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Manual Containing "The Census Act," and the Instructions

To Officers Employed in the Taking of the first Census of Canada (1871)
Department of Agriculture (Census Branch)

Anno Tricesimo-Tertio
Victoriae Reginae.

Cap. XXI

An Act respecting the First Census

[Assented to 12th May, 1870]


Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows:

What shall be ascertained and shown by the Census
1. The first Census of Canada, to be taken in the year 1871, hereinafter termed "The Census," shall be so taken as to ascertain and show, with the utmost accuracy possible, in respect of each of the four Provinces, and of each of the Electoral Districts and other recognized subdivisions thereof, all statistical information which can conveniently be obtained and stated in tabular form, touching --their population and the classification thereof, as regards age, sex, social condition, religion, education, race, occupation, and otherwise, --the houses and other buildings therein, and their classification as dwellings, inhabited, uninhabited, under construction, and otherwise, --the occupied land, therein, and the condition thereof, as town, village, country, cultivated, uncultivated, and otherwise, --the aggregate valuation of property, real and personal therein, --the produce, state, and resources of the agricultural, fishing, lumbering, mining, mechanical, manufacturing, trading and other industries thereof, --the municipal, educational, charitable and other institutions thereof, --and whatever other matters may be specified in the forms and instructions to be issued, as hereinafter is provided.

Details, forms, and procedure to be such as the Governor in Council may direct
2. The details of such information, the forms to be used, and procedure to be followed for the obtaining thereof, and the period at which and date or dates with reference to which, the census shall be taken, --whether generally, or for any specified localities, requiring to be exceptionally dealt with in any of these respects,

--shall be such as the governor in Council by Proclamation shall direct; provided always, that such period for taking the Census shall not be alter than the first of May.

Minister of Agriculture to prepare forms
3. The Minister of Agriculture shall cause all such forms, and also all instructions which he shall deem requisite in respect of the Census, to be duly prepared, printed and issued, for use by the persons to be employed in the taking thereof.

Governor in Council to divide each Province into Census Districts;
4. The Governor in Council, by Proclamation, shall divide each of the four Provinces into Census Districts, to correspond as nearly as may be with the several Electoral Districts under "The British North America Act, 1867," -- but subdividing any thereof, or adding adjacent territory to any thereof, or grouping together any thereof or any parts thereof, wherever such subdivision, addition, or grouping may be deemed convenient, -- and forming all other territory not comprised within an Electoral District, into so many and such Census Districts as may be deemed convenient.

And the Census Districts into Census Sub-Districts.
5. The Governor in Council, by Proclamation, shall further divide every Census District into Census Sub-Districts, to correspond as nearly as may be with the Municipal or other recognized divisions thereof, --but sub-dividing any thereof, or adding adjacent territory to any thereof, or grouping together any thereof or any parts thereof, wherever such sub-division, addition, or grouping may be deemed convenient, --and forming all other territory, not comprised within such Municipal or other divisions, into so many and such Census Sub-Districts as may be deemed convenient.

Census Commissioner for each District,
6. The Governor in Council shall appoint for each Census District, on Census Commissioner.

And deputies when necessary.
7. In any case where it may be deemed convenient, there may be appointed by or under authority of the Governor in Council, in such manner, and with such relative powers and duties, and such share of emoluments, as shall be laid down by Order in Council, one or more Deputies for the purpose of aiding any such Census Commissioners.

One or more Enumerators for each Census Sub-District.
8. There shall be appointed, by or under authority of the Minister of Agriculture, in such manner and subject to such rules in that behalf as shall be laid down by Order in Council, on or more Enumerators for every Census Sub-District' and in every case where more than one Enumerator is appointed, the powers and duties of such Enumerators shall be such as the instructions of the Minister of Agriculture shall assign to each, whether territorially or otherwise.

Minister of Agriculture to cause forms to be distributed.
9. The Minister of Agriculture shall cause the requisite supply of forms and instructions to be duly distributed, through the several Census Commissioners, to every Enumerator.

Commissioners to instruct and oversee Enumerators.
10. Each Census Commissioner shall further see that every Enumerator under his superintendence thoroughly understands the manner in which the duties required of him are to be performed -- and uses due diligence in the performance thereof.

Duties of enumerators in taking the Census.
11. Every Enumerator, by domiciliary visits to every house and careful personal inquiry, shall ascertain, in detail, with the utmost accuracy possible, all the statistical information with which he is required to deal, and no other, - and shall make an exact record thereof, and attest the same under oath, - and shall see that such attested record is duly delivered to the Census Commissioner under whose superintendence he is placed; the whole, in all respects as by the forms and instructions issued to him shall be required.

Commissioners to examine the work of Enumerators, and correct it, and return it attested.
12. The Census Commissioner shall examine all such records, and satisfy himself how far each Enumerator has performed the duties required of him, - and shall note all apparent defects and inaccuracies in such records, and require the several Enumerators concerned therewith, to assist him in respect thereof, - and with their assistance shall correct the same so far as may be found requisite and possible, noting always whether such corrections are concurred in by them or not, and shall make return, - attested under oath, of his doings in the premises, - and shall transmit the same, together with all the records in question, to the Minister of Agriculture; the whole, in all respects as by the forms and instructions issued to him shall be required.

Duty of Minister of Agriculture in examining Returns, and causing them to be corrected and completed, and laid before Parliament.
13. The Minster of Agriculture shall cause all such returns and records to be examined, and any defects or inaccuracies discoverable therein to be corrected so far as possible, - and shall obtain; so far as possible, by such ways and means as may be deemed convenient, any statistical information requisite for the due completion of the Census, which cannot be or is not obtained with the required fullness and accuracy by means of such returns and records, - and shall cause to be prepared, that the same may be laid before Parliament, with all practicable dispatch, abstracts and tabular statements showing the results of the Census as fully and accurately as possible.

Commissioners and other Census Officers to take an oath of office.
14. Every Census Commissioner, Enumerator, and other person employed in the execution of this Act, - whether for the obtaining in the first instance of any information sought by the Census, or for revising or compiling the same, or otherwise dealing therewith, or for enquiring into any matter connected with the taking of the Census, - before entering on his duties, shall take and subscribe an oath binding him to the faithful and exact discharge of such duties, in such form, before such person, and returned and recorded in such manner, as by Order in Council shall be prescribed.

Any willful neglect, or false return, etc., to be a misdemeanor.
15. Any such Census Commissioner, Enumerator, or other person employed in the execution of this Act, making willful default in any matter required of him by this Act, or making any willfully false declaration touching any such matter, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

Census Commissioners, and others acting under this Act, to have access to public records etc.
16. Every person having custody or charge of any Provincial Municipal or other public records or documents or of any records or documents of any Corporation, from which information sought by the Census or which would aid in the completion or correction thereof, can be obtained, shall grant to any Census Commissioner, Enumerator, or other person deputed to that end by the Minister of Agriculture, reasonable access thereto for the obtaining of such information there from; and every such person willfully or without lawful excuse refusing or neglecting so to do, and every person willfully hindering or seeking to prevent or obstruct such access, or otherwise in any way willfully obstructing or seeking to obstruct any person employed in the execution of this Act, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

Penalty for refusing such access.

Penalty for neglecting to fill up any schedule, etc.
17. Every person who willfully or without lawful excuse refuses or neglects to fill up to the best of his knowledge and belief, any schedule which he shall have been required to fill up by any Enumerator or other person employed in the execution of this Act, - or refuses or neglects to sign and deliver back or otherwise return the same when and as so required, - or makes signs, delivers or returns, or causes to be made, signed, delivered or returned, any false answer or statement as to any matter specified in such schedule, - shall thereby incur a penalty of not less than ten nor more than forty dollars.

And for refusing to answer lawful questions, etc.
18. Every person who, without lawful excuse, refuses or neglects to answer, or who willfully answers falsely, any question requisite for obtaining any information sought by the Census or pertinent thereto, which shall have been asked of him by any Enumerator or other person employed in the execution of this Act, shall, for every such refusal or neglect or willfully false answer, incur a penalty of not less than five nor more than twenty dollars.

