church or denomination than that of their parents, or of either of them, the proper entry should be made; but except such cases they should be classed with their parents. The classification of the people by their religious faith must not ignore any church, or denomination, or form of belief, saving in the case of a church or denomination whose identity has been lost by union or otherwise. There is no State Church in Canada, and if a person is not a member of or does not adhere to or favor any one church or denomination he must not be classed with one or another. If he is an agnostic, or a non-believer, or a pagan, or a reincarnationist, or whatever his relationship to religion may be, he should be so classed.

56. In columns 17-21 inclusive the enumerator will enter the profession, occupation, trade or means of living of each person, and indicate the positions they occupy as persons living on their own means, as employers, as employees, or as working on their own account.

57. The chief or principal calling is the only one to be recorded; that is to say, the one on which the condition of life chiefly rests and from which the gains, earnings or income are chiefly obtained.

58. Expressions such as "manufacturer", "merchant" and "laborer" are inadequate; the particular branch of industry, or trade, or profession or other calling in which the person enumerated is engaged should be given. Workingmen and day laborers should always state the kind of work or business branch in which they are usually employed, as farm laborer. If the person is a laborer in a mill, factory or workshop, specify the works in addition to the term laborer, thus, "laborer (brick works)". If he is a skilled workman, specify besides the general name of the industry in which he is employed, the particular branch of it in which he is engaged and the material in which he works, as "brass-founder", "cotton spinner", "gold-miner". If the person has retired from his gainful calling or occupation, it will be indicated by adding the letter "r" to the description.

59. For persons who do not carry on any remunerative calling and live on their own means, as from incomes, superannuation, annuities, pensions for persons who are employers, as mill-owners, large farmers whose work is done by others for which salaries or wages are paid; for employees who work for salaries or wages; and for persons employed in gainful occupation, doing their own work, the proper entries will be made in columns 18, 19, 20 and 21 respectively. An affirmative answer will be indicated by the down stroke ( | ) and the negative answer by the dash ( - ) in the proper column.

60. If married women, other female dependents or children carry on a gainful or wage-earning occupation in any capacity, the kind of occupation will be given, and they will be classed as employers or employees as the case may be; but if they are only carrying on domestic affairs in a household without wages they are not to be classed as having any occupation. A person doing piece-work at home will be entered according to the occupation, whether employed under contract or agreement with a manufacturer or other employer of labor, or as a helper to the person so employed.

61. The rank in principal calling or occupation is to be clearly given, so that it can be exactly recognized whether the enumerated person is (1) an independent business manager; or (2) belongs to the business office (as manager, inspector, confidential clerk, book-keeper, clerk of works, cashier, treasurer, foreman or other working official; or (3) stands in some working relation (such as journeyman, assistant, apprentice, factory operative, workman, waiter, shop man, salesman, day laborer, navy, coachman, drayman, stableman, handyman, cook, maid, housemaid, female servant, farm laborer, farmer's son -- the position or office of the enumerated person being always given in connection with the business, occupation or profession.

62. Entries under the heading of Wage Earners will be made under columns 22 to 27 inclusive, for each person named in column 3 who is employed in any industrial or other occupation and is paid salary, wages or other money allowance for his or her service, and whether employed by piece-work or by time (house, day, week), at home, in a factory, or elsewhere.

63. Columns 22, 23 and 24 refer particularly to employees in factory work, and the additional letters "f" and "h" will be used to denote whether the place of employment is the factory or the home, or both. The down stroke "( | ) f" denotes that the person is working at his trade in the factory; "( | ) h" will denote that he is working at home; and "(|) f h" will denote that during the census year he has been working part of the time in the factory and part of it at home. The entries in columns 23 and 24 will show how much of the year, as expressed in months, he has employed at his trade in the factory and at home respectively.

64. In column 25 will be entered the number of months that the person has been employed otherwise than at his regular trade in the factory or at home; or, if not a tradesman, at whatever his occupation may be, if it is a wage-earning one. For census purposes the terms salary and wages have a common meaning, being the amount or sum of money which one person employed by another receives for his service, whether the work done be professional, literary or handicraft.

65. Columns 28 to 33 related to the education and language of each person named in the schedules, of the age of five years and over. Column 28 refers of course to persons of school age, being those over five and under twenty-one years. If the person has attended school during the census year the time will be indicated by the number of months, and if he or she has not attended school during the year it will be indicated by a horizontal dash ( - ).

66. Columns 29, 30, 31 and 32 will be answered by the figure 1 for "Yes" and by a dash (-) for "No", as the fact may be; and account is not to be taken of the degree of proficiency as regards any one of the questions. English and French were made official languages by section 133 of the British North America Act, 1867, and therefore special provision is made in the schedule of a record of all persons five years of age and over who speak one or other of these languages. But the same person may speak both languages, and in every such case the answer (1) "Yes" should be entered in both columns.

67. Mother tongue is one's native-language, the language of his race; but not necessarily the language in which he thinks, or which he speaks most fluently, or uses chiefly in conversation. Whatever it may be, whether English, French, Gaelic, Irish, German, Swedish, Russian or any other, it should be entered by name in column 33 if the person speaks the language, but not otherwise.

