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Botswana Population and Housing Census-2011

Enumerator's Manual

[Table of contents omitted]

Part 1: Organizational matters

A. Introduction

1. A Population and Housing Census is more than just a count of the country's population. It also collects information on various demographic, social, and economic facts about the people who live in Botswana.

2. A census is held in order to provide information, which is essential, for development planning, policy making, and administrative decisions. It is therefore of greatest importance to every person in the country.

3. The census is explained in the leaflet "Guide to the Census".

B. Census Organization

4. The Government Statistician, as the head of the Central Statistics Office, is responsible to the Government for the conduct of the census. In order to facilitate the operations of census activities, a Census Office has been set up with a National Census Coordinator (NCC) in charge. The NCC is directly responsible to the Government Statistician. The District Commissioner has the legal authority in the co-ordination of all government activities in the district, the NCC therefore operates through him/her; but for the day-to-day co-ordination of census activities in the district, District Census Officers (DCOs) have been appointed to assist the District Commissioner. Representing the NCC in each District will be a Technical Officer (TO). The TOs will assist the DCOs on all technical matters relating to the census.

5. The supervisor is your immediate superior in the census organization. His/her job is to help you do your work efficiently, to assist you in case of difficulty and to make certain checks designed to ensure that your work is accurate. He/she will be required to report on your work before you are paid.

6. For the purpose of census operations, the country has been divided into Census Districts, which are roughly equivalent to the Administrative Districts, Sub-Districts, or their subdivisions. District Census Officers (with the assistance of TOs) are in charge of census operations in the Census Districts. The Census Districts are in turn divided into Enumeration Areas (EAs). Each EA is the responsibility of an enumerator who is required to visit every lolwapa / dwelling and to obtain and record the information required of all persons and households in it.

C. Aim of the census

7. The aim of the census is to determine the number of persons and certain characteristics of every person in Botswana. Since this cannot be done in one day, the census period will be from the 22nd August to 31st August 2011. In the remote areas of the country, the period may be longer due to difficult terrain and long distances. During this period we must enumerate everyone living in Botswana - young and old, citizen and non-citizen, resident and visitor.

D. Your job as an enumerator

8. Your job is to visit each and every lolwapa/dwelling in the area you have been allocated, to ask the questions, and record the answers. It is the most important single job in the census. You must make every effort to obtain complete and accurate answers and to record them carefully and correctly. The success of the census depends upon the public's willingness to co-operate, and it is your job to obtain this by always being polite, patient, and tactful.

9. The information you collect is confidential, and will be used only for the purpose of compiling statistics. You are not permitted to disclose any census data to anyone who is not a census officer, nor should you leave it where any unauthorized person may have access to it. On no account must you allow any unauthorized person to fill in any part of the census questionnaire. No information on an individual person or household will be published or passed on to any other government department or to anyone other than census officers. As a result, avoid interviewing the respondent in the presence of other people whose presence may influence the respondent's answers.

10. The Census Act (CAP 17:02) of the Laws of Botswana provides for severe penalties against any census officer who is found guilty of improper conduct. The relevant section of the Act reads as follows:

"Any census officer who:

Without sufficient cause refuses of neglects to act as such or to use reasonable diligence and care in performing any duty imposed upon him,

[a] Willfully puts and offensive or improper question or knowingly makes any false return,
[b] Asks, receives, or takes from any person otherwise than an authorized officer of the Government any payment or reward.
[d] Divulges any information obtained during the performance of his/her duty as a census officer,
Shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable to a fine of four hundred Pula or to imprisonment for twelve months or to both."
In undertaking the work of an enumerator, you have become a census officer and these provisions apply to you.

E. Conclusion

11. The population and Housing Census is a national undertaking of great importance to Botswana. Without the willing help of the public it cannot succeed, nor can it succeed without good enumerators who will do their job with care and a sense of responsibility. It is your job to make sure that the census succeeds.

12. By undertaking the work as an enumerator, you are contributing to the development of Botswana, and it is work of which you can be proud of.

Part 2: Definitions of terms and concepts

A. Enumeration area

13. An Enumeration area (EA) is the smallest geographic unit, which represents an average workload for an enumerator over a specified period. The average size of an EA is approximately 75-150 malwapa/dwellings in rural areas and 110-220 malwapa/dwellings in urban areas.

14. An EA may be a whole locality (this is the case of a small village which is an EA by itself), a part of a locality (this is the case of a bigger village which has been divided into more than one EA) or a group of localities (this is the case of cattle posts, lands areas or freehold farms).

15. You will be allocated one or more EAs, and you will be responsible for visiting every lolwapa/dwelling in them and recording the information required in respect of every person in the household(s) constituting the lolwapa/dwelling.

16. It is important that you are able to identify an EA assigned to you with the help of a map and the list of names in the control list. Your supervisor will assist you in identifying the EA boundaries.

17. For an EA, which consists of smaller or several localities, the map will be showing the location of the localities in the EA and the number of malwapa/dwellings in each locality.
For the identification of the EA you will depend on:

a. The EA map enclosed in the EA file showing the position of the localities in the EA.

b. The Control Lists which have been prepared for each of the localities [as in page 10].

c. The Census numbers affixed to the malwapa/dwellings.

d. The knowledge of the local people.

18. For an EA which forms a part of a big village, you will also be given a map which will show you the location of the EA relative to adjacent areas in the village. For the identification of the EA you will depend on:

a. The EA map and the map enclosed in the EA file.

b. The Control List--each line of th4e Control List in the EA File shows the name of the head of household or senior person who was living in the lolwapa/dwelling when the mapping took place.

c. The census numbers affixed to the malwapa/dwelling which is usually pinned to dwelling doors.

d. The knowledge of the local people.

19. For an EA in town, the boundaries are identifiable through landmarks like roads and streets which have names and plots which have numbers. In most cases the road/street names and plot numbers are marked on signboards and on the map. These, in addition to the Control List, are to be used for the identification of the EA.

20. EA boundaries are denoted by + + + + + + on the map. In addition, your EA boundaries will be highlighted to distinguish it from other EAs which may appear on your map but which are not assigned to you. Make sure that you know the boundaries of your EA so that you do not leave out some malwapa/dwellings or include those that do not belong to your area. Your supervisor will help you to identify the EA boundary.

B. Locality

21. A locality is defined as any human settlement with a name and identifiable boundaries.

C. Lolwapa / dwelling

22. A lolwapa/dwelling, in its traditional sense, consists of one or more structures or buildings, permanent or temporary, usually surrounded by a fence/wall or something to mark its boundaries. In some areas the huts and/or other structures may not be fenced, but they are usually in very close proximity.

23. Mapping teams have already identified every lolwapa/dwelling in Botswana and, in rural areas, affixed a lolwapa/dwelling number (on a metal plate) to the door of each lolwapa/dwelling. In urban areas the plot number has been used as the lolwapa/dwelling number - and, since the plot number is usually visible, no metal plates have been affixed to urban malwapa/dwellings, except for squatter areas, which normally do not have plot numbers.

24. A lolwapa/dwelling may contain more than one household and it is part of your duty to identify them all. You must not miss any household in your area(s) nor count any household more than once.

25. A lolwapa/dwelling is, actually a target address, which provides access to the household(s). For you not to miss any household in any lolwapa/dwelling in your EA, it is important that you fully understand what a household is.

D. Household

26. A household consists of one or more persons, related or unrelated, living together "under the same roof" in the same lolwapa/dwelling, eating together "from the same pot" and/or making common provision for food and other living arrangements.

27. In some places, particularly in the towns, houses and blocks of flats have servants' quarters built within the same fence or compound. Domestic workers occupying servants' quarters should be enumerated in separate households. There may be other people who are not servants and not part of the main household occupying these quarters; such persons should also be enumerated as separate households. Children or other family members occupying servant's quarters but being part of the household should be treated as part of the household. Domestic servants should always be considered to be separate households irrespective of living arrangement. In the event a maid shares a room with children from the main household, the room should be assigned to the maid since she constitutes a household while the children are part of the main household.

28. In some urban areas, particularly on SHHA plots, rooms are lent out to people for residential purposes. Each tenant unit should be regarded as a separate household. A tenant unit may consist of one or more rooms. In the event that two or more people share a single room, they should be regarded as separate households depending on their eating and budgetary arrangements. In the event of more than one household in a room indicates the situation by code "10= rooms" under type of housing unit (E8).

29. Sometimes two or more persons who are not related to each other share a house or flat. They should be enumerated as a single household, provided they share common budgetary and housekeeping arrangements. Otherwise, they should be enumerated as separate households. In the latter case the sitting room and other rooms that are shared by the two households should be allocated to the first household to avoid double counting them.

30. You should use a separate questionnaire for each household you enumerate.

31. You will enumerate everyone who slept in the lolwapa/dwelling on the night before your visit, according to the households to which they belong. If, on your first visit, you are able to enumerate the household, then this night is called the census night for that household, and all questions should be asked with respect to that night. If you are unable to enumerate the household, you must revisit the household. In such cases, the census night becomes the night before the revisit, if when you revisit you are then able to enumerate.

32. Sometimes there are persons who would normally have slept at the lolwapa/dwelling but who are known to have been absent during the night before your visit (census night) and not to have slept at any other lolwapa/dwelling. Such persons should be enumerated with the households with whom they would normally have spent the night. Probing is necessary to capture such people. Examples of such persons include night watchmen or policemen on night duty; railway staff on the night shift; persons working in hospitals, hotels and prisons throughout the night; hunting parties who slept in the bush; parties away cutting thatch; persons at overnight prayer meetings; and persons away at funeral wake keeping. They should not be counted where they are found.

33. Patients in hospitals, persons staying in hotels, prisoners, BDF personnel in barracks (those living communally, like in tents), miners in hostels and people in initiation schools (bogwera le bojale) should be enumerated on Institutional Questionnaires that will be provided by the supervisor. However, people living in houses in institutional compounds should be enumerated on Household Questionnaires, e.g. doctors in hospitals, teachers in schools, police officers, some army officers, etc. Persons staying in work camps should be enumerated on household questionnaires if they make their own arrangements for food; if they eat communally, then they should be enumerated on institutional questionnaires.

34. A person who died before 6 o'clock in the morning of the day of your visit should note be enumerated with the household in part A. Particulars of such persons must be recorded in Part D of the questionnaire (deaths). If a person died after 6 o'clock in the morning, he/she will be recorded in part A of the questionnaire (information about individual household members), since he/she was alive during the whole of the census night.

35. However, in almost all cases of death just before your visit you would be advised to come back another time. Since, when you revisit, you will be asking for details of persons present in the household the night before your revisit, any person who died just before your first visit will now be included in part D. Do not persist in enumerating the household unless members are willing to be enumerated.

36. There may be occasions when some people say that they have already been enumerated at another lolwapa/dwelling and that they are only visiting the household where you find them. The rule stays the same. If they spent the census night with the household where you find them, you should enumerate them again, and write in the space provided on the questionnaire for comments "Person number ...... enumerated before at ....... (address)."