Penalties -- how to be recovered and appropriated.
19. The penalties herein before imposed may be recovered in a summary manner at the suit of any Census Commissioner, Enumerator, or other person employed in the execution of this Act, before any one Justice if the Peace having jurisdiction in the place where the offence has been committed on the oath of the prosecutor or of one credible witness; and one moiety thereof shall belong to the Crown for the public uses of the Dominion, and the other moiety to the prosecutor, unless he has been examined as a witness to prove the offence, in which case the whole shall belong to the Grown for the uses aforesaid.

Minister of Agriculture may direct enquiry into matters connected with the Census Powers, etc., of the Census Commissioners or other person making such enquiry.
20. Whenever the Minister of Agriculture deems it convenient, he may, by special letter of instruction, direct any Census Commissioner, or other person employed in the execution of this Act, to make enquiry under oath, as to any matter or matters connected with the taking of the Census, or the ascertaining or correcting of any supposed defect or inaccuracy therein; and such Census Commissioner or other person shall then have the same power as is vested in any Court of Law in civil cases, of summoning any party of witnesses, of enforcing their attendance, and of requiring and compelling them to give evidence on oath, whether orally or in writing, and to produce such documents and things as he deems requisite to the full investigation of such matter or matters.

Certain letters and documents to be prima facie evidence of appointment, removal, etc.;
21. Any letter purporting to be signed by the Minister of Agriculture of by his Deputy, or by any other person thereto authorized under Order in Council, and notifying any appointment or removal of, or setting forth any instructions to, any person employed in the execution of this Act, - and any letter signed by any Census Commissioner, or other person thereto duly authorized, notifying any appointment or removal of, or setting forth any instructions to any person so employed under the superintendence of the signer thereof, - shall be, respectively, prima facie evidence of such appointment, removal, or instructions, and that such letter was signed and addressed as it purports to be.

And so of forms and instructions.
22. Any document or paper, written or printed, purporting to be a form authorized for use in the taking of the Census, or to set forth any instructions relative thereto, which is produced by any person employed in the execution of this Act, as being such form, or as setting forth such instructions shall be presumed to have been supplied by the proper authority, to the person so producing the same, and shall be prima facie evidence of all instructions therein set forth.

Leaving a schedule by Enumerator to be sufficient; requirement to fill up the same.
23. The leaving by any Enumerator at any house or part of a house, of any schedule purporting to be issued under this Act, and having thereon a notice requiring that the same be filled up and signed within a stated delay by the occupant thereof, or in his absence by some other member of the family, shall be a sufficient requirement as against such occupant, though not name in such notice, nor personally served therewith, so to fill up and sign such schedule.

Minister of Agriculture to prepare tables of allowance as remuneration under this Act to be laid before Parliament when approved by Governor in Council.
24. The Minister of Agriculture shall cause to be prepared one or more tables, setting forth the rates of allowances or remuneration for the several Census Commissioners and Enumerators employed in the execution of this Act not however, to exceed, in the aggregate, a total amount of three dollars for each day of proved effective service for any Enumerator, or of four dollars for each day of like service for any Census Commissioner and the same when approved by Order in Council shall be laid before Parliament, on or before the first day of March 1871 if Parliament be sitting or if Parliament be not sitting, then within the first fifteen days of the Session next ensuing.

To whom and when payable.
25. Such allowances or remuneration shall be paid to the several persons entitled thereto, in such manner as the governor in Council shall direct; but shall not be payable, until the services required of the person receiving the same have been faithfully and entirely performed.

To be paid out of moneys to be provided by Parliament.
26. Such allowances and remuneration and all expenses to be incurred in carrying this Act into effect, shall be paid out of such moneys as shall be provided by Parliament for that purpose.

Full Reports of things done under this Act to be laid before Parliament.
27. A full report of all things done under this Act, and an account of all moneys expended under the authority thereof, shall be laid before Parliament within the first fifteen days of the next Session thereof, and of each Session thereafter, until such time as all things requiring to be done under this Act shall have been fully completed.

28. The word "house" in this Act includes all ships, vessels and other dwellings or places of abode of any kind.

Civil Service Act not to apply.
29. Nothing in "The Canada Civil Service Act, 1868," contained shall be held applicable to any appointment, employment, or service, under this Act.

Repeal of inconsistent enactments.
30. The first twenty-four Sections of the Act, Chapter thirty-three, of the Consolidated Statutes of the late Province of Canada so much of Chapter thirty-five of the Revised Statutes of Nova Scotia as relates to the taking of a Census, and all other Acts and parts of Acts in force in any of the Provinces relative to a Census are hereby repealed.

Short title of this Act, etc.
31. This Act may be cited as "The Census Act", and all things lawfully done or required to be done, by or under authority of any Proclamation, Order in Council or Instruction by this Act provided for or contemplated, shall be held to be done or required, and may be set forth as done or required under authority of this Act.

Instructions to officers

Chapter 1

Prefatory Remarks

A census is taken for the purpose of ascertaining, as exactly as possible, the population and resources of a country, and thereby furnishing a sufficiently correct idea of its strength and capability.

A census is not taken for purposes of taxation, as, unfortunately, many persons imagine. None of the information contained in it could be turned to such account. The results it exhibits, like those of any other statistical enquires, are directly connected with the science of government; which pre-supposes a general knowledge of the wants and capabilities, the defects and advantages, numerically presented, of the population and the country.

It follows that it is the duty of every person in the Dominion, as well as his interest, to assist in obtaining a true and honest statement of facts as they are.

Many persons imagine that census schedules may be in some way used as a sort of advertisement for them, or as a reflection upon them. The fact is, that these schedules are never seen except by the commissioners and others engaged in taking and compiling the census, who besides that they are sworn officers, bound not to divulge any individual information, care very little for, and have no interest in the individual statements contained in them. The names are taken in the census schedules simply for a check upon the returns, and to afford opportunity to correct any palpable error. In other words, the enumeration by names is a necessary guarantee of good faith and correctness, and it has no other object.

It must further be borne in mind, that the questions put cannot embrace everything interest, but must on the contrary be limited to matters of leading importance to the whole Dominion. There are even many matters of general interest, which must be omitted, as well because of the intricacies they present, as of the necessity there is to limit the number the questions asked.

Such facts, if of sufficient importance to be recorded, must be obtained by special enquires, which may be made in connection with a census, but yet separate from the general schedules. Such are for instance; medical statistics, comprising the appearances and prevalence of diseases, the hygienic conditions of tenements and public places of resort the study of the relative proportion of infirmities, insanity in various forms, etc. Such, also are detailed trade statistics, comprising shipping, railways, canals, etc.

Individuals and localities have their own preferences and their own special interests; but in every case, it must be remembered, that the census operations are intended to deal generally with very broad information and that therefore many interesting products must be left out of the schedules. Products of great importance to particular localities, may appear relatively insignificant when viewed in connection with and simply as forming part of the entire products of the country at large. To take every detail and make every enquiry is an impossibility.

As regards property real and personal values are not to be taken by the schedules, except in the case of manufacturing industry; where as a general rule, a simple enumeration of quantities and kinds would not give an accurate or intelligible result and would be impossible because of intricacies and multiplicity of details. In other cases it is obvious that if values of property were taken in the schedules, the valuation must always be set down as given by each interested party. Enumerators are not assessors and cannot be made to act as such. No reliance could safely be placed on values so taken, nor would there be uniformity even in the same locality; as the experience of the past has proved. It is, therefore better on all accounts to ascertain values, except for manufactures, not by questions put through the enumerators but by careful enquiries in reference to average market prices, and otherwise.

Whatever plan is adopted for taking a census, whatever are the enquiries proposed to be made, and whatever care is bestowed in preparing the schedules or filling in the answers, there will still be difficulties to be met, and defects found in practice. These must be recognized, and overcome by the best attainable means.