68. Infirmities are recorded under the heads of the three classes, (a) "Deaf and dumb", (b) "Blind", and (c) "Unsound mind". It is not necessary that the degree of infirmity should be absolute or total, but that it should be so sufficiently marked in any one of those classes as to have reached the stage of incapacity. If the infirmity is congenital (that is to say, if tit is born with one), or if it dates from childhood, the words "from childhood" should be added, thus: "Blind, from childhood". The infirmity, where it exists in a person, will be entered by name in column 34: and where it does not exist the entry in the column will be dash ( - ), or usual sign for a negative.

69. The literal meaning of the term de jure is "by right of law", "rightfully", or legally"; but the term has no strict legal meaning. Neither in the statutes nor in the decisions of the courts has an exact or fixed definition been given to it. When, therefore, it has been ordered that the enumeration of the people shall be in accordance with the de jure system, there is room for misunderstanding and error, in spite of instructions on the usage meaning of the term.

70. There is a probability that some persons may be counted in two places, and that others may not be counted at all. A domestic servant, for example, may be reported at the home of her parents as a member of the family de jure, and she may also be reported as de jure of the household where she is employed. Or if absent from home for a comparatively long time and in her present place of service for only a short time, she may be left out of the enumeration altogether. The same thing may occur in the case of clerks, salesmen, artisans, laborers, railway employees, etc.

71. It is not possible to lay down a rule applicable to every case; but, generally, where there is a doubt, reference to the names of persons who are temporarily absent by number of page and line in schedule No 1 should be entered in the Special Form A at the same time that the enumeration is being made according to schedule No. 1, and with the help of information supplied in this way a large percentage of possible defects and errors may be eliminated at the Census Office.

72. The enumerator will enter in Special Form A the reference by number of page and line in schedule No. 1 to the name of every member of a family or household who is reported to be absent from the home or domicile, and whose absence is considered by the head of the family or household (or whoever gives the information) as temporary.

73. A student at college, a sailor or fisherman at sea, a lumberman in the forest, a merchant or trader in foreign parts, a commercial traveler on the road, inmates of hospitals, penal institutions etc., and other like persons whose period of absence is more or less definite and known, should be so entered.

74. But in the case of persons who have gone away from the home or domicile to which they belonged to pursue some trade or calling, or to begin life on their own account in any part of Canada or in another country, no record should be made by the enumerator either in schedule No. 1 or in the Special Form unless there is a fixed period of return.

75. If the head of the family or household (or whoever gives the information) is in doubt concerning the intention of such persons to return, and if they be absent twelve months, they are not to be taken in the census by the enumerator, the presumption being that they have settled elsewhere.

76. Persons in a family or household whose home or domicile has been elsewhere should not be taken by the enumerator unless it be ascertained that they do not intend to return, when they should be entered on schedule No. 1 whether the time of their residence in the locality be long or short.

77. In the case of every entry in the Special Form A, enter in columns 1 and 2 the number of page and line of schedule No. 1 on which the name occurs of a person ascertained to be temporarily absent. The number of months of absence from home is to be recorded in column 3. In column 4 is to be recorded the answer to the question: "Does person intend to return home?" Under column 5, describing "Locality where person is to be found" give (if in Canada) name of Province or Territory and of city, town or village, with street and house number; or of township, parish or other municipality, with concession and lot of cadastral number; and also post office address. If out of Canada, give name of country only, or of State if in the United States.

78. Inquire of the head of every family or household (or whoever gives the information) if any person of the family or household is temporarily absent, so that the proper record concerning such person may be made in the Special Form A.

79. No. 43 of these Instructions requires the heads of families, households and institutions to furnish the enumerator with all particulars regarding every person in the family, household or institution, as called for in the schedules. It may happen, however in the case of boarders, lodgers and others that the head of the family, household or institution is unable, owing to their temporary absence, to give the details of information regarding such persons at the time when the enumerator calls, and to provide for such cases Special Form B has been prepared. It is an individual form, similar in every particular to schedule No. 1, and one copy of it will be left by the enumerator with the head of the family, household or institution for each such person, to be filled up by a date and house marked thereon by the enumerator, and to be collected by him and entered in its proper place in schedule No.1.

80. Section 17 of the Census Act provides that every person who willfully or without lawful excuse refuses to fill up to the best of his knowledge and belief any schedule required of him by the enumerator, or other person employed in the execution of the Act, "or refuses or neglects to sign and deliver up or otherwise return the same when and as required, or makes, signs, delivers or returns, or causes to be made, signed, delivered or returned, any willfully false answer or statement as to any matter specified in such schedules, shall incur a penalty not exceeding forty dollars and not less than one dollar."

This volume of the Census deals wholly with population, and the tables are grouped under the fine following classes, namely:

  • Comparative tables of population
  • Areas, houses, families, population, sex and conjugal condition
  • Regions of the people
  • Origins and nationalities
  • Birthplace and immigration
The first group comprises tables showing:
  • Population of 1871, 1881, 1891 and 1901, compared by Electoral Districts within their present limits (1901), pp. 2-5
  • Houses, families and population in 1891-1901, compared by Census Districts within their present limits (1901), pp. 6-9
  • Sex and conjugal condition in 1891-1901, compared by Census Districts within their present limits (1901), pp. 10-17
  • Rural and urban population in 1891-1901, compared by Census Districts within their present limits (1901), pp. 18021
  • Population of cities and towns having over 5,000 inhabitants in 1901, compared with 1871, 1881, 1891, pp.22.