37. It is possible that a person might object to being counted twice. In that case you should ask his/her name together with the date and place where he/she was enumerated (this should be a last resort). Write this information down in the comments box and report the matter to your supervisor when he/she comes to check your work.

E. Head of household

38. The head of a household is any person, male or female, at least 12 years old, who is regarded by other members of the household as their head. This person may or may not be a blood relative of other members of the household. In exceptional circumstances, if amongst those who spent the night in a household no one is aged 12 years or over, the eldest child will have to be entered as head of household. A comment to this effect should be included in the comments box of the questionnaire.

39. In most cases the head will be either the husband or the wife, in the case of a married couple, but in other cases it may be any responsible or senior person in the household.

40. If the usual head of household is away from home and didn't spend the census night with the household, another responsible or senior person will have to be nominated by members of the household as the head of household from amongst those who did spend the census night in the lolwapa/dwelling. The head of the household must be someone who spent the previous/Census night with the household.

F. Respondent

41. Whoever provides the information is referred to as a respondent and such a person must be 12 years or more and furthermore sufficiently knowledgeable about the household. There may be instances where the head of household spent the census night with the household, but at the time of your visit he/she is not present. You may then ask any member of the household present (aged 12 years or over) for the information required. A respondent need not necessarily be the head of household. Any adult/responsible member of the household who can fully answer questions on behalf of other members of that household can be a respondent. He/she need not to have spent the census night with the household.

42. Sometimes a respondent may be someone who did not spend the census night with the household. You are allowed to ask such a person for information on behalf of members of the household, but this respondent should not be listed with the household. However, if the respondent did spend the census night with the household, he/she should be listed with the household and his/her relationship to the head of household coded accordingly.

G. Housing unit

43. This is defined as the unit of accommodation for a household. It usually consists of a structure(s) of building(s) belonging to a single household.

H. Supervision area

44. This is an area of assignment for a supervisor and is usually made up of 4-5 Enumeration Areas.

Part 3: Preparation for enumeration

A. Your equipment

45. You will be issued with a satchel containing the following:

a. Enumerator's manual (issued during training)

b. 6 Enumeration area (EA) Books

c. An Institutional questionnaire Book (if your EA is known to include an institution)

d. An EA file containing the EA map and Control Lists)

e. Locality coding / country list, Botswana events calendar (issued during training)

f. 3 rolls of printed white adhesive labels

g. 2 rolls of printed orange adhesive labels

h. 2 blue or black pens

i. 1 census badge (not to be returned)

j. 2 census T-shirts (not to be returned)

k. 1 census cap (not to be returned)

You should keep your equipment carefully because at the end of enumeration you will be required to return it (together with the unused materials), and you will not be paid until all these items have been accounted for to your supervisor.

B. The Enumeration area file

For each Enumeration area (EA) assigned to you, there will be an Enumeration Area file which contains the following information and material:

The Front Cover

1. District name and code

2. Enumeration Area code

3. Names and codes of all localities listed in the EA

Inside the File

1. Control List(s)

2. A map of the Enumeration Area

3. Sketch map of the Enumeration Area (where relevant)

This file must be kept safely at all times and must be returned to your supervisor at the end of the census enumeration.

[An example table of the front cover of an EA file omitted.]

C. The control list- General information

46. The Control List has three main functions:

a. It provides you with a reference list of all the malwapa/dwellings in your EA.

b. The "Status" column keeps you (and your supervisor) briefed as to which malwapa/dwellings have not yet been enumerated and why.

c. It provides the total number of persons in the household present and outside Botswana as well as the number of households in a lolwapa/dwelling.

d. After enumeration it is used to summarize the number of households and persons enumerated in the lolwapa/dwelling.

The Control list is therefore a very important document and you must look after it carefully. A copy of the completed Control List appears on the next page.

47. Discussion of the Control list is divided into two parts. Firstly, we look at the use of the Control List as a reference Listing. Then, after the enumeration procedure has been described, we look at how the Control List is used to monitor the enumeration status of the lolwapa/dwelling and to summarize the numbers of households and persons enumerated.

[Example of Control List omitted.]

D. The control list as a reference listing

48. The Control List provides you with a listing of all the malwapa/dwellings that you must visit during the census. A Lolwapa/dwelling/house number identifies each lolwapa/dwelling on the Control List. In rural areas this number will match the number on a metal plate attached to the door of the lolwapa/dwelling. In urban areas the lolwapa/dwelling number will usually be just the plot number. However, if a block of flats (or several institutional staff houses) occupy a single plot, the lolwapa/dwelling number for the different flats/houses on plot 40353 (for example) will be listed in the following way: 40353/1, 40353/2 etc. Also on the Control List is the name of the head of the household (or other senior person) at that lolwapa/dwelling if it was found to be occupied during the mapping work.

49. [Example from Control List table omitted.]

50. The name that appears on the Control List (as household head or senior person) is just to help you identify a lolwapa/dwelling (e.g. in case the metal plate has fallen off or been removed). Once you have located the lolwapa/dwelling you must enumerate the household(s) now living there regardless of whether the person named on the Control List is still a member of the household(s). Every lolwapa/dwelling on the list must be visited even if it was unoccupied or just a bare plot at the time the list was compiled. This is because there may now be someone living at that lolwapa/dwelling.

51. A lolwapa/dwelling may not have a metal plate for various reasons:

a. The lolwapa/dwelling was not numbered during the mapping operation either by mistake or because the lolwapa/dwelling was built after the mapping and did not exist at that time.

b. The residents of the lolwapa/dwelling or other persons may have removed the number.

c. The number affixed to the lolwapa/dwelling door or gate may have been transferred with the door or gate to a different locality.

Only in the first of these three situations should it be necessary to assign a new number to the lolwapa/dwelling, but first you need to ascertain which of these three situations apply.

52. Check the name of the head of household (or other senior person) now living in the lolwapa/dwelling. If either name appears on the Control List you will know that this lolwapa/dwelling has already been numbered. Use the lolwapa/dwelling number that already appears on the Control List and do not assign a new number.

53. If the lolwapa/dwelling has no number and the name of the head or senior person of the lolwapa/dwelling/household does not appear on your Control List, then assume it is a new lolwapa/dwelling and assign the lolwapa/dwelling a number as instructed in paragraph 56.

54. If you find a door or a gate bearing a number, which is totally different from the other numbers affixed to the rest of the malwapa/dwellings in the locality or in the Enumeration Area and from those appearing on your Control List, ignore the number. It is a wrong number. Assign the correct number to the lolwapa/dwelling. You will do this by asking the occupants of the lolwapa/dwelling for the name of the head of household (or other senior person). Check the Control List and if such a name appears, use the lolwapa/dwelling number already assigned. If not, assign a new number as instructed in paragraph 56.

E. Unlisted localities

55. If you find in your EA a locality that has not been listed in your Control List, ascertain the name of the locality. Check with your supervisor that you haven't accidentally strayed into a locality that belongs to an adjacent EA. If your supervisor confirms that it is an unlisted locality within your EA, proceed as follows: On a blank Control List form, enter the Village/District names and codes, EA number, and locality name--but leave the locality code blank. Assign new numbers to all the malwapa/dwellings that you find in this unlisted locality as instructed below in paragraph 56, and carry out the enumeration. Mark in your EA map the approximate location of this unlisted locality (if it is not already mapped) and write the name of the locality next to where you have marked its location. Show it to your supervisor.

F. How to assign new numbers to unnumbered malwapa/dwellings

56. a. If EA is composed of different localities:

In cattle post areas, land areas, and freehold farms (or mixture of these) you EA will mostly consist of more than one locality. For each locality you will assign new numbers to unnumbered malwapa/dwellings independently. That is, for unnumbered malwapa/dwellings in Locality X, you will assign sequentially from 001 to the last unnumbered lolwapa/dwelling preceded by 77, i.e. the first lolwapa/dwelling will be 77001. For unnumbered malwapa/dwellings in Locality Y, you will assign sequentially from 77001 to the last numbered lolwapa/dwelling in that locality. You will follow the same procedure for the rest of the localities in your EA.

b. If EA is a whole locality:

A small village may be a whole EA. If it is, simply assign new numbers sequentially starting with 77001 to the last unnumbered lolwapa/dwelling in that EA.

c. If EA is part of a locality:

In towns and big villages, an EA will be part of the town, village, or ward. As in (b) above, simply assign new numbers sequentially from 77001 onwards.

Enter each new number in the "Lolwapa/dwelling/house number" column of the Control List for that locality. This number is also the lolwapa/dwelling/house number to be entered at the top of every questionnaire. Indicate in the "comments" column of the Control List the location of the unnumbered lolwapa/dwelling, e.g. "between lolwapa/dwelling 120 and 122."

57. Remember a lolwapa/dwelling may contain more that on household, so, before you start enumerating, find out how many separate households live within the lolwapa/dwelling using the definitions of a household as given in paragraph 26 and 27.

Part 4: The enumeration procedure

A. How to approach the public

58. You should wear your census badge and carry your letter of appointment to show that you work for the census. You should at all times be patient and tactful. You should always explain who you are and what you are doing.

59. You should politely request entry into the lolwapa/dwelling, exchange proper greetings, explain what your visit is all about and respond to any questions about the census which members of the lolwapa/dwelling may ask, before you start enumerating. At the end of enumeration, politely thank the people for their cooperation and carefully shut the gate if there are any behind you on leaving the premises.

60. During the enumeration, let people take their time, never put answers into their mouths, work steadily and systematically through the questionnaire and make sure that the answers are clear to you before you write anything down. Do not accept at once an answer if you think it might be wrong. Instead, tactfully ask further questions to obtain the correct answer.

61. If a person refuses to cooperate or answer questions, maintain a courteous manner. Stress the importance of the census, that is has nothing to do with politics or tax collecting, and that the information is treated confidentially. If he/she is still reluctant to help, report the matter to your supervisor as soon as possible.

62. When leaving a household, remember to thank the head and other members for their help.

B. Initial contact with households

63. Your job is very important and to do it properly you will need to be accurate, consistent, and reliable in obtaining and recording the statistical information. To do this you may need to be firm and even persistent. But at the same time you must be polite, tactful, and courteous. Remember that you are representing the Government of Botswana. Your attitude and conduct must therefore be exemplary at all times.

64. The standards of rules of interviewing are simple and based on common sense and courtesy. You should ensure that you follow them at all times.

Your first meeting with a household in your EA is very important if you are to obtain the assistance and co-operation required. When you introduce yourself you should say:

a. Who you are.

b. Who you represent.

c. Assure the respondent of the confidentiality of the responses form the interview.

d. Briefly explain the sort of information you require and how you will be collecting this information. For instance, if you introduce yourself in English your opening remarks may be along the following lines:

[Table omitted.]

65. At your first meeting you must first establish how many separate households are living at the dwelling. Usually it will be one household per dwelling--but not always. So you must clearly understand the definition of a household. For the purpose of this census, the household will be as defined in paragraph 26. To recap, a household is to be defined as follows:

a. A single person who forms an independent economic unit.

or

b. Two or more people living together in the dwelling who share the same eating and cooking facilities and who contributes whenever they can to the household income.