The success of a census depends upon obtaining an honest return, which shall be as accurate as possible, of the facts asked for in the schedules; and this success is dependent on three conditions, the absence of any one of which would render the result of the whole defective in a proportionate degree. These desiderata are --

  • The adoption of a good system, with an honest, intelligent, well-instructed an painstaking administrative staff.
  • A good selection of honest, intelligent, well-instructed and painstaking enumerators.
  • An honest, willing and painstaking people to answer the questions put to them.

Census operations are more difficult on this continent than in many European countries, on account of difference of social organization and administrative machinery; and further, on account of the different proportions of territorial area to population. More painstaking application is, therefore, required in this country, on the part of the census officers of all grades and a more active aid on the part of the people at large.

Chapter 2

The System

A series of nine schedules has been adopted on moderate sized sheets of paper, with only twenty lines to write on each page; each schedule being devoted to a particular class of information. The facility of handling, writing and compiling thus obtained, has permitted an increase of the number of headings of enquiry without adding unduly to the time necessary for taking the answers to the questions put.

The schedules, arranged in order will be placed in a portfolio to be easy of carriage as well as easily handled, affording facilities for writing in the answers, and for compiling from them.

The schedules are explained by this Manual; in which are given (illustrated by a set of Specimen filled Schedules), remarks upon almost every column, and instructions intended to aid the officers to overcome the difficulties which necessarily arise in practice.

These Specimen Schedules are simply intended to indicate the manner of filling up the Working Schedules, and to illustrate the way in which the Census is to be taken. But there is no intention of conveying by them any idea of the ratio of things, such as ages, sex, births, deaths, establishments, etc.; nor any relation between the localities mentioned at the head of each page, with the imaginary facts entered on the page; the whole being simply for example, and not for showing any connection except in so as is indicated by the references from one schedule to another.

The schedules will be communicated to the public in a condensed form, some time before the taking of the census, in order to allow every one to acquaint himself with the questions which he is compelled by law to answer, and to prepare himself, whether by writing down or charging his memory or by leaving orders at his house, for the visit of the enumerator, thus helping to avoid the mistakes that would be sure to arise from sudden questioning, as well as shortening the time necessary for taking down the answers.

Thirteen officers have been selected from the Dominion, viz. :- five from Ontario, four from Quebec, two from Nova Scotia, and two from New Brunswick. These have spent a considerable time at the seat of government, in studying census matters generally assisting in the final consideration of the schedules and instructions, and specially pointing out the circumstances and requirements of the several sections of their respective provinces. They are to go, each in the census districts set apart as his field of operations, to confer with the commissioners, to impart to each of these the advantage of their labors and studies, and to represent the Department in the territorial divisions assigned to each of them.

When the commissioners shall have gone through their conferences with the staff officers, and become fully imbued with a knowledge of the schedules instructions and details of the census taking, they, in their turn are to hold conferences with the enumerators of their respective census districts, in order to put them (the enumerators) through the same process of instructions.

It is hoped that, by the aid of these preliminary studies, and the working of this system of graduated instruction, every officer connected with the census will be fully prepared for his task when the day comes to take it.

The duty devolved on the Department, by law of dividing the several Provinces into census districts, and of sub-dividing these again into census sub-districts, has necessitated much inquiry and labor; in which the staff officers have borne their part. Every effort has been made to lay out the country in the most convenient manner possible, not only with a view to the present census, but also (so far as may be) for future statistical purposes. And for more perfect assurance of accuracy each census commissioner is furnished with a sketch map of his district, out which not only the sub-districts, but also the limits specially to be assigned to each enumerator, are or will be carefully laid down.

Chapter 3

General Directions

The principle adopted for the registration of the population is that which is called by statists the population de droit or de jure; that is, the population legally domiciled within the territory of the Dominion, and including all persons who may be temporarily absent from their place of abode, whether at the fisheries, at sea, or in the forest wilderness, etc.

All persons are to be registered in the province and particular locality in which their home, family dwelling, or place of abode is situate, although they may happen to be in other parts of the Dominion, - in the forest, or at sea, or in foreign parts, on the day with reference to which the Census is taken.

In order to make the details of this system of registration very clearly understood, cases that will occur in practice are furnished in the form of instruction, as follow :-

Sea-faring men or fishermen at sea or on the coast, lumbermen or hunters in the forest, merchants, or tradesmen, or laborers, or travelers, or students, or any other happening to be temporarily absent from home and not permanently settled elsewhere, are not to be considered as absent for the purpose of the census; but their names are to be registered by the enumerator as being present.

Therefore, the names of seamen at sea, college students and school children, of the sick in hospitals, of inmates temporarily present in educational, charitable or penal institutions, are to be taken down in their own provinces, at their own domiciles or homes, and not at temporary abiding places or institutions. In other words, all living members of one family are to be registered as being present at the family abode, unless they are settled in homes of their own, or have left the country with intention not to return.

When, therefore, an enumerator finds any person in one province of the Dominion, whose home or dwelling is in another, he is to be careful not to make any entry in his schedules; as the registration is to be made in the province where his home is.

Servants come under three categories, and are to be dealt with in the following manner:

  • Those having or belonging to, families or homes of their own within the Dominion, are to be taken with their own families.
  • Those having, or belonging to, families or homes of their own within the Dominion are to be taken as part of the families with which they may happen to be living.
  • Those in settled employment and resident with any family are to be taken as not having or belonging to a family or home of their own.

Persons having no family abode and no fixed domicile of any kind are, of course, to be registered wherever met with, whether on board ship, in shanties, public institutions, or private houses. Orphans kept in public institutions or private families are, accordingly, to be taken with such institutions or families. Homeless, sick or destitute persons in asylums and hospitals, and prisoners without family abode, or sentenced for life, are to be taken in the institutions or prisons where they happen to be.

A family, as understood for the purpose of the Census, may consist of one person living alone, or of any number of persons living together under one roof, and having their food provided together. For example: One man, say a shop-keeper, or one woman, say a seamstress, living alone in a separate house, or in a distinctly separate part of a house, would constitute a census family; but any number of persons living together in a boarding-house, several of them being parents, having children and servants, would only constitute one census family, provided they had no home elsewhere.

The census returns of Population and Property are to consist of the statement of facts as they actually exist on the 2d day of April, 1871.

Returns, which are to embrace a Yearly Period, such as the numbers of births and deaths, the enumeration of products, etc., are to be counted for the twelve months immediately preceding the 2nd of April. The headings of the columns afford a clear indication of the nature of each category.

Therefore, any person who was alive on the 2nd of April, 1871, although he may have died between that date and the date of the enumerator's visit, is to be recorded as if living; and for the same reason, infants who may have been born after the 2nd of April, 1871, are not to be recorded, whether dead or alive.
The duties of each class of officers employed are defined by the Census Act, herewith published.

The remuneration of commissioners and enumerators will be as settled by His Excellency in Council, pursuant to the 24th section of the Census Act; no payment can legally be made until the whole of their work is completed in a satisfactory manner.
The explanations hereinafter given respecting each schedule, and each heading of the schedules, accompanied by the specimen schedule for an illustration, will indicate to the several officers how practical questions are to be met and solved.

The Enumeration as the law prescribes, must be taken down in writing by the enumerator himself, he going personally from house to house, and writing in the schedules, in the most scrupulous manner, the answers given to the questions arising out of the headings, in order of their numbering.

The information, which is in every case recorded, must be the definite answer of the person to whom the question is put; and the enumerator is never to take upon himself to insert anything which is not stated and distinctly acknowledged by the person giving the information. It would be criminal to insert anything contrary to the declaration of such person.

But it is the duty of the enumerator so far to assist the person giving the information, as to point out to him any apparent error, or indicate any apparent fact omitted. In every case he must carefully read over the facts he has taken to the person from whom he has obtained them, for checking the correctness of this entries.

In case of refusal of any person to answer questions put which are necessary to obtain information required for filling the schedules, or of the enumerator receiving any information which is apparently untrue, it is his duty to warn such person against the consequences of such criminal course and if it is persisted in, his duty then will be to bring the offender to justices, as provided by the Act.

In other words, the enumerator is the recorder of answers to questions put by authority of the Executive, under the sanction of law; but it is required that he be an intelligent and conscientious officer, not a mere machine; and his duty is to guard himself and all concerned against errors and frauds.

In all cases of difficulty-and such cases will occasionally arise-the enumerator must deal with them in the best possible manner, taking for his guide the spirit of the law, and the general tenor of this Manual.

He must endeavour-

  • Not to omit anything of importance
  • Not to record the same thing twice
  • Not to exaggerate anything
  • Not to underrate anything

The very best way of fulfilling these conditions, and fairly and properly performing his duties, is for the enumerator to make a painstaking study of this schedules and this Manual, and to thoroughly acquaint himself with all the particulars and peculiarities of his division.

An intelligent and well-trained enumerator, will, in fact, generally speaking, know beforehand what are, as a whole, the conditions of every family in his division.

It is necessary, for the success of the census, that the intercourse of the enumerators with the public be characterized, on the part of these officers, with discretion and forbearance. Every objection made, or question put to the enumerators, must be met with proper, satisfactory and courteous explanations.

Persons having apprehensions, or showing hesitation in giving their answers, must be assured that no information they may give; and that nothing taken down in the schedules, can, by possibility, injure, or in any way affect their standing or their business. The enumerator will act under oath, and his duty will be to preserve the strictest secrecy, as well with respect to any verbal statements made to him as to his enumeration records. He is not permitted to show, or in any way to communicate these, to any person whatever, except to the commissioner of his own district, or to the staff officer in charge thereof; both of whom also act under oath, and are forbidden, under any circumstances, to communicate anything therein contained to any person whatever, except to the other sworn officers of the Department, all bound by the like prohibition.

The commissioners and enumerators are forbidden to give any synopsis of the result of the census, or any part thereof, to anyone. Partial communication of information is calculated to produce mischief, if not to mislead, and may be made subservient to purposed totally unconnected with the census, and detrimental to it. The result will be given by the Department in a careful and comprehensive manner, at the earliest possible period.

It is required of all officers connected with taking the census, that they bring to the accomplishment of their task that discretion generally necessary on the part of all public servants, but especially so where duties of great trust and delicacy are to be performed.

It is further specially required of every census officer that he is to make himself thoroughly acquainted with the whole matter before his actual work commences. It is not the time for study or enquiry after the work commences, but for action. If an enumerator finds difficulties after the commencement of his travels, he must bring to their solution his best intellectual faculties, aided by his previously acquired information respected census matters; and he should consult the Manual and specimen schedules, which he must always keep in his portfolio. When commencing his actual duties, the enumerator is recommended to make his first entries with the greatest care, spending more time upon these than will be subsequently required.

In case an enumerator meets a difficulty of a special and exceptional characters, he is required to make a short notice in the column of remarks of the schedule in which it occurs, explaining the manner in which he has met it.

All documents sent to the officers, commissioners and enumerators are, in their nature, private, with the exception, of course, of "The Census Act," and such as have been published in the "Canadian Gazette."

Chapter 4

The schedules

General Remarks

The nine schedules for the taking of the census, consist of a regular series. They are all to be taken up, one after the other, in the order of numbering, at every visit made by each enumerator.

These schedules have been printed on paper of superior quality, manufactured expressly for this purpose, and bearing the watermark- "Canada, First Census." It is required that the whole returns be made in a creditable as well as intelligible manner, and commissioners and enumerators will see that the best materials of pen and ink are employed in filling in the schedules; that they are kept clean and in good order, without any folding or bruising; and that the writing and figures are neatly made.

The schedules will be delivered to each enumerators in a Portfolio, and they are not to be carried anywhere without this. After use they are to be returned to the commissioners in the same order, in the port-folios; and the commissioners, in like manner, are to deliver them in the portfolios to the Department, of the archives of which they are to form a part.

As there are no reasons for the enumerators or the commissioners to acquaint themselves with the aggregate results, they are not to make the additions at the foot of the columns of the schedules. The lines placed in these for that purpose, are to be left blank for the compilers in the Department to fill in. Revision and corrections when required to be made in the returns by the enumerators and the commissioners, conjointly, as provided by law, refer to statements attached to each of the details inscribed, and not to the general results.

The nine schedules are to be paged separately, each on being marked page 1, page 2, and in regular order to the end, without interruption, each by itself. Schedule No. 1 will, of course, contain a much larger number of pages, and Schedule No. 2 a much smaller number, than any of the others.
Any error committed (but with proper care there should be none or very few) or any omission made, should be corrected or supplied by drawing a faint ink line through the erroneous entry, and any correction or addition must be supplied by writing in an interline. There must be no erasure of any kind, nor yet any such obliteration of any entry made, as shall render the same illegible.

Every entry must be confined to its own column, and the writing or figures of each answer are not to interfere with any adjoining space in the schedule; the figures are to be entered in regular rows to facilitate compilation.

The enumerator must himself, in every case, go in person to every dwelling or industrial establishment in each district or division at which enquiry is to be made. Every heading of every schedule, with the exceptions hereinafter specified, is to be read over at every visit. The enumerator is not to take for granted that any person addressed can only supply answers to the questions arising from the headings of part of the schedules. He must, with the exceptions referred to, ask every question. An for proof that this requirement has been systematically fulfilled, it is ordered that an entry be made at every column in every case, whether negative or affirmative, in the manner hereinafter indicated, and as illustrated in the specimen schedules.

The exceptions are: - the 2nd, the 6th, and the 9th Schedules relation to "Deaths," "Industrial Establishments," and "Mineral Products;" which may be laid aside without making any entry, on the answer "No," being given to the question whether any death has occurred in the family during the last twelve months; or whether there is any "Industrial Establishment" carried on by the family; or whether they have lands of mines yielding "Mineral Products." But, in the case of "Industrial Establishments," it must be remembered that many farmers or others have attached to their ordinary industries, a lime-kiln, a saw-mill, a tannery, and so on; and, with respect to "Mineral Products," that the same class of persons are often engaged in quarrying, or other mining operations.

If a boarder has any industry, or produces anything himself, entirely separate from the family in which he is domiciled, a separate entry must be made of his products; but if he only works with the family, there must only be one entry.

In other words: - Schedule No. 1 will contain as many lines written as there are living persons recorded; No. 2, as many lines as there have been deaths during the twelve months; No. 3, as many lines as there are families and public institutions met with; No. 4, as many lines as there are families visited; No. 5, the same; No. 6, as many lines as there are industrial establishments visited; No. 7, as many lines as families visited; No. 8, the same; and No. 9, as many lines as there are persons met with, who have been carrying on any mining or quarrying operations.

As some abbreviations are necessary, and others convenient for saving time, it is requisite that some rules should be given respected them: - Every abbreviation of one letter must be by a capital letter, such as M for male, F for female, M for married, W for widows, and very carefully written.
The negative sign; to be written in every column in which there is nothing to be entered, of when the answer "No" is given, is to be in the form of a dash, written thus -.

The affirmative sign, equivalent to the answer "Yes" to a question, will be made by writing the figure 1 in the column; or, in other words, the entering of this figure will indicate that the person or thing is to be counted in the enumeration.

This sign ,, may be made of idem or ditto, under a plainly written item of information, and provided it is not carried from one page to another without a repetition of the item.