C. Interviewing techniques

66. You should be courteous but business-like, never demanding or rude. Always act in a way that commands respect and co-operation form the respondent. You will find your work more pleasant if you remain polite and friendly to all persons at all times.

67. In order to relax the respondent, you may need to spend a few moments in polite talk, but you should never engage in complex or controversial discussions that are irrelevant to the Census.

68. If the respondent is in the company of other persons, you should suggest that the interview be held privately or offer to return later. If the respondent is willing to be interviewed in front of other persons, you may proceed with the interview--but be mindful of the possibility that in such a situation the respondent may provide incorrect information.

69. During the various interviews you will be asking questions that have been carefully worded. Study these questions and your manual beforehand to make sure that you understand and can ask the set of questions in a natural way.

70. Occasionally the respondent might not be able to provide an exact answer. Then it will be your responsibility, as an enumerator, to obtain the best possible answer from the respondent. Do not put words into the respondent's mouth or try to lead the respondent. "I don't know" is the most common response requiring probing. In such cases, ask the respondent to give you his/her best estimate.

71. If an answer falls into a category called "other (specify)," then briefly describe the circumstances in the space provided.

72. As the interview proceeds, there is a danger that you and/or the household may become tired or careless. You may forget some of these important points on interviewing conduct and technique and the household may become less willing to co-operate towards the end of the interview. Do your best to overcome these possible pitfalls.

73. No person except your Supervisor or other authorized officials should come with you when you interview. If your Supervisor does accompany you, you should introduce him and continue the interview.

74. Do not attempt to obtain household information from children, unless parents/guardians or other responsible members of the household are absent. Husbands and wives may supply information about each other and their children and close relatives if absent. If a husband or wife wishes to provide data separately from their spouse you must accommodate their request.

75. If there is a language difficulty and the children are able to act as interpreters then this is acceptable. But don't ask children directly for any of the required data.

76. Remember that your job is full-time. You may have to adjust working hours to the time that you are likely to find people at home. This may mean making call-backs in the early morning or late evening or perhaps visiting the individual at his/her place of work with their consent.

77. Since this is a full-time job, you are not permitted to combine your job with private, political, church, or community business. Furthermore, activities of this type may affect the responses that people give and would bias census results. You will be expected to conduct interviews during the weekends. You will be expected to suspend your private weekend activities for the duration of the census.

78. As mentioned in paragraph 10 the information you collect is confidential under the Census Act. You have taken an Oath of Secrecy. That is, you have vowed that you will not reveal any census information to anyone except a sworn statistical officer. To make sure that the oath is not broken, follow these rules:

a. Do not discuss with any person (except your supervisor or other authorized officials) any information collected during interview.

b. Do not keep copies of completed questionnaires or any information form the questionnaire. Return all census materials, whether used or unused, to your supervisor.

c. Do not leave questionnaires where others (unauthorized persons) may see them.

d. Do not allow unauthorized persons to accompany you or to assist you with interviewing.

e. Your assignment cannot be delegated to any other person except by your supervisor.

The Statistics Act and the Census Act provides for severe penalties against anybody who is found guilty of improper conduct.

D. Interviewing procedures

79. After exchanging proper greetings, introduce yourself and your work. Briefly, explain what the census is all about and how you are going to ask the questions.

a. Be firm but polite in your manner. Do not involve yourself in an argument, particularly involving politics.

b. During the interview, do not hurry people; let them take their time without necessarily dragging on irrelevant issues.

c. Do not accept at once any answer that appears to be wrong. Politely and tactfully ask further questions to obtain the correct answer.

d. Having satisfactorily completed the interview, thank your respondent and other members for their cooperation and leave.


80. Upon leaving the dwelling, whether or not the gate (if any) was closed when you entered, make sure that it is closed unless asked otherwise by the occupants.

If a person refuses to be interviewed, maintain a courteous manner and try to show them the importance of participating in the census. Assure them of the confidentiality of whatever information you collect from them.

If they still refuse, leave and report the matter immediately to your supervisor.

E. Whom to enumerate

81. You must enumerate everyone in your enumeration area. You will do this by visiting every lolwapa/dwelling in the area and enumerating every household. You will enumerate every person in the household who spent the census night in that lolwapa/dwelling (see paragraph 31) and those who, for reasons given in paragraph 32, did not spend the census night there but who did not spend the night with any other household either. In addition, you will record those citizens absent from Botswana but who would usually live in the lolwapa/dwelling if they were in the country. A questionnaire must be completed in respect of each household.

82. Using the definition of a household, you will identify all the households in the lolwapa/dwelling.

83. You will ask for the head of the household or the most senior person of those present at the time of your visit. This is the person to whom you should address all questions.

84. You and your supervisor will identify the EA that has been assigned to you.

85. You will identify all dwellings in that EA and all the households living in them.

86. Every household in your assigned EAs will be interviewed, through its head or the responsible persons present at the time.

87. You will ask for the head of the household or the most senior person of those present at the time of your visit. This is the person to whom you should address all questions.

F. What happens if there is no one at home

88. It may happen that when you visit a lolwapa/dwelling there is no one at home or no one old enough to answer questions. You must make further calls until you find someone or until you are quite certain that the lolwapa/dwelling is unoccupied (no one is living there). Neighbors can very often tell you when the members of the household are likely to be at home and you should arrange your next visit accordingly. You should also ask the neighbors whether the people are just away for the day or whether they will be away for the duration of the census period. In all cases, you should make at least three revisits to establish contact with the household. It may also happen that you are calling at an inconvenient time, in which case you should make an appointment to call again. Complete your return visits as soon as possible. Space has been provided on the back cover of the EA book for you to enter the particulars of malwapa/dwellings and household(s) you have to revisit.

89. There will be no cases where there is no one at home to interview at the time you called. This may be as a result of any of the following reasons:

a. Nobody slept in that dwelling that night,

b. Somebody slept there the night before but left before you arrived.

90. If there is no one, find out from neighbors whether anyone spent the night there. If there are no neighbors to ask, look for signs such as warm ashes, footprints, animal prints, waste, etc. You may be able to tell whether anybody slept there or not, or whether anybody lives there at all. Depending on what you shall determine, you will decide whether to revisit or not, or when to revisit.

91. Find out from neighbors if anybody is likely to come back within ten (10) days, or within the time of the census enumeration, mark the dwelling for a revisit. If they say nobody is likely to come back, still mark it for a revisit so that you can confirm at a later time or day.

92. Details of how to record and what to do under different circumstances are discussed in the section dealing with how to fill the questionnaire.

[Table omitted.]

G. The questionnaire--General points

93. You, not the respondent, must fill in the questionnaire. Remember that the information is confidential and that it must not be left lying around or given to anyone other than a census officer.

94. Use the black/blue ball-point pens provided. You must not use felt pens or pencils.

95. Keep the questionnaire clean, write legibly, and leave no column blank.

96. All codes must be entered on the shaded portion of the line, and the other entries that have to be written out should be on the unshaded portion. The only exception is in Part E, where you will circle the code(s), which correspond to the appropriate answer(s) and do not write anything at all in the shaded portion.

97. Where questions do not apply to a particular person, you should enter a dash (-). If there are no entries to be made in Parts B, C or D, enter dashes on the first line to show that you have asked the question(s).

98. For a question for which the answer is not known, enter 9 in the appropriate column. If more than one digit is required for the answer, enter as many 9s as the number of digits provided for. For example, if Marital Status (A19) is not known, enter code 9; if Past Residence (A9 and A10) is not known, enter code 6699 and 7999 if the district is unknown but the person is in Botswana and outside Botswana respectively.

99. Sometimes you may wish to explain more fully some entry you have made on the questionnaire, either because there is not enough space on the form or because the entry needs further explanation in order to help those who will work with the questionnaire after you have finished. There is a box on the questionnaire marked "Comments" which you should use for this purpose. If the comments box is not sufficient for the purpose, use the back of the questionnaire and indicate in the comments box that you have written comments on the back of the questionnaire.

100. If you make a mistake do not try to rub it out and do not use "Tippex"; cross it out neatly with a single line and correct it. If there is no room to make the correction, cross out the whole line, write "mistake" along the line and complete a new line. The reason you should cross out with a single line only is that if there is any doubt about the answer you have given, the information that you wrote first may help coders decide how to code the answer. If you cross out heavily or use "tippex", the coders will not be able to see what the original answer was.

101. Having introduced yourself to the household and explained about the census, you must first establish whether, in this lolwapa/dwelling, there is just one household or more than one household (see definition of household in paragraph 26 and 27). Complete a separate questionnaire for each household.

102. If you encounter any problems when filling in the questionnaire, make a note in the comments box (or on the back of the questionnaire) and ask your supervisor about it when you next see him/her.

103. All the census information required is recorded on the questionnaires, which will be issued to you bonded in a book form. Each form is numbered at the top right hand corner. None should be taken out or destroyed. You will have to account for all of them at the end of enumeration.

104. These bound forms are referred to as Enumeration Area Books (EA Books). Each EA Book is also uniquely numbered, on the front cover.

105. You will be given 6 EA Books for the EA assigned to you. You will use one EA Book until it is completely full before starting on a fresh one.

106. When you find that not all of the households in a lolwapa/dwelling are available for enumeration, you must not leave any of the pages of the EA Book blank in reservation for those households. The reason being that you don't know if a continuation will be needed for that household when you visit later, for example you might leave only one blank page while more than one page of the questionnaire are going to be needed.

107. You will continue filling in the EA Book, page after page, until you are able (on a revisit) to enumerate those households, numbering them in sequential order from the last household enumerated in that lolwapa/dwelling. You will know which household number to assign from the Enumerator Revisit Form, which is discussed later in paragraphs 193-200. Remember that the District, the Village, the EA, the Locality and the Lolwapa/dwelling/house number will be the same as the already enumerated household(s), but the Household Number will change sequentially from the last household enumerated in that lolwapa/dwelling.

H. The structure of the household questionnaire

108. The Household questionnaire is divided into five parts - A, B, C, D and E. The geographical information on top of each questionnaire should be filled in for each and every questionnaire. Portions of a completed questionnaire are given as examples in this manual.

109. Questions in Part A refer to all those persons who spent the census night with this household in this lolwapa/dwelling. Also to be included are those who would have slept in this lolwapa/dwelling if they had not been on night duty as a nurse, guard, etc. (see paragraph 32).

Part A

110. Part A is sub-divided into five different sections.

111. The first section consists of columns A1-A12. Questions in these columns are to be completed for all persons in the household.

112. The second section comprises columns A13-A17. Questions in these columns are applicable only to persons aged 2 years and over, and they refer to language and education.

113. The third section consists of columns A18-A25. Questions in these columns are to be asked of all persons aged 12 and over. They are concerned with religion, marital status, and economic activity of the eligible person.

114. The fourth section comprises columns A26-A29. Questions in these columns refer only to females aged 12 years and over.

115. The fifth section consists of columns A30 and A31. Questions in these columns refer only to females aged 12 to 49 years.

Part B

116. Questions in Part B refer to any members of the household who were outside Botswana on the census night. This part should be completed in respect of Botswana citizens only.

Part C

117. Questions in Part C refer to any disability affecting any person listed in Part A or Part B.

Part D

118. Questions in Part D deal with any deaths that have occurred to members of the household between last Independence Day, 30th, September 2010 and the census night.

Part E

119. Questions in Part E deal with the household as a unit, as opposed to questions in Parts A, B, C, and D, which deal with individuals.

I. How to fill in the questionnaire

120. On arrival at the lolwapa/dwelling, greet the occupants and identify yourself as a census enumerator. Ask for the head of the household or, if he/she is not present, the next most senior person. Explain that you must record information for each person who slept in this housing unit last night, even if he/she is not there now. For example, if someone slept there the night before your visit, but left before you arrived, he/she should be enumerated even though he/she is not present.

121. It is important that you complete the questionnaire in the right order. First enter the names and codes of the District, Village, EA and Locality (all given in your EA file and Control List); the lolwapa/dwelling/house number and the Household Number. For the lolwapa/dwelling/house number, you enter the number given on the Control List (though you should note the exception to this for blocks of flats etc., as described at the end of this paragraph). If the number on the Control List has less than 5 digits, then fill in zeros to the left of the number to make it a 5-digit number. If there is more than one household in the lolwapa/dwelling, the different households must be assigned different household numbers, as follows:

[Table omitted.]

Continue doing the formerly mentioned procedure serially for any other households in the lolwapa/dwelling.

If there is only one household in the lolwapa/dwelling, enter 0001 in the household number box.

You will, in most situations, use the number given on the Control List as the lolwapa/dwelling/house number. The exceptions to this are when several flats/staff houses are located on the same plot and appear on the Control List in the form: 40353/1, 40353/2, 28
40353/3 etc. The census lolwapa/dwelling No for malwapa/dwellings on plot 40353 will be the same: the plot number, 40353. But since all malwapa/dwellings on the plot now have the same census lolwapa/dwelling number it is necessary to use the Household Number to uniquely identify one lolwapa/dwelling from another, as follows:

[Table omitted.]

However, by using the household number in this way we can no longer use it to identify separate households within the same flat or house. If you find more than one household living within a lolwapa/dwelling, each has to be enumerated as a separate household. The first household should be assigned the number used on the Control List. For the second household, use a two-digit number that will not otherwise be used on this plot. (For instance, if there are 20 flats in total, the first available number will be 0021. So number 0021 would be the household number to use to identify a second household within a lolwapa/dwelling on the same plot. If lolwapa/dwelling number 14 was found to be occupied by two households, the first household would be assigned household number 0014; the second household would be given number 0022).

122. Work steadily and systematically through the questionnaire and make sure you understand the answers before you write them down.

123. After entering the geographic information (paragraph 121), you should fill in the rest of the questionnaire in the following order:

a. List the names of all persons who spent the census night with the household (including those described in paragraph 32), starting with the household head. After recording each name, probe for more members or persons to be listed.

b. Enter each person's serial number (A2), relationship to the head of the household (A2), and the rest of the information column-wise until A12.

c. Then from A13 move across the page and obtain all the other information required for each person listed, one at a time.

d. After completing Part A for all household members, complete Parts B, C, D, and E.

J. The questions and the answers

Part A of the questionnaire

124. Columns A1-A6 collect the basic information about the persons in the household (name, relationship to head of household, sex, age, and citizenship). The sample questionnaire is shown on page 24.

125. Column A1: Name

Q: What are the names of all persons who spent last night here?

Please remember to include:

a. Visitors and those who normally spend the night here but who were away on night duty, at prayer, meetings, etc.

b. Babies (including newly born)

c. Elderly persons

d. People living with disabilities

c. The sick and the critically ill (not hospitalized)

Enter the names of all persons who spent the census night in the household, starting with the head's. Every household must have a "head" from amongst those who spent the census night in this lolwapa/dwelling or those described in paragraph 32. If the "usual" head was not present, someone else should be chosen as head. Include visitors who spent the night there. Include small children and babies if they slept there, even if they were born the day or night before. If they have not yet been given a name, write "baby boy" or "baby girl". A baby born in the lolwapa/dwelling before six o'clock in the morning of the day of your visit should be counted. If the baby was born in hospital and had not been brought home by six o'clock in the morning, then it would be included (with its mother) in the Institutional Questionnaire completed for that hospital. Include persons usually belonging to the household who were away from home on the night before your visit if they were elsewhere in the country and did not spend the night in another household. For example, include those who were on night duty, out fishing all night, or out hunting or cutting thatch or at a funeral wake keeping (see paragraph 32). If a person was with another household, assume that he/she was enumerated with that household.

Only the name of the head of household should be written in full. For other members, the first name (or the name by which the person is usually known) will be sufficient. You must write the name of the head of household on the first line. The order in which you record the names of the other members of the household does not matter greatly, but you might wish to list them in this order:

a. Head of Household

b. Spouse/partner of head

c. Never married children of head or spouse

d. Ever married children of head or spouse and their own children

e. Other relatives

f. Non-relatives and visitors

126. Column A2: Serial number
In this column enter the serial number of each person enumerated. The first person enumerated should be given the number 01, the second 02, the third 03, and so on. If a household has more than ten members and you have to continue onto the next questionnaire page, the persons listed on this next page will have serial numbers 11, 12, etc. Write, "continued" in the comments box on the current page before turning to the next page in the EA Book (be sure to enter the geographic information at the top of the questionnaire). If you are using the last page of an EA Book and must continue onto another questionnaire page, write "continued on page 1 of EA book (number)". When you record data for Part B, C and D, return to the first page and enter the information there. However, data for Part E should be recorded on the LAST page used for listing the household.

127. Column A3: Relationship
Q. What is the respondent's relationship to the head of this household?
Enter the appropriate two-digit code in the shaded area under column A3 as follows:

a. "00" when the person is the head of the household
b. "01" when the person is the head's spouse/partner
c. "02" for the head's son/daughter
d. "03" for the head's son/daughter-in-law
e. "04" for the head's step/foster child
f. "05" for the head's grandchild
g. "06" for the head's parent
h. "07" for the head's father/mother-in-law
i. "08" for the head's grandparent
j. "09" for head's brother/sister
k. "10" for the head's nephew/niece
l. "11" other relative
m. "12" visitor

The respondent may indicate that someone is the head's spouse even if the man and woman are not legally married. They may be living together without having gone through any form of marriage ceremony, whether tribal, civil, religious or other. Nevertheless, if the respondent indicates that someone is the spouse/partner of the head of household, you should enter code 01, even if later you are told in column A19 that the two individuals are "living together". A person may effectively be the spouse, in terms of the role that person plays in the household, even if legally that person is not married to the head of the household.

128. Column A4: Sex
Q. Is the respondent male or female?
Enter the appropriate one-digit code in the shaded area under column A4 depending on whether the person is male or female, as follows:

1. Male
2. Female

Usually a person's sex will be obvious, but be careful to get the sex of young children right. Do not guess--please ask. Before going on to complete column A5, make sure that you have written down the names and the correct relationship and sex codes for every person who spent the night before your visit with the household. Remember to ask about persons described in paragraph 32.

129. Column A5: Age
Q. How old is the respondent in completed years?
This is one of the most important questions in the questionnaire. It is also one that is often difficult to answer correctly. You should take particular care with it. You should record the age of a person in completed years, i.e. as of last birthday. For example, a person aged twenty-six years and four months should be recorded as "26". Similarly, a person aged twenty-six years and 10 months should be recorded as "26". A child aged less than one year should be recorded as "00". For persons aged 98 years and over, enter 98. A person aged 98 will therefore be coded 98 and so will a person aged 99 or 104. However failure to estimate age must be avoided at all cost.

Some people may not know their ages. When this happens, ask first for the year in which the person was born, then look up the age in the Age Calendar provided inside the back cover of the EA book. If the year of birth is not known, you should try to find out the age by using the Botswana Events Calendar. Ask how old the person was at the time of some known event. Check the answer by relating it to some other event the person can remember well. The events listed in the Botswana Events calendar are arranged both by District and alphabetically, and corresponding to each event you will find listed the year in which the event occurred and the number of years ago the event occurred. From this information you can calculate the person's age.

If you already know the age of another person in the household, you may find it helpful to ask if the person is older or younger and by how many years. If there is no other way, you may have to estimate the person's age by looking at him (if present). Other documents such as Birth Certificates, Clinic Cards, Passports or Omang Cards could help you in accurately establishing ages. Suggest to the respondent(s) that they might refer to such documents. They might even show you these documents, but do not demand to see them.

When you have made the best estimate you can, you should check whether it is compatible with the person's position in the family/household. (For example, a child should be at least 12 years younger than his/her natural mother; of course, if the mother isn't the natural mother, then the age difference will be irrelevant). Some people have fixed ideas about their ages which are mistaken. Do not accept answers that are obviously wrong, but do it tactfully and diplomatically.
Try and get accurate answers.

130. Column A6: Citizenship
Q. What is the country of the respondent's citizenship?
For Botswana citizens, enter 001 in the shaded area under column A6. For citizens of other countries, write the name of the country in the unshaded area and the code for that country in the shaded area beneath. The codes for most Southern African countries are shown on the questionnaire. If a person is a citizen of a country not listed, look up the code in the Locality Coding/Country List.

[Table omitted.]

131. Columns A7-A12
These questions collect information about the place of birth, places of residence, and parental survival of the persons listed in column A1. This portion of the sample questionnaire is inserted on page 30 for easy reference.

132. Column A7: Place of birth
Q. Where was the respondent born? (State locality and census district if born in Botswana. Otherwise, list the state and country.) State the place (locality and district) of usual residence of the mother at the time of birth of the child. For those people whose mother's place of usual residence at the time of their births was outside of Botswana, write the name of that country in the unshaded area.

133. Column A8: Place of usual living: Now
Q. Where does the respondent usually live?
The place where a person spends or lives most of the time is that person's place of usual living. For example, for children in boarding school or teachers teaching away from home, enter the name of the village where the school is located - or, if the school is outside Botswana, enter the name of the country where the school is located.

For a person who usually lives in this housing unit (i.e. where he/she is being enumerated), enter 0001. For a person who usually lives somewhere else in the general locality (as indicated on the top of the questionnaire) where enumeration is taking place, enter 0002. (However, in urban areas, if they live elsewhere in the same town they should be coded 0002 even if the actual locality within that town is different from the one stated at the top of the questionnaire).

For a person who usually lives somewhere else in Botswana, write down the name of the census district in the unshaded area under column A8.

For a person who usually lives outside Botswana, enter the name of the country in the unshaded space.

For non-citizens working permanently or on contract in Botswana, their place of usual living is where they usually live in Botswana. People whose usual place of living is outside Botswana will include; tourists or visiting businessmen (in Botswana for anything from a few days to a month or so); children who are at boarding school outside Botswana but who, during the census, are here on holiday; and people who work outside Botswana (e.g. on the mines in South Africa) and are visiting their families or friends for a period of leave.