Recapitulation of the conventional signs: -
- "nothing," "no," not "concerned," or "unknown"
1 "yes," "to be counted"
,, "idem" or "ditto"

To fill the columns where the calendar months are to be entered, the following abbreviations may be used: -
Jany. for January
F. for February
Mar. for March
Ap. for April
My. for May
Jun. for June
Jul. for July
Ag. for August
S. for September
O. for October
N. for November
D. for December

The following abbreviations may be used instead of the full names of the Provinces of the Dominion: -
O for Ontario
Q for Quebec
N.S. for Nova Scotia
N.B. for New Brunswick

The information sought for in this census relates solely (with the exception of the returns of population and deaths) to the amount of property held at the time for taking the census, and to the total amount of products of the last twelve months before such taking. Each family, so far as the census is concerned, is therefore to appear in the capacity of a holder of property, or of a producer, or in both capacities; and as regards production, the quantities given are to comprise the grand quantity produced, whether consumed by the producer himself, sold, exported, or still on hand.

A few examples may illustrate this rule: - A farmer reports having grown a total of 500 bushels of wheat, of which he has consumed 100 bushels, sold 200 bushels, and has still in hand 200 bushels. The whole 500 bushels must be set down in the census, because he is not here to appear as a consumer, a vendor, or a storeman, but simply as a producer. The merchant who may have purchased the 200 bushels, has nothing to enter in the census for this, but if he is, at the same time, a farmer, and has grown 300 bushels, he is to report such 300 bushels, as being the producer of them.

A manufacturer has manufactured, during the last twelve months, 10,000 yards of cloth. He is to enter 10,000 yards; no matter what quantity he has sold, or what quantity he has in stock.

A storekeeper has nothing to enter in any of these schedules as a purchaser or vendor, any more than a forwarder has to enter the goods which he has transported; but if a storekeeper has produced anything, either as a farmer, or manufacturer, or otherwise, he is to give the quantities thus produced by him, quite irrespective of anything that has passed through his hands as a dealer in products.

In every case, in the information relating to products or property (with the exception of real estate and ownership of shipping) the quantities must be ascertained and recorded on the spot where they are found or have been extracted, raised, or manufactured; with a reference to the name of the informant, in Schedule No. 1, whether such informant be the proprietor or producer himself, or his representative or employee.

The initiatory filling up of the blanks at the head of each of the nine schedules left for indication of the several Provinces, districts and sub-districts, is to be done by the commissioner; and the continuation of this process, by the enumerator. The name of the enumerator is to be written on the first page of the first schedule of each set, by the commissioner.

The paging of each book of schedules is to be continuous, without any interruption or interpolation, and without any double paging.

Both the commissioners and enumerators are required to return every sheet of the working schedules, whether filled or not, and whether spoiled or not.

The original schedules must be returned to the Department; and no copy of them is to be made.

Any deviation from these rules will be presumption of error.

The commissioners and enumerators, in the transmission and use of schedules, are to take all necessary measures to protect them against inclemency of the weather, or from any kind of injury, or from any alteration, interference, or inspection, by any other than the proper officers.
When two or more enumerators are appointed for one sub-district, the commissioner will distinguish the separate portions of these sub-districts, as Division 1, Division 2 and in his final report he will give a topographical description of each. When, on the contrary, on enumerator is appointed for two sub-districts, separate sets of schedules are to be prepared for him; one set for each sub-district.

The date of each day's enumeration is to be entered by the enumerator on the last line filled of Schedule No. 1, opposite the last name registered and only at the end of the day; and each such record is to be signed by the enumerator, as per specimen schedule.

Chapter 5

Directions concerning the separate schedules

Schedule no. 1

Nominal Return of the Living

This schedule refers to The Living, and will contain the actual population, registered name by name, family by family, taken from house to house. The population is to be recorded as it will exist on the 2nd day of April, 1871.

Column 1. Every vessel being the abode and domicile of a family, or on board which there may happen to be any person or persons belonging to our population; not having a domicile on shore, or not forming part of any family having a domicile on shore, is to be registered in this column. When registering a vessel as a domicile, it must be ascertained that it has not been previously registered elsewhere. Every vessel is to be numbered in this column in the order of visitation, as shown in specimen schedule, from 1 to the last vessel so met in the enumerator's sub-district, in consecutive series. If, however, the enumerator is entrusted with the taking of two sub-districts, he is required to act the part of two distinct enumerators, as hereinbefore explained.

Column 2. In this column are to be numbered, in the same manner, all dwellings of a temporary character, only inhabited for a part of the year, such as lumbering shanties, Public Works shanties, fishermen's huts, Indian wigwams.

Column 3 and 4 are to record the houses in construction, and those uninhabited, as they are met with, - without reference to the names recorded; as well be seen in perusing the specimen schedules. If houses in construction, or uninhabited, are met with in rows, as is often the case in towns, then the recording is to be written by giving the number in the row, 2 or 5, as the case may be; when met with singly by the number 1.

Column 5. Dwelling-houses inhabited are to be numbered in this column, in order of visitation, in consecutive series, from the beginning to the end of each enumerator's division.
There may be several families in the same house; but the house, would, nevertheless, only constitute one house, as shown in the specimen schedule.

A separate house is to be counted, whenever the entrance from the outside is separate, and there is no direct and constant communication in the inside, to make it one.

Column 6. Every family is to be numbered in this column in the order of visitation, in consecutive series, as illustrated in the specimen schedule.

Column 7. The names of every living person, belonging to each family (according to the rules hereinbefore laid down) are to be entered in full, in the following manner, and as shown in the specimen schedule:-

Jones William
Jones Mary

The family name being first given, and then the Christian name.

Column 8. The sex is inscribed in this column, by inserting the letter M for masculine, and F for feminine.

Column 9. The filling of this column needs no explanation, except in the case of infants under one year; when the number of months is to be recorded in fractions, thus: 1/12, 2/12, 8/12, and up to 11/12, as shown in specimen schedule.

Column 10. Infants born within the last twelve months, and still alive, whose names are entered in the seventh column of this schedule, must be recorded in this column. The entry is made by inserting the month of birth as before directed herein, and shown in specimen schedule.

Column 11 explains itself; and the entry must be made by writing such information as "England," "France," "Germany," "O.," "N.S.," as the case may be.

Column 12. In writing down the religion, the enumerator must be very careful to enter the information given by the person questioned, with precision; and to be sure that the denomination is well defined, especially when making use of abbreviations, such, for instance, as shown in the specimen schedule.

There are separate religious denominations bearing nearly the same names, and it is not only desirable but necessary that they should be carefully distinguished in this column. The enumerators will, therefore, be careful when writing down the information, to do so in a manner to show clearly the result desired.

In thus recording the religious denominations, it will in many cases, be necessary to make use of abbreviations to save space; but in doing so the principal or key word should be sufficiently written, as: -

C. Presb for Canada Presbyterian Church
R. Presb for Reformed Presbyterian
W. Meth for Wesleyan Methodist
Meth. N.C. for Methodist New Connexion
I. Meth. E. for Independent Methodist Episcopal
F.W.C.Bapt. for Free-Will Christian Baptist

And so on for other denominations which may be designated by a title too long to be recorded in full.

Column 13. Origin is to be scrupulously entered, as given by the person questioned; in the manner shown in the specimen schedule, by the worlds English, Irish, Scotch, African, Indian, German, French, and so forth.

Column 14. The profession, trade, or occupation, must be entered in full, as given. When two of these are united in one person, both may or may not be given; the point being decided by the importance attached to the fact by the person himself. When sons follow the professions or occupations of their fathers, and are associated with them, the same descriptions it to be inserted. For instance, a farmer's son, working on his father's farm, is a farmer; a carpenter's son, in the same way, a carpenter; and so other young men, when studying professions, are to be inscribed as, Medical Student, Law Student; and when apprenticed to trades, are to be entered in a similar way. Young men at colleges, but no school children, are to be entered as students.

In the case of women, unless they have a definite occupation besides their share in the work of the family or household, the column is to be filled with the sign - ; as also in the case of children. If they have a special occupation, such as a seamstress, clerk, factory hand, then if should be entered accordingly.

Column 15. The information is to be recorded by using the letter M for married, W for widows, and the sign -- for all others, including children.