In cases where the place of usual residence is not known, write 9999. If it is known that the person was outside Botswana although the exact country where the person is living not known, write 7999. Similarly if it is known that the place of usual residence is somewhere in Botswana though the exact location is not known, the code to use should be 6699.

134. Column A9: Place of usual living: 1 year ago
Q. Where did the respondent live this time last year?
This question deals with the usual place where each person was living a year before the census. If a person was temporarily away from home a year before the census, record the place where the person was living, not the place the person was temporarily visiting. For example, if someone living in Kgalagadi was away from home visiting friends or relatives in Jwaneng, or if someone was in hospital in Jwaneng, do not record the place of usual living a year ago as Jwaneng, instead write Kgalagadi. If a child was attending boarding school in Lobatse a year ago and was with his/her family in Central district during the school holiday, then the child's place of usual living a year ago was Lobatse; he/she was merely visiting Central district at this time a year ago.
For children who are under one year of age at the time of enumeration, enter 0000 (because this time a year ago they were not born).

For a person who is living in the same housing unit now as last year, enter 0001. For a person who was living elsewhere in the locality (as indicated on the top of the questionnaire) last year, enter 0002.

For a person who was living somewhere else in Botswana, write down the name of the census district (as described for A8).

For a person who was living outside Botswana a year before the census, enter the name of the country on the unshaded space. In cases where the place of usual residence a year ago is not known, write 9999 and 7999 if it is known that the person was outside Botswana although the exact country where the person was at that time is not known. Similarly if it was known that the person was somewhere in Botswana even though the exact location is not known, the code to use should be 6699.

135. Column A10: Place of usual living: 5 years ago
Q. Where did the respondent live this time in August 2006?
This question deals with the usual place where each person was living 5 years before the census. If a person was temporarily away from home 5 years before the census, record the place where the person was living, not the place the person was temporarily visiting. Like in above, if someone living in Ngamiland was away from home visiting friends or relatives in Francistown, or if someone was in hospital in Francistown, do not record the place of usual living 5 years ago as Francistown. Use the code for Ngamiland instead. If a child was attending boarding school in Gaborone, 5 years ago and was always with his/her family in Southern district during the school holiday, then the child's place of usual living 5 years ago was Gaborone; he/she was merely visiting Southern district at this time 5 years ago.

For children who are under 5 years of age at the time of enumeration, enter 0000 (because this time 5 years ago they were not born).

For a person who is living in the same housing unit now as 5 years ago, enter 0001. For a person who was living elsewhere in the locality (as indicated on the top of the questionnaire) 5 years ago, enter 0002.

For a person who was living somewhere else in Botswana, write down the name of the census district (as described for A8).

For a person who was living outside Botswana 5 years before the census, enter the name of the country. Lastly write 9999 if the place of usual residence 5 years ago was not known and 7999 if it is known that the person was outside Botswana although the exact country where the person was at that time is not known. Similarly if it was known that the person was somewhere in Botswana even though the exact location is not known, the code to use should be 6699.

[Table omitted.]

136. Column A11-A12: Parental survival
Parental survival questions establish whether the biological parents of the person are still alive or dead. Collect information on the parental survival of the people listed on column A1. It should be made clear to the respondent the difference between biological parents and other parents like stepparents or foster parents. The need for the biological parents should be emphasized.

137. Column A11: Mother
Q. Is the respondent's biological mother alive?
Find out from the respondent if the biological mother of each and every person listed in A1 is alive or dead. If the biological mother is still alive enter code "1" in the shaded area. If the biological mother is dead enter code "2". If it is not known if the mother to the person in question is alive enter code "3" in the shaded area. You must probe thoroughly before accepting that.

138. Column A12: Father
Q. Is the respondent's biological father alive?
Like in the case of the mother above, find out from the respondent if the biological father of each and every person listed in A1 is alive or dead. If the biological father is still alive enter code "1" in the shaded region. If the biological father is dead enter code "2". Finally if it is not known if the biological father to the person in question is alive enter code "3" in the shaded area. You must probe thoroughly before accepting that it is not known if the father is alive or not.

All Persons Aged two years and older

139. Column A13: Language
Q. What language does the respondent speak most often at home?
Ask for the language spoken or used for communicating most often at home by each and every person listed in A1 aged 2 years and over. For those people speaking Setswana, English, or any of the listed languages, write down the language on the unshaded region and the codes on the shaded areas. If the person speaks any other language other than those given on the questionnaire, write down the reported language on the unshaded area. Note "sign language is also a type of language used by people who lack the power to speak, hence it should be stated if you come across such a situation".

140. Column A14: Early childhood language
Q. What is the respondent's early childhood language?
Ask for the early childhood language spoken or used mostly at home by each and every person listed in A1 aged 2 years and over. For those people speaking Setswana, English, or any of the listed languages, write down the language on the unshaded region and the codes in the shaded region. If the person speaks any other language other than those given on the questionnaire, write down the reported language on the unshaded area. Note "sign language is also a type of language used by people who lack the power to speak, hence it should be stated if you come across such a situation".

141. Columns A15-A17
These questions apply only to persons aged 2 years and above. If the person is less than 2 years of age, then when you reach column A15, you should dashes in the shaded area for columns A15-A31 and proceed to the next listed person in the household. These questions refer to school attendance by the person in question. The relevant portion of the sample questionnaire is shown on page 33 for ease of reference.

142. Column A15: School attendance
Q. Has the respondent ever attended school?
The question refers to a formal schooling only. The information education offered at home is not covered by this question. Officially registered private schools are included.
If a person has never attended school, enter 1 in A15 and dashes in A16 and A17, then go to A18.

If a person is still attending school, enter 2 in A15 and go to A16.

If a person has attended school but has since left school, enter 3 in A15 and go to A16.

If it is not known whether or not someone ever attended school, enter 9 in A15, and 99 in A16 and A17.

143. Column A16: Highest grade completed
Q. What was the highest level that the respondent completed?
Enter the highest school level or grade the person has completed as per the codes below:

For Pre-school

a. If year 1 not completed, enter 00
b. If year 1 completed, enter 01
c. If year 2 completed, enter 02
d. If years at pre-school are not known, enter 09

For primary school

a. If in Standard 1, and has gone through pre-school, enter 03
b. If Standard 1 not completed, enter 10
c. If Standard 1 completed, enter 11
d. If Standard 2 completed, enter 12
e. If Standard 3 completed, enter 13
f. If Standard 4 in completed, enter 14
g. If Standard 5 is completed, enter 15
h. If Standard 6 is completed, enter 16
i. If Standard 7 is completed, enter 17
j. If it is known that the person went as far as primary, but the standard complete is not known, enter 19.
k. For Sub A or Sub B enter 11. If the person, at the time of enumeration, is in Standard 1, enter 10.
l. If the person has attended or is attending secondary school, enter the highest form completed:
i. If Form 1 completed, enter 21
ii. If Form 2 completed, enter 22
iii. If Form 3 completed, enter 23
iv. If Form 4 completed, enter 24
v. If Form 5 completed, enter 25
vi. If Form 6 completed, enter 26
m. If it is known that the person went as far as secondary school, but the form completed is not known, enter 29.
n. If the person is currently in Form 1, enter 17. Someone who completed their Junior certificate (JC) under the two year JC certificate system will be coded 22, while for those who completed their JC under the three year system will be coded 23.

Tertiary certificate

a. If tertiary certificate, first year not completed, enter30
b. If tertiary certificate, first year completed, enter 31
c. If tertiary certificate, second year completed, enter 32
d. If the exact tertiary certificate year completed is not known, enter 39

Tertiary diploma

a. If tertiary diploma, first year not completed, enter 40
b. If tertiary diploma, first year completed, enter 41
c. If tertiary diploma, second year completed, enter 42
d. If tertiary diploma, third year completed, enter 43
e. If the exact tertiary diploma year completed is not known, enter 49

Tertiary degree

a. If tertiary courses, first year not completed, enter 50
b. If tertiary courses, first year completed, enter 51
c. If tertiary courses, second year completed, enter 52
d. If tertiary courses, third year completed, enter 53
e. If tertiary courses, fourth year completed, enter 54
f. If tertiary courses, fifth year completed, enter 55
g. If the exact tertiary degree year completed is not known, enter 59

Post graduate courses

a. If post graduate courses, first year not completed, enter 60
b. If post graduate courses, first year completed, enter 61
c. If post graduate courses, second year completed, enter 62
d. If post graduate courses, third year completed, enter 63
e. If post graduate courses, fourth year completed, enter 64
f. If post graduate courses, fifth year completed, enter 65
g. If the exact post graduate course year completed is not known, enter 69

For non-formal education

a. If prima 1 not completed, enter 70
b. If prima 1 completed, enter 71
c. If prima 2 completed, enter 72
d. If prima 3 completed, enter 73
e. If prima 4 completed, enter 74
f. If prima 5 completed, enter 75
g. If the exact prima year completed is not known, enter 79

144. Column A17: Field of education
Q. What is the respondent's field of education?
This question captures the field of education undertaken by a person in relation to the current studies. Write the field of education in the unshaded area of column A17 for each eligible person as reported by the respondent. For example, if a person completed a two year diploma program in Accounting and Business studies, this person should be coded 42 in A16 and Accounting and Business studies written in the unshaded area of column A17.

All Persons Aged 12 years and over

145. Column A18-A25
These questions apply only to persons aged 12 and years and over. If the person is less than 12 years of age, then when you reach column A16 you should put dashes in the shaded areas for columns A16-A31 and proceed to the next listed person in the household.

146. Column A18: Religion
Q. What is the respondent's religion?
Ask for the religious affiliation of people listed in A1. Find out if the person is a Christian, Islam, Bahai, believes in the ancestral spirits (Badimo), Hindu, any other, or none. Write the code corresponding to the religion stated by the respondent.
[Table omitted.]

147. Column A19: Marital status
Q. What is the respondent's marital status?
Enter the appropriate one-digit code in the shaded area:

a. Never married [1]
A person who has never gone through any type of formal or informal marriage (tribal, civil, religious, or other) and does not consider that he/she is presently "living together" with anyone, is to be coded as never married.
b. Married [2]
A person should be regarded as married if he/she says they are married, or when he/she has been through any form of marriage ceremony, whether tribal, civil, religious, or other, and is still married.
c. Living together [3]
A man and a woman may "live together" like husband and wife (even if they do not stay together in the same locality) without having gone through any form of marriage ceremony.
d. Separated [4]
A person who has been formally married should be regarded as separated if he/she is living apart from his/her spouse by Court order, or by mutual or unilateral decision. Those people who were living together and have separated should revert to their original status, i.e. never married, divorced, etc. They should only be regarded to be in separation if they are in such a separation through a court order, tribal, religious, mutual, or unilateral arrangement.
e. Divorced [5]
A person should be regarded as divorced if his/her marriage has ended. If the person has remarried then he/she is to be coded 2, as married.
f. Widowed [6]
This means that either the husband or the wife has died and the surviving partner has not remarried. If the surviving partner has remarried he/she is coded 2, as married.

147. Economic activity
These questions identify those persons that are economically active and those that are not. An economic activity is and activity of some economic value that someone is currently doing either for payment in any form or for no pay. A person is said to be economically active if during a specific reference period supplied labor for the production of goods and services. The economically active population can be measured as the currently active or the usually active.
Economic Activity Includes:

a. Any activities on your own farm/lands or cattle-post (e.g. planting for own consumption or sale) such as:

i. Weeding crops
ii. Harvesting crops
iii. Chasing birds/other pests away from crops
iv. Activity related to the storage of crops
v. Activities related to livestock production, i.e. herding/milking/slaughtering cattle
vi. Other agricultural activities like hunting/fishing/forestry etc.

b. Construction/major repair or maintenance of:

i. Farm buildings or fences
ii. Own dwelling (not minor repairs)
iii. Access roads
iv. Other construction activities

c. Trading/Sales:

i. Retail shop
ii. Engaged in hawking/street vending
iii. Engaged in agriculture products and other related trades

d. Transport:

i. Running own taxi/combi
ii. Other transport activities

e. Services:

i. Cutting hair for cash (barber)
ii. Repair services: shoes, watches, etc. (not for own household)
iii. Collection of firewood, fetching water, and other services for business

f. Manufacturing/processing (for sale, not own use):

i. Milling (include hand milling)
ii. Beer brewing, baking for cash, etc.
iii. Making clay pots/baskets/traditional chairs/mats/hats/other handicrafts
iv. Spinning/weaving/dressmaking/tailoring
v. Other manufacturing/repair/maintenance

g. Wage employment with payment in cash or kind, i.e. food/clothing/accommodation

i. Permanent
ii. Temporary/casual
iii. Part-time

It is very important that you and the respondents realize that all activities are included.
h. Always remember the basic rules regarding Economic and Non-economic Activities, which is:

i. Economic activities take preference over Non-economic activities
ii. Within economic activities, employed activities take preference over unemployed activities

148. Column A20: Usual economic activity
Q. What has the respondent been doing mainly since Independence Day 2010?
You must call out all the listed work activities. These work activities are to assist in determining the employment status of an individual. Often one would have been engaged in more than one work activity during the past twelve months. For instance, an individual could have had casual wage employment some months back, but during other months performed an agricultural activity. A person is usually employed if months employed is greater or equal to months unemployed. A person is usually unemployed if months unemployed are greater than months employed. If a person did none of the listed work activities, ask him/her what was his/her main activity in the past 12 months.
Enter the appropriate two-digit code in the shaded area

a. 01 and 02: Seasonal work
Codes 01 and 02 should be used for someone who did seasonal work for payment and for no payment respectively. Seasonal work should be regarded as work or economic activity, which is normally done during certain seasons or periods of the year. An example of this type of work is harvesting which is normally done for three months of the year when it is the time for harvesting. So those people engaging in such activities for no payment like those in family lands etc. should be coded 02. Payments could be in cash, in kind, or any other form.
b. 03 and 04: Non-seasonal work
This refers to economic activity or normal work usually done at all times of the year. Just like in seasonal work above this could also be paid in kind or for cash payment. When the activity is done for payment the code to be used should be 03 and 04 when the activity is done for no pay.
c. 05: Job seeker
A person who was mainly seeking work during the past year should be considered to be actively seeking work.
d. 06: Housework
Remember that either a female or a male could be responsible for daily housework, i.e. cleaning of the house and premises, preparing food, and other household duties. People doing this kind of activity should be coded 06. It should however be noted that domestic servants working for pay are classified as economically active.
e. 07: Student
A student is a person, at least 12 years of age, who, as a result of attending school for most of the day, does not work.
f. 08: Retired
A retired person is someone who as a result of old age, ill health, or other reason is not doing any type of work. It should be noted that a person who has retired from his/her permanent job but at the moment working somewhere (working on contract basis or any paying job) should not fall under this category.
g. Sick
This is a person who cannot or who had to leave work as a result of illness or due to poor health conditions. A medical doctor could have made a recommendation that the person should not work at all.
h. Other (specify)
If a person was doing something else other than in the categories listed above, then write in what the person was doing in the unshaded area of column A20. If you need more space, use the comments box.

[Table omitted.]

149. Column A21: Current economic activity
The current economy activity refers to the activities which occurred during the last 7 days. Note: 7 days means week ending yesterday. Thus it is different from the usual activity, which is related to the last twelve months. Therefore it is important that you explain this to the respondent.
Q. Did the respondent do any type of work for pay, profit, or home use for at least 1 hour in the past 7 days?

1. Yes [Go to A23]
2. No [If no, has the respondent worked at lands/cattle post?]

The same economic and non-economic rules apply to current economic activity. However for current activity a person is taken as employed if they have done any work in the reference period. Any work is taken as a minimum of one hour.

This is an important question, and therefore you must remind the respondent of the list of work activities. You must go through the complete list again with the respondent. Remember this time you are asking about work activities during the last seven days, even if they lasted for only one hour. Remember to include those temporarily absent from their work.

Particular emphasis should be on unpaid work in family business. For example, if any member of the household has a small shop it is quite likely that other household members will spend some time working in the business.

A person is considered to be temporarily absent from work if he/she is on paid leave, sick leave, or he/she is not at work because of strike and he/she is definite that he/she will return to work or if he/she is temporarily absent up to one month, from his/ her business/agricultural activity which continued to operate during his/her absence, and the business/agriculture is being run by any household member or someone on his/her behalf.

Note that the activity must be continuing in his/her absence for agriculture/business. If there is no activity because of the agricultural off-season, then no activity is continuing and the person is not temporarily absent.

Response code 1 "Yes" will cover the following:

a. Worked for payment
Someone who did any economic activity for payment where the payment was either hard cash or in any form (referred to as payment in kind). Self-employed persons in informal activities (i.e. running a kiosk) or formal activities (i.e. private clinic) are also covered in this group.
b. Unpaid family helper
These are persons who work in businesses of family members or other relatives and they are not paid as the work they do is regarded as help. So these people are covered in this category.
c. Worked at the lands/farms/cattle post (Unpaid)
These are persons who worked at farms/lands/cattle-posts but did not receive payment of any form. This is common among farmers who grow mainly for household consumption (rather than to sell their products). Family members, relatives, and friends are included in this category if they normally work without any reward. Seasonal workers are the most affected by this situation. If the response is "yes", skip A22 and go to A23.

Response code 2 "No":
There are some activities which respondents do not consider work. In order to minimize on the under enumeration of the economically active, there is a need for further probing for those whose response is No in question A21. For example, if "no", has the respondent worked at lands or cattle post?

150. Column A22
Q. Since the respondent was not working, what did he/she do?

a. Actively seeking work
b. House work
c. Student
d. Retired
e. Sick
f. Other (specify)
(If male then go to next person in the list. If female then go to A26.)

a. Actively seeking work:
This category applies to all those people who have been actively looking for a job in the past 7 days. These people could be visiting potential employers, looking for job advertisements in the newspapers, or in any other way of looking for a job.
b. House work:
Remember that either a female or a male not economically active could be responsible for daily housework, i.e. cleaning of the house and remises, preparing food, and other household duties. People doing this kind of activity should be coded 2. It should however be noted that domestic servants working for pay are classified as employed.
c. Student:
A student is a person, at least 12 years of age, who, as a result of attending school for most of the day, does not work. Students on school vacation should be coded under this category not as home maker although they will be currently doing some daily housework.
d. Retired:
A retired person is a woman or a man who, as a result of old age, ill health, or other reasons, is not doing any type of work. It should be noted that a person who has retired from his/her permanent job but at the moment is working somewhere (working on contract basis or any paying job) should not fall under this category, therefore response in A22 should be 1.
e. Sick:
This is a person who cannot or who had to leave work as a result of illness or due to poor health conditions. A medical doctor could have made a recommendation that the person should not work at all.
f. Other (specify):
If the person was doing something else, other than the possibilities listed above, then write in what the person was doing in the unshaded area. If you need more space, use the comments box.

Generally speaking, if a person has had more than one activity during the past 7 days, it is the foremost of these that must be taken (that is which took up most time and/or which was most rewarding). There is, however, an exception to this:
Seeking work takes precedence over "home maker". For example, if a person spent all his time doing housework - except for half a day when he went looking for work - he must be coded 1 as "Actively seeking work" and not 2 as being "homemaker". It must be noted that economic activities take precedence over non-economic activities.

151. Column A23: Employment status
Q. What was the respondent's working as during the past 7 days?
This question is meant to capture the employment status of an individual. The column relates to persons who were either self-employed or working for other persons for payment during the past 7 days before the census. Find out what they were employed as during most of the reference period and probe if necessary. Enter the appropriate two-digit code in the shaded area:

01. Employee-paid cash
This is a person who works and receives cash as payment. An employee who is paid in both cash and kind should fall under this category. For example, a maid who eats with the employer and at the same time is getting paid in cash.
02. Employee-paid in kind only
This is a person who works and receives non-monetary payment. You should note that employees who are paid in kind only fall under this category.
Self-Employed
Self-employed includes all types of persons working for themselves or in partnership in any type of business undertaking. This includes hawkers, car washers, carpenters, but they must get the income form the business themselves and not getting a wage or salary from a company owning the business. In some cases businesses are registered and the person who owns the business actually is an employee of the company (i.e. managing director). Because of this, this person is a paid employee, code 01 (employed by his/her own company).
03. Self-employed (no employees):
This is whereby the person is running his/her own business, like a taxi or a tuck shop, without the assistance of any employee. This category includes those gardeners and cleaners who are freelancing.
04. Self-employed (with employees):
A person operating a business of any form with the assistance of one or more employees would fall under this category. The employees could be paid in cash or in kind.
05. Unpaid family helpers:
A person working in an economic enterprise operated by a relative and not being paid in any form, would fall under this category. For example, a boy/girl could be helping in his/her aunt's business without any payment attached.
06. Working at family lands/farms/cattle-post:
This category includes farmers who plough mainly for household consumption (rather than to sell their products), and those individuals who worked at farms, lands, or cattle-posts, but who did not receive any payment. School children working on family lands/farms/cattle-posts while on vacation fall under this category.
07. Other (Specify):
If the person was doing something else other than the possibilities listed above then write in what the person was doing in the unshaded area in column A23. If you need more space, use the comment box.
[Table omitted]

152. Column A24: Occupation
Q. What type of work did the respondent do in the past 7 days?
A person's occupation depends on the tasks and duties, which the person performs. Remember that if a person worked at all during the past 7 days, whether for cash or not, and for however short a period, then you should try to find out what kind of work the person did. You should try to get the respondent to give both a job title and a two- or three-word description of the tasks performed. For example, if a person states that he/she is a mechanic, ask him/her what he/she repairs.