Column 16, it to record marriages during the last twelve months, by inserting the month, in the manner before described, and as shown in the specimen schedule. With very few exceptions, this entry will be double each time, the married couple being together; and the sign " may be written for the wife, as shown in the specimen schedule.

Columns 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22, are sufficiently explained by their headings; and the entries therein are to be made by the sign 1.

The heading "unsound mind" is intended to include all those unfortunates who are plainly deprived of reason. As the enquiry on this head may be for many persons very painful, the enumerator, if he is acquainted with the fact beforehand, must approach it with great delicacy, taking care, however, not to omit the entry of any such case. No attempt is made to distinguish between the various maladies affecting the intellect; as experience proves that the result of such enquiries made under such circumstances is perfectly worthless.

Column 23. In this column is to be entered any remark which maybe be found necessary; but in general, enumerators should not have resort to explanations, unless in special cases. This column is also to receive the date of each day's operations, as hereinbefore explained.

Schedule no. 2

Return of Deaths

This schedule of the Deaths of the twelve months ending the 2nd of April, 1871, is rendered necessary from the absence, in the largest part of the Dominion, of other returns. The enumerator must be very particular in enquiring of every family whether any death has occurred in it during the last twelve months, never failing to explain that deaths of newly-born infants are to be given, as well as all other deaths whatever.

The necessity for extreme care and attention, and even of searching industry, on the part of the enumerator, as regards the schedule of deaths, cannot be too strongly impressed. The ratio of deaths is a most important test of the accuracy of statistical returns of population.

The enumerators are not required to put questions for every column in this schedule (No. 2), unless the answer to the general question: "Has any Death occurred in this family or house during the last twelve months?" is in the affirmative; as shown in the filling of specimen schedule No. 2, in connection with No. 1.

Columns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. The answers are to be entered here in the same manner, as the corresponding answers in Schedule No. 1 of the living.

It may be well to explain, that columns 4 and 9 concerning the births of infants who have died during the last twelve months, and persons who have both married and died during the last twelve months, are necessary to make up, with the analogous columns in Schedule No. 1, the total number of births, and the total number of persons who married during the same period.

Column 11. When the death has been caused by accident, or such well-known diseases as small-pox, consumption, senile debility, there is no difficulty in ascertaining the fact. But, in many cases, it is very difficult to give a definite account of the disease causing death. The enumerators are to do their best however, to ascertain it, without losing too much time in doing so; and without any attempt to enter into any theoretical medical classification. In every case, the entry should be as short as possible, and general in its bearing. Such entries for instance, as "disease of the heart," "disease of the brain," "disease of the bowel," may suffice, in the absence of more definite information from a medical source. When there is nothing certain about the disease, it is better to enter the sign - , the meaning of which will be, in this instance, "not ascertained."

Column 12. This column need not be filled by any entry, unless there is something to note, of special interest, or some particular explanation to be made, as exemplified in the specimen schedule.

Schedule no. 3

Public Institutions, Real Estate, Vehicles and Implements

This schedule has two objects, which are brought together for the sake of saving space and time. One is to record facts connected with the public institutions of the country; the other is, to set forth the fact of the distribution of property, real of personal, amongst the population. The schedule is divided into four sub-titles, namely: - "Reference to Schedule No. 1," "Public Institutions," "Real Estate," and "Vehicles and Implements."

Columns 1 and 2. These columns are for reference by page and number or line; to Schedule No. 1, in order to save repetition of the names therein written.

Taking for illustration, the first entry in them, "Page 1, Number 1," refers back to William Jones, the first name entered on page 1 of Schedule No. 1. The personal particulars respecting him are given after the entry of his name in that Schedule. From Schedule No. 3 we learn further, that he is owner of 200 acres of land, of 1 dwelling house, 2 barns, 2 carriages. The second entry in the same columns, referring to the same entry in Schedule No. 1, carries us back to the same William Jones. It is, however, an entry relative to a "Methodist Episcopal Church." Mr. Jones is described as an Episcopal Methodist in Schedule No. 1; and as being the nearest person met with, belonging to the church in question, he gives the particulars respecting it, which are entered in this schedule (No. 3); namely, that the church is a single building, having no inmates, and with 3 acres of land attached to it. For this description his name is only referred to for authentication of his statement.

Taking another case: - The fifth entry in Schedule No. 3, relative to a "Common School" refers to page 1, number 15, of Schedule No.1, where we find the name of Lucinda Biddell, a schoolmistress, who has no home of her own, and lives with Charles Russell, a hotel and store keeper. The reference to her name is to authenticate the particulars given by her respecting that school, she being the nearest person of authority in it with whom the enumerator happens to meet.

Taking again another instance:- The twelfth and thirteenth entries in Schedule No. 3 refer back to Francis Ellis, the fourteenth name on page 2 of Schedule No. 1. We find there that his occupation is that of a General Manager. In Schedule No. 3, entry No. 12, he answers for himself as a proprietor of three town lots. In entry 13 of the same schedule, he answers for the "Coal Mining and Navigation Company," of which he is the Manager, to authenticate the information given respecting it. It has 10 buildings, in which there are 20 inmates; it owns 2,000 acres of land.

All the references to Schedule No. 1, in columns Nos. 1 and 2, are made in the same way, throughout the whole of the six schedules in which they occur; and they will appear very plain if traced throughout the specimen schedules by the aid of the above explanation.

Columns 3, 4, and 5 relate exclusively to public institutions, and are to be passed over by making the sign --, whenever the information to be entered refers to individuals, as exemplified in Specimen Schedule.

Column 3. There are to be entered in this column all institutions of a public character, such as churches, convents, universities, colleges, academies, schools of all sorts, public and private, asylums, refuges, hospitals, charitable and benevolent institutions of all sorts, prisons and other penal institutions; as also institutions of a commercial characters, such as banks, and other joint stock companies. These and all other institutions, relate to this schedule, and are to be registered in it by the enumerator of the sub-district or division where they happen to be; and whenever such institution is attached to or dependent on any religious denomination, mention is to be made of the fact in the manner pointed out in the specimen schedule.

Whenever an enumerator meets, within his division, with a church, a school, or any other building belong to an institution, but at the time having no one residing in it, he must make inquiry, and get the information required, from the best and nearest informant, referring to such informant by entering his page and number, as already directed.

Column 4. The number of buildings immediately attached to the institution is here to be recorded. For instance, if a church has a parsonage connected with it, this fact is to be recorded by inserting the figure 2; if an education institution has separate buildings, by the figure 3; as shown in the specimen schedule.

Column 5. The number of inmates mentioned in the heading of this column means the number of persons residing at the time under the roof of the institution, irrespectively of the number who may frequent it during the day time. This head of information is unconnected with the question of permanent domicile of persons, and has not relation to the total number of the population.

The remainder of this schedule relates both to institutions and to individuals; each, of course, having a separate line, as already explained, and as illustrated in the specimen schedule. The addition of these columns is intended to exhibit the grand total of real and personal estate, held within the Dominion, by institutions and individuals.

Column 6. Here is to be entered the total number of acres of land held by the person or institution concerned, no matter where situate in the territory of the Dominion. This, with the remainder of the schedule, is intended to give, as a result, the division of property in Canada, taken as a whole.
For instance, let us suppose the case of a man living in Halifax, owning 1,000 acres of land in each of the four provinces, whether cultivated of uncultivated, the entry must be 4,000.

Columns 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18. The same remark is to be made for the filling of these columns, which are to contain the total amount of the kinds of property mentioned, held by the individual or institution referred to.

All properties belong to the same family are to be entered under one reference to the head of the family; properties of minors or orphans under a reference to the tutor or guardian; undivided properties held in common by several institutions or families by shares, must be recorded in such manner as not to run the risk of omitting or recording twice the same properties.

A careful study of these lines, in connection with the specimen schedule, will make this matter easily understood; though at first it may appear complicated.
The oral instructions of both staff officers and commissioners will aid in mastering some difficulties, and in rendering easy the practical working of this schedule.