You should record his/her response in the unshaded area of column A24 as follows: "mechanic fixes cars" or "mechanic, fixes radios". Use the comments box if you need more space. If a person moved from one job to another, you should enter the most recent occupation even if it only lasted for a day or two. This may happen with people who are casual laborers. If a person has more than one occupation, record the one on which he/she spends most of his/her time. However, if someone has a temporary job during the school holidays - but has a permanent job during term time-it is his/her permanent occupation that should be described. A census enumerator or supervisor who is a schoolteacher during term time must therefore be described as "primary school teacher" or "secondary school teacher".

You will usually have to probe the respondent to get good information about a person's occupation. For example, people who make things (bread, clothing, pottery, wood objects, tools, beer, food products, furniture, bricks, etc.) should be asked how they make them. It is important to find out whether they mostly use their hands or hand-held tools, or whether they mostly produce these goods by operating machinery. A person who brews beer at home using traditional techniques belongs to a different occupational category from a person who operates a machine that ferments the grains used in making beer. (See probing examples below). You should also probe when the information provided by the respondent does not seem reasonable. For example, if a person has only completed Form 4, it seems unlikely that he/she could be an auditor or an engineer. If you probe, you may discover that the person is actually an accounting clerk or an engineering assistant.

[Table omitted]

153. Column A25: Industry
Q. What was the main product, service, or activity of the respondent's place of work?
The industry identifies the main kind of product produced or the main service provided by the establishment or the work unit in which the individual works. It is important to understand the difference between industry and occupation. An occupation summarises the tasks performed by an individual who is working. The industry has to do with the products or services, or main functions or activities, of the workplace. For example, a woman may be an accounts clerk who is employed by a dairy farmer. Her occupation is "accounts clerk" and the industry in which she works is "dairy farming". If the same person was employed by a diamond mine, the occupation would still be "accounts clerk" but the industry would be "diamond mining". A man working in the same mine might be a mine sampler - his occupation would be "mine sampler, but he also belongs to the mining industry. Clearly, an industry may include a number of different occupations, and the same occupation may be found in many different industries.
If the respondent can give you the name of the company for which an individual works or the name of a self-employed person's business, then the Central Statistics Office will often be able to identify the industry from the company name using available records within the CSO. However, you should still also try to find out what goods or services are produced by the company or individual. Records both the name of the company (abbreviates if necessary, and then write out the name in full in the comments box) and the goods or services produced.

You will usually have to probe the respondent to get good information about the industry in which a person works. Some general tips for probing and the Botswana Standard Industrial Classification – Revision 3 are given below.

General Tips:

a. First ask the respondent what the name of the company or business is.
b. You should then ask the respondent what kinds of goods are produced at the place where the person works, especially if the name of the business is not known, or if the individual is self-employed, working on a farm, lands, or cattle-post, or working for another individual/household rather than for a company or business. If you need more space use the comments box. See below for some examples of goods produced.
c. If the business or workplace does not produce goods, ask what kinds of services are provided. See below for some examples of services provided.
d. In recording the response, be sure to indicate whether the business is making or selling goods (if relevant). For example, write "brews beer" or "sells beer", not just "beer".
e. If the above approaches do not succeed, ask the respondent what type of business the person works in and, if necessary, see more examples below.
i. Examples of goods produced
Bread, traditional beer, biltong, textiles, tinned meat, glass, bricks, tiles, metal tools, shoes, leather bags, rope, books, baskets, clothing, fat cakes, brooms, newspapers, plastic pipes, kgotla chairs, boilers, mats, pots, wooden spoons, vaccines, maize flour, milk, soap, etc.
ii. Examples of services provided
Repairing cars, repairing shoes, repairing watches, cleaning houses, guarding houses, taking care of children, typing, hawking goods, driving a taxi, cutting and styling hair, treating illnesses, teaching, selling property, selling airline tickets, renting videos, dry-cleaning clothes, selling beer, running a restaurant, running a shop, etc.
iii. Examples of types of businesses or economic activities
Building houses, constructing roads, wholesale trade, general retailer, hotel, restaurant, butchery, petrol station, airline, railway, selling cars, transporting goods, bank, insurance, real estate, prospecting, architectural services, church, school, hospital, clinic, local government, brigades, traditional farming, fishing, hunting, blacksmith, traditional healing, performing at nightclubs, travel agency, employers' organization, labor union, co-operative, electrical construction, law firm, accounting firm, market stall, dairy farming, commercial farming etc.

[Table omitted]

154. Columns A26-A31: Fertility and child survival (females only)
It must be noted that fertility is defined as actual birth performance of a woman.
Questions A26-A29 must be completed for all females aged 12 years and over, regardless of their marital status and their relationship to the head of household. For males of any age and females less than 12 years of age, enter a dash in these columns. For young girls (i.e. 12-15 years old) who are still living at home with their parents, this question may be considered rather personal. Take care how you ask the question.

Questions A30-A31 are only asked of females aged 12 to 49 years old. For others, enter a dash in these columns. The enumerator should always check at all times that the number of children in A26 should be equal to the sum of this in A27, A28, and A29. The enumerator should therefore always crosscheck that these balances before moving on to the next section.

The relevant portion of the sample questionnaire is shown on page 61 for easy reference.

155. Column A26: Children born alive
Q. How many children have been born alive by the respondent?
In column A26 you must record (as a two-digit code) the total number of children ever born alive to the woman. Children born alive are those children who cried at least once after birth. All other births are stillbirths. Remember to include all those children who have died, but do not include stillbirths. When recording, you must always ensure that the total number of male children ever born to a woman in A26 equals to those living with the mother (in A27) plus those living elsewhere (in A28) and those dead (in A29). Similarly the sum of females in A27 and A28 and A29 should sum to females in A26.

156. Column A27: Children living with mother
Q. How many are living with the mother?
In column A27 enter the number of children born to the woman who live with her at her usual place of residence. These children should be recorded with respect to their sex such that they satisfy the sum condition as explained in paragraph 144. For visiting mothers, this means those children who live with her at her own household or at her usual residence and not at the household where she spent the last night.

157. Column A28: Children living elsewhere
Q. How many are living elsewhere?
In column A28 enter the number of children born to the woman who are not living with her at her usual place of residence. These children should be recorded with respect to their sex such that males and females living with mother, male and female children living elsewhere, and male and female children who have died together should be equals to total number of male and female children ever born to a woman.

158. Column A29: Children who have died
Q. How many children have died?
In column A29 enter the number of children born alive to a woman who have since died separately for males and females. Sometimes a woman may forget to mention children who died in infancy or may not want to be reminded of painful events; you must therefore put the question sympathetically and tactfully. These children should be recorded with respect to their sex such that they satisfy the sum condition as explained in paragraph 144.

159. Check that the number of male children and female children entered in column A26 is the sum of the male and female children respectively entered in columns A27, A28, and A29. Reconcile any differences with the respondent before leaving the household.
Remember that the codes in columns A26 – A29 are all two-digit codes. In most cases you must therefore remember to put a zero in front, e.g. 2 children would be coded as 02. If a woman has never had live births enter 00 in all the columns. NEVER leave any column blank. If a woman has children in only one or two categories, insert the figures in the appropriate columns and enter 00 in the remaining column(s). If unknown, enter 99 and explain in the comments box.
Note: Columns A30 and A31: Fertility for Females 12-49 Years since Independence Day 2010

160. Column A30: Children born alive
Q. How many children have been born alive by the respondent since Independence Day 2010?
These columns must be completed for females aged 12 to 49 years. For a female aged 50 or more, enter a dash in each of columns A30 and A31. If the woman has not had a live birth since Independence Day, 2009, enter 00 in these columns. Otherwise enter the number of male and female children born in column A30 under male and female columns respectively.

161. Column A31: Children surviving
Q. How many of these children (born since Independence Day 2010) are still alive?
Like in column A29 above, this column must be completed for the females aged 12 to 49 years. What is needed is the number of children still alive among those children born alive since Independence Day 2009.

[Table omitted]

Part B of the questionnaire

162. Columns B1 to B14: Members of the household outside Botswana
These questions apply only to citizens of Botswana who were absent from the country on the census night, but who would usually live with the household if they were in Botswana, such as citizens working or temporarily living with relatives outside the country, studying, on private or government business. The relevant portion of the sample questionnaire is shown on page 67 for easy reference.

If no member of the household was absent from Botswana on the census night, enter dashes in the spaces provided for answer codes in the first line only. If you have to continue the listing of household members (part A) on a second or third page, return to the first page for the household for recording part B information. If more than three persons have to be listed in part B, go to the next page after writing "continued" in the comments box on the first page. Don't forget to copy the geographic identification codes (district, village, etc.) onto the continuation questionnaire. Remember that when you complete Part B you should return to the first page for the household to answer Parts C and D. Only Part E will be answered on the last page for the household.

163. Column B1: Name
Ask for the names of all citizen members if the household who were outside the country on the census night. The first name or the name by which the person is usually known is sufficient.
It is important that the respondent understands that you are not asking for members of the household who are non-citizens or who did not spend the census night with the household but are inside the country. Similarly a person living outside the country but used to be a member of the household and has denounced Botswana citizenship should not be included. It should also be understood that if a household member spent the census night in the lolwapa/dwelling, but travelled to another country before your visit, then he/she would be listed in Part A, even if at the time of your enumeration he/she is already in another country. No person can be listed in both Part A and Part B.

164. Column B2: Serial number
Like A2, This is also a two-digit number, with the first digit 9 ore-entered, that is, the first person will be 91, and the second will be 92, and so on.

165. Column B3: Relationship to head of household
This must be the relationship to the person listed as head of household in Part A (i.e. coded 00 under Relationship to Head).

166. Column B4/B5: Sex/Age
The same instructions in A4/A5 apply here and read as follows next.

167. Column B4: Sex
Q. Is the respondent male or female?
Enter the appropriate one-digit code in the shaded area under column B4 depending on whether the person is male or female, as follows:

1. Male
2. Female

Usually a person's sex will be obvious, but be careful to get the sex of young children right. Do not guess, ask.

Before going on to complete Column B5, make sure that you have written down the names and the correct relationship and sex codes for all members of the household outside Botswana.

168. Column B5: Age
Q. How old is the respondent in completed years?
This is one of the most important questions in the questionnaire. It is also one that is often difficult to answer correctly. You should take particular care with it. You should record the age of a person in completed years, i.e. as of last birthday.

For example, a person aged twenty-six years and four months should be recorded as "26". Similarly, a person aged twenty-six years and 10 months should be recorded as "26". A child aged less than one year should be recorded as "00". For persons aged 98 years and over, enter 98. A person aged 98 will therefore be coded 98 and so will a person aged 99 or 104. However failure to estimate age must be avoided at all cost.

Some people may not know their ages. When this happens, ask first for the year in which the person was born, and then look up the age in the Age Calendar provided on the inside of the back cover. If the year of birth is not known, you should try to find out the age by using the Botswana Events Calendar. Ask how old the person was at the time of some known event. Check the answer by relating it to some other event the person can remember well. The events listed in the Botswana Events calendar are arranged both by District and alphabetically, and corresponding to each event you will find listed the year in which the event occurred and the number of years ago the event occurred. You can get the person's age from this information.