Schedule no. 4

Cultivated Lands, Field Products, Plants and Fruits.

In the preceding schedule landed property was entered as connected with ownership, as well by individuals as institutions, irrespectively of situation or actual occupancy; the schedule embracing within the scope of its inquiry all land held in the Dominion. This (No. 4) schedule, on the contrary, refers to land in actual occupancy within the enumerator's division.

This schedule mainly devoted to the ordinary products of the soil, is naturally more crowded than any other of the whole series; but as it will be otherwise generally better understood, and is less complicated, it will be found easy in practical working. Very few of its columns, in fact, require any explanation.

Enumerators must not forget that the products recorded in this schedule may be, and often are, raised by families not engaged in carrying on farming -- say, on patches of land or gardens attached to tenements, even in the middle of large cities. The facts must, therefore, be ascertained in every case, and entered.

The sub-titles inserted in this schedule are simply for the purpose of classification, and to show the order adopted.

Columns 1 and 2, are for the usual reference to Schedule No. 1.

Columns 3 and 4, cannot always be filled; on account of absence, in some instances, of the land-marks and indication mentioned. Where such marks and indication exist, however, they are to be carefully recorded.

In the Province of Quebec, the ranges and concessions are sometimes recognized by a name instead of a number. In such cases, the indication may be given by writing lengthwise the name, such as "Cote St. Antoine," "Rang Beausejour, etc.," from the first line where it commences to that where it ends.

Column 5. In this is to be entered the capacity in which the person occupying the property holds it. If owner put the letter "O" (whether such proprietor is an individual or a company); if tenant, the letter "T"; and if an employee of the proprietor, the letter "E."

Column 6. In this column is to be entered the number of acres of land which the enumerator finds occupied in his division. In the preceding schedule he had to ask the total number of acres each informant holds in the whole Dominion; but in this, he must be careful to ask, not for the whole number of acres held, but for those only actually occupied within his division. For instance, his informant might own 2,000 acres of land in various parts of the Dominion, and yet only occupy 100 acres within the division; these alone would be entered in this schedule.

Column 7. The number of acres improved, means that portion of land on which some work of measurable importance has been done, such as, for instance, underbrushing or chopping trees, or breaking up marshes, meadows, pastures or plains.

Column 8 explains itself.

Column 9, refers to very valuable land in the Provinces of Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, a great part of which has been redeemed from the sea by dikes.

Column 10 refers to gardens and orchards. Under this latter term is comprehended any plantation of fruit trees. In recording the land in this column no fractional parts of an acre are to be written, except ¼, ½, or ¾, whether the quantity is over or under one acre.

Columns 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, and 26. These column need no special explanation. In the French Districts of the Province of Quebec, where the arpent is used instead of the acre, and the minot instead of the bushel, the enumerator is simply required to enter the quantity given by the informant, the reduction will be made in the compiling.

Column 27. The recording likewise of the hay crop either by tons, or by bundles of 16lbs, is allowed, as it was on previous occasions of taking the census in the former Province of Canada. The quantities given will always indicate to the compiler the mode of reckoning; and the reduction will be made in the Department. It is a matter of paramount importance, as well for economy of time as for securing accuracy, to avoid leaving any calculations to be made by the enumerators when it can possibly be avoided.

Columns 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, and 36, need no special remark.

Schedule no. 5

Live Stock, Animal Products, Home-Made Fabrics and Furs

Columns 1 and 2, contain the same references to Schedule No. 1, as in previous schedules.

The remainder of this schedule is so clear and definite that there is no need of any special explanation for any of the 32 columns therein contained. Of all the information called for in a census, that which is the subject of this schedule, is on the whole, the easiest to obtain and the easiest to record.

The following remarks, however, may be made: - The homemade cheese, mentioned in column 15, is here entered as in contradistinction to cheese made in cheese manufacturing establishments, which is to be entered in Schedule No. 6. In the same way home-made fabrics are to be kept distinct from those made in cloth and linen factories. As regards column 18, it must be remembered that cloth and flannel are to include blankets, shawls, etc., and all other such articles reckoned by the yard.

Schedule no. 6

Industrial Establishments

This schedule is one of the three, of which it is not required that all the questions be put to every head of family; or negative answers recorded.
There is in it, moreover, no reference to Schedule No. 1; the proprietor's or company's name being here entered with the name of establishment in column 1. Entries in this schedule are only to be made when an Industrial Establishment of some kind is met with but the enumerator is required to ask whether such does or does not exist, at every visit he makes.

An industrial establishment is a place where one or several persons are employed in manufacturing, altering, making up, or changing from one shape into another, materials for sale, use, or consumption, quite irrespectively of the amount of capital employed or of the products turned out.

A lime kiln, a cheese factory, a brick-yard, a ship-building yard, a grinding-stone factory, a sulphuric acid manufactory, a saw mill, a marble cutter's shed, a wheel factory, a pottery, a foundry, a meat-curing or "packing" establishment, an establishment to manufacture copper regulus or purify plumbago, a cloth manufactory, a carding mill, a grist mill, a planning and dove-tailing mill, a sash factory, as well as a shoe-making, harness-making, dress-making, tailor's or blacksmith's shop, or carpenter or joiner's shop, etc., are all industrial establishments. Any establishment, we repeat, where materials are manufactured made up, changed or altered from one form into another, for sale, use, or consumption, is an industrial establishment. All repairs, mending, or custom work, are understood to be industrial products; and are to be entered accordingly, by value, in the returns of industrial establishments. It must be well understood that hands employed on hire in such industrial establishments are not to give the result of their labor separately.

The returns of industrial establishments are to be recorded in the district, sub-district, and division where the enumerator finds the establishment, and nowhere else. This principle is essential in every case. The production is attached to the locality.

It matters not whether the raw material is in the ownership of the manufacturer or not, whether it is transformed on account of one or another person, whether the working is a profitable or losing business; the information required is the result from the establishment, so far as requested. For instance, a saw mill may saw logs and other lumber for a great number of persons; the working may cost more than the returns bring to the owner; but nevertheless, the amount of raw material has changed form, and so much value has been added to it; and this is the fact to be recorded.

All entries in columns 2, 3, 9, 14, and 17 are to be made in dollars ($). The number of people employed may be made up exclusively with members of the family of the proprietor; in other places the proprietor and family may not form part of the people employed. In many instances, the raw materials, or articles manufactured, are of such a multifarious character that they must be lumped together, and entered by the value. All these circumstances are illustrated in Specimen Schedule No. 6, pages 1 and 2. The work quintal (Q) made use of means 112 lbs; the word toise about 20 horse loads or 10 team loads of common stone; the words, board measurement, so many superficial feet of sawed lumber one inch thick; 1,000 feet being equal to what is called in some parts one hundred boards.

Apart from these general remarks, this schedule does not require any special explanations; every heading being in itself sufficiently explicit, and the practical working being illustrated in the Specimen Schedule.

Schedule no. 7

Products of the Forest

This schedule relates to the products of the forest, in the state in which they are got out simply, and must not be confounded with returns of saw mills, ship-building yards, or other industrial establishments; the returns of which, with their raw material, are to be entered in Schedule No. 6.

The reason of this is obvious, and applies equally to products of farms, as to products of the forest. In the same way that pounds of wool are to be recorded as articles produced in the district of their production, so must lumber of the forest be, no matter what transformation it may afterwards under, or how many miles away from the place of growth it may be taken, and irrespectively of its being also recorded in part as the raw material of industrial establishments.

Part of the products recorded in this schedule will be of course, entered as part of the raw material of different industrial establishments; but in these they do not appear as products, but as raw material, to which value is added by the process of manufacture.
In this schedule is to be recorded the total quantity of forest products got out, and where got out; notwithstanding that part of them have been consumed or made use of on the spot, or whether they have been sold, or are still on hand.

The quantities here to be recorded must be taken in the census district, and on the spot where they were produced, and not at the distant office of the merchant who may happen to have furnished the capital or engaged the men to do the work. The information is to be had from the farmer who hauled the lumber; or from the contractor or foreman in shanties, on the spot.

Columns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 require no special explanation; although they may give some labor to the enumerator in obtaining the information.

Care must be taken that everything be recorded without diminution or exaggeration, always explaining that the quantities employed on the spot for the use of the producer himself are to be taken, as well as those still on hand.

Columns 13 and 14. The method of counting logs in different localities of the Dominion presents so great a variety, that it has been found necessary to adopt a Census Standard for Registering this important product.

The Census Standard is made equal to 100 superficial feet of sawed lumber, commonly called board measurement (B.M.); in other words, the standard is to count one log for every 100 feet of board measurement; which is equal to half the standard adopted by the Department of Crown Lands of the Province of Ontario; equal to ten pieces of boards as counted in Quebec and parts of the United States; and equal to the tenth part of the 1,000 feet by which logs are counted in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

The enumerator is therefore to count two logs for every Crown Land Stardard, as adopted in the Province of Ontario; ten logs for every quantity capable of producing 100 boards in Quebec; and ten logs for every quantity capable of producing 1,000 feet of lumber in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

Columns 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. These columns require no explanation; further than to remind the census officers that the quantities consumed or employed by the producer himself are to be counted as an essential part of the aggregate to be recorded; which, in all cases, is to comprise the total haul or quantities extracted.

Schedule no. 8

Shipping and Fisheries

This schedule is perhaps the most intricate of the whole series. Consequently, the census officers cannot take too much care in studying it beforehand, as well in the Manual as in the Specimen Schedule. It is divided into two sub-titles "Shipping" and "Fisheries."

Columns 1 and 2, are for the same purposes of reference to Schedule No. 1, as explained in the notes on other schedules.

In the cases very numerous indeed, in which the person referred to in these columns is interested only in part of this schedule, the remainder of the columns are as regards him, to be filled with the sign - , according to the general rule given.

Columns 3, 4, 5, and 6, are all to the same effect. The explanations required are therefore applicable to the four.

The columns headed "Number of Shares" are intended to exhibit the number of Canadian ship owners in each place, each one being referred to as named in Schedule No. 1. These columns are intended to enable the compiler of the returns to give at the same time the number of vessels owned in the Dominion.

The ownership of shipping is to be recorded by shares, in accordance with the principle laid down in the "Merchant Shipping Act," each ship being equal to 64 shares; so that when compiling the census the total number of vessels will be ascertained by dividing the total number of shares by 64.

It is needless to add, however, that whenever one or more ships are owned wholly by one person, or one institution or company (as illustrated in Specimen Schedule), the number to inscribe will be 64 for one, and as many times 64 as there are ships so owned; and that, in cases where parts of one or more ships are owned, the total number of shares so owned is to be recorded by figures representing the aggregate number of shares.

There will be no difficulty in recording by shares in this way, whenever the requirements of the "Merchant Shipping Act" have been complied with; but some instructions are necessary for the direction of the census officers, in the very numerous cases in which partnership in vessels is reckoned by fractions of the unit 1. In these cases, the officer is to reduce the fractions to shares. For example, a ¼ of a ship is to be recorded by the figures 16, ½ by 32; and so on.

The tonnage to be recorded here is not the tonnage of any given ship, but the aggregate tonnage of the shares owned by the party referred to. For example, the tonnage of a ship owner who has 32 shares of a ship of 1,000 tons is 500, which figure is to be entered in the column of tonnage.

In cases of persons answering for institutions or companies, and being besides themselves ship owners, the entries are to be made on two lines as explained in reference to real estate in Schedule No. 3.

Columns 7 and 8. In these columns it is merely the actual number of barges which is to be recorded; any fractional owner-ship having to be entered as ¼, ½, or ¾. This mode of reckoning relates to barges, including trading scows, canal boats, and other such vessels or bad ante fishing snacks and boats -- except pleasure and common private boats not employed in trade or fishing which are recorded in Schedule No. 3.

In the cases of shipping companies, such as the Richelieu Company, for instance, of which the members are not, properly speaking ship owners, but simply stock holders of a joint-stock company. The total amount of shipping is to be recorded in the enumerator's division in which is located the head office of the company, taking care to make a note in the column of remarks.

Columns 9, 10, 11, and 12. In these columns are to be entered the actual number of vessels and boats employed in fishing; irrespectively of the entry of such vessels or boats in the columns of shipping and irrespectively of ownership.

For instance, a vessel owned by A.B., who does not carry on any fishing is entered in this schedule, as owned by the said A.B. but the same vessel is chartered to C.D., who employs it in fishing. This vessel is, therefore, to be inscribed again in column 9 on the line referring to C.D. by the mark 1 and in column 10, is to be entered the figure representing the number of the vessel's crew.

Column 13. This column is to be filled by the number of fishermen known on the coast as graviers or shoremen, as distinguished in fishing establishments from the line or outgoing men.

Columns 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, and 33, do not require any special observation; the headings being of themselves almost all that can be said. The remarks to be made are of a general character: -
The different varieties of fish, except cod, haddock, hake, and Pollack, are to be recorded in barrels; each equal to a capacity of two bushels-and-a-half, or an average weight of 200lbs.

The variety of measures adopted in different parts of the Dominion from the Gulf and Lower St. Lawrence Fisheries to the Great Western Lakes, is such that it becomes an absolute necessity to adopt a census standard; and the quantities of fish taken are such as to render it equally necessary to avoid a small standard, the adoption of which would bring out lines of figures of enormous amount for no reasonable purpose.
The enumerators, therefore, must be prepared beforehand, to make a quick reduction of the special measures employed for each kind of fish in their respective localities, into this census standard barrel measure.

It must be well kept in mind by the census officers, that the quantities to be recorded are to comprise the whole catch; no matter how made, in boats or vessels, or without either, in fascines, or weir standing fisheries, or by the hook of otherwise; and whether for home consumption, for sale, for bait, or for manure.

There are on the coast very many instances of two or more fishermen working together as associates "on slaves." In these eases, while the enumerator sees that the whole catch is recorded, be must be careful that it is not recorded twice.

In the shipping and fishing districts considerable judgment will be required on the part of the enumerators as well as knowledge of circumstances of their localities: to avoid omissions as well as double entries.

Schedule no. 9

Mineral Products

This schedule is the last of the series, and the last of the three, of which it is not necessary to read over the whole of the headings of columns at every house; the two others partaking of this partial exemption being No. 3 and No. 6. But in putting the general question (in no case to be omitted) whether there are any mineral products to record, care should be taken to add, that peat fuel, and the quarrying of gypsum, phosphate of lime, marble and other stones for dressing are among the subjects to be enquired of in this schedule. In it, in the same way as in the analogous case in Schedule No. 6, it must be remembered that it may be necessary to record the operations, carry on gold or other mining or quarrying.

No special explanations are required for the working of this schedule; but it may be marked that the standards adopted for columns 5, 6, and 7, are purely arbitrary, and adopted simply because they seem to be the easiest to compute, and the nearest to an average, everything being considered. For example: say quantity of iron ore capable of producing 1,000 tons of metallic iron is to be entered as 4,000 tons of ore extracted, irrespectively of the bulk or weight of the matter extracted.

It is hardly necessary to explain, that this schedule relates exclusively to the extraction of mineral products and does not in any way refer to the quantity manufactured into any article of use or consumption; such transformation of raw products being the subject of entries in Schedule No. 6, relating to industrial or manufacturing establishments.

Concluding Remarks

The instructions and directions contained in this Manual, and in all circulars, emanating from the Department are to be strictly adhered to by all officers employed in the taking of the census. There may arise special cases requiring to be specially dealt with by particular instructions addressed to the officers concerned; but no officer is to take anything of this kind of granted. In other words, every officer is bound to discharge his duties in accordance with the directions contained in this Manual unless he can show distinct orders, emanating from the Department authorizing deviation therefrom.