If you already know the age of another person in the household, you may find it helpful to ask if the person is older or younger and by how many years. Other documents such as Birth Certificates, Clinic Cards could help you in accurately establishing ages. Suggest to the respondent(s) that they might refer to such documents. They might even show you these documents, but do not demand to see them.

When you have made the best estimate you can, you should check whether it is compatible with the person's position in the family/household. (For example, a child should be at least 12 years younger than his/her natural mother; of course, if the mother isn't the natural mother, then the age difference will be irrelevant). Some people have fixed ideas about their ages which are mistaken. Do not accept answers that are obviously wrong, but do it tactfully and diplomatically. Try and get accurate answers.

169. Column B6/B7: Educational attainment
These questions should be treated the way A15 and A16 were treated. Therefore those codes used in A15 and A16 should apply here. Columns B6-B8 should apply only to persons aged 2 years and more. If the person is less than 2 years old, then when you reach column B5 put dashes in the shaded areas for columns B6-B8 and proceed to questions B9-B13.

170. Column B6: School attendance
Q. Has the respondent ever attended school?
This question refers to formal schooling only. The informal education offered at home is not covered by this question. Officially registered private schools are included.
If a person has never attended school, enter 1 in B6, and put a dash in B7 and B8 then proceed to B9-B13.
If a person is still attending school, enter 2 in B6 and go to B7.
If it is not known whether or not someone ever attended school, enter 9 in B6 and 99 in B7.

171. Column B7: Highest grade completed
Q. What is the highest level that the respondent has completed?
For Pre-School

a. If year 1 not completed, enter 00
b. If year 1 completed, enter 01
c. If year 2 completed, enter 02
d. If years at pre-school are not known, enter 09

For primary school

a. If in Standard 1, and has gone through pre-school, enter 03
b. If Standard 1 not completed, enter 10
c. If Standard 1 completed, enter 11
d. If Standard 2 completed, enter 12
e. If Standard 3 completed, enter 13
f. If Standard 4 completed, enter 14
g. If Standard 5 completed, enter 15
h. If Standard 6 completed, enter 16
i. If Standard 7 completed, enter 17
j. If it is known that the person went as far as primary, but the standard completed is now known, enter 19
k. For Sub A or Sub B enter 11. If the person at the time of enumeration is in Standard 1, enter 10
l. If the person has attended or is attending secondary school, enter the highest form completed.
i. If Form 1 completed, enter 21
ii. If Form 2 completed, enter 22
iii. If Form 3 completed, enter 23
iv. If Form 4 completed, enter 24
v. If Form 5 completed, enter 25
vi. If Form 6 completed, enter 26
m. If it is known that the person went as far as secondary school but the form completed is not known, enter 29
n. If the person is currently in Form 1, enter 17
o. Someone who completed Junior Certificate (JC) under the two year JC Certificate System will be coded 22, while for those who completed JC under the three year system will be coded 23.

Tertiary certificate

a. If tertiary certificate, first year not completed, enter 30
b. If tertiary certificate, first year completed, enter 31
c. If tertiary certificate, second year completed, enter 32
d. If exact tertiary certificate year completed is unknown, enter 39

Tertiary diploma

a. If tertiary diploma, first year not yet completed, enter 40
b. If tertiary diploma, first year completed, enter 41
c. If tertiary diploma, second year completed, enter 42
d. If tertiary diploma, third year completed, enter 43
e. If the exact tertiary diploma year completed is not known, enter 49

Tertiary degree

a. If tertiary courses, first year not completed, enter 50
b. If tertiary courses, first year completed, enter 51
c. If tertiary courses, second year completed, enter 52
d. If tertiary courses, third year completed, enter 53
e. If tertiary courses, fourth year completed, enter 54
f. If tertiary courses, fifth year completed, enter 55
g. If the exact tertiary degree year completed is not known, enter 59

Post graduate courses

a. If post graduate courses, first year not completed, enter 60
b. If post graduate courses, first year completed, enter 61
c. If post graduate courses, second year completed, enter 62
d. If post graduate courses, third year completed, enter 63
e. If post graduate courses, fourth year completed, enter 64
f. If post graduate courses, fifth year completed, enter 65
g. If the exact post graduate course year completed is not known, enter 69

For non-formal education

a. If prima 1 not completed, enter 70
b. If prima 1 completed, enter 71
c. If prima 2 completed, enter 72
d. If prima 3 completed, enter 73
e. If prima 4 completed, enter 74
f. If prima 5 completed, enter 75
g. If the exact prima year completed is not known, enter 79

172. Column B8: Field of education
Q. What is the respondent's field of education?
This question should be treated the same way as A17.

173. Column B9: Marital status (all persons 12 years and over)
Treat this question in the same way as A19 was treated. A19 instructions are given below.
Q. What is the respondent's current marital status?

Enter the appropriate one-digit code in the shaded area.

1. Never Married:
A person who has never gone through any type of formal or informal marriage (tribal, civil, religious, or other) and does not consider that he/she is presently "living together" with anyone, is to be coded as never married.
2. Married:
A person should be regarded as married if he/she said he/she is married, or if he/she has been through any form of marriage ceremony, whether tribal, civil, religious or other, and is still married.
3. Living together:
A man and a woman may "live together" like husband and wife (even if they do not stay together in the same locality) without having gone through any form of marriage ceremony.
4. Separated:
A person who has been formally married should be regarded as separated if he/she is living apart from his/her spouse by Court order, or by mutual or unilateral decision. Those people who were living together should only be regarded to be in separation if in such a situation through a court order (tribal, religious or otherwise).
5. Divorced:
A person should be regarded as divorced if his/her marriage has ended. If the person has remarried, then he/she is to be coded 2, as married.
6. Widowed
This means that either the husband or the wife has died and the surviving partner has not remarried. If the surviving partner has remarried he/she is coded 2, as married.
Note that someone may indicate to you that the person is his/her spouse, yet, in response to the question on marital status, he/she said that they were living together, not married, since they had never formally married. You should accept what people tell you concerning their marital status and simply record their response; do not change the relationship code in B3 if the respondent tells you that the head and his/her "spouse" are "living together".

174. Column B10: Country of visit/residence
Q. In what country is the respondent in now?
Ask for the name of the country where the person is and record the name of that country in the unshaded area of this column.

Write the name of the country in the unshaded area and the code for that country in the shaded area beneath. The codes for most Southern African countries are shown on the questionnaire. If a person is a resident of a country not listed, write the name of that country in the unshaded area.

175. Columns B11/B12: Duration of absence
Q. How long ago did the respondent visit?
Ask for the duration since the last visit and record the answer in years and months.
If a member has not visited since he/she left, enter the duration of absence since departure (in years and months).

If a child born to a household member abroad has not been brought back to Botswana, enter the child's age in years and months. If the child has just been born and is less than one month old, enter 00 for both years and months; if the child is less than one year old, enter 00 for years and the appropriate two-digit code for the number of months.

If the duration of absence is given in months and is greater than 12 months, say 15 months, enter the period given as 01 in column B11and 03 in column B12. Always check that the duration of absence is not greater than the age of the person concerned, particularly for children. If the duration of absence given is greater than the age given, probe the respondent and correct accordingly.

176. Column B13: Reason for absence
Q. What is the main reason for the respondent's absence?
It is possible that a person may have more than one reason for absence. Ask for the main reason. Enter the appropriate code as follows:

01. Working in mines
02. Working in farms
03. Working as domestic
04. Working abroad
05. Student
06. Visiting
07. Official business
08. Accompanying
09. Medical attention
10. Other (specify)

If the reason for absence is not listed above, describe it in the space provided under ‘other (specify)'.

[Table omitted]

Part C of the questionnaire: Disability

Disability is any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of the ability to perform an activity within the range considered normal for a human being.

177. Columns C1/C2/C3: Disability
Q. Does any person(s) listed in A1 or B1 suffer from any of the following disabilities?

11. Partial sighted
12. Total blindness
21. Partial hearing
22. Deafness
31. Partial speech impairment
32. Inability to speak
23. Inability to use 1 leg
24. Inability to use 2 legs
43. Inability to use 1 arm
44. Inability to use 2 arms
45. Inability to use the whole body
51. Intellectual impairment
61. Mental health disorder
71. Missing 1 leg
72. Missing 2 legs
73. Missing 1 arm
74. Missing 2 arms

You should read out the list of disabilities to the respondent as a guide on the types of disabilities you are referring to. Be very tactful in asking these questions so as not to cause offense of embarrassment.

If anyone does have a disability, enter the person's first name in column C1, then enter in column C2 the same serial number that you assigned to this person in column A2 or B2. A person from Part A will have serial numbers 01, 02 or 03, etc., whilst a person from Part B will have serial numbers 91, 92 or 93, etc.

A disabled person has incapacities as a result of physical or mental deficiencies such as bodily abnormalities, defects and impairments. Impairments are defects of structure or functions of the body which give rise to personal inabilities to perform necessary activities. The defects and impairments might occur from birth, or may be brought about by disease, injury or just old age.

Enter the stated disabilities a person has from any of the following codes.

11. Partial sighted
This refers to a person who cannot count fingers from a distance of three meters.
12. Total blindness
This refers to a person who cannot see completely.
21. Partial hearing
This refers to a person who cannot hear a whisper at a distance of two meters even with hearing aids.
22. Deafness
This refers to a person who cannot hear completely
31. Partial speech impairment
This refers to a person who makes unintelligible/unclear speech or stammers and whose speech is not easy to hear.
32. Inability to speak
This refers to a person who cannot speak at all (i.e. completely dumb or mute).
41. Inability to use 1 leg
This refers to a person who has one lame leg.
42. Inability to use 2 legs
This refers to a person who has two lame legs.
43. Inability to use 1 arm
This refers to a person who has one lame hand/arm.
44. Inability to use 2 arms
This refers to a person who has two lame hands/arms.
45. Inability to use the whole body
This refers to a person who cannot use their entire body.
51. Intellectual impairment
This refers to a person with a normal IQ level who begins to show strange behavior, thinking, acting, or talking in a different way than other people. The onset occurs later in life after a period of normal development.
61. Mental health disorder
This refers to a handicap of abnormal intellectual functioning with onset during the developmental period associated with impaired maturation, learning, and social maladjustment. The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is below normal.
71. Missing 1 leg
This refers to a person who has one missing leg.
72. Missing 2 legs
This refers to a person who has two missing legs.
73. Missing 1 arm
This refers to a person who has one missing arm.
74. Missing 2 arms
This refers to a person who has two missing arms.

[Table omitted]

Part D of the Questionnaire

178. Columns D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5: Deaths in the household
Q. Since Independence Day 2010, has any member of this household died (staying within the household for at least 14 days)?
Generally people are not happy to talk about deaths, especially recent ones, so be careful when asking this question. We are interested in recording information about any deaths since last Independence Day, September 30th, 2010, of anyone who had, up until their death, been a member of this household. The relevant portion of the sample questionnaire is shown below.
If there was any such death, enter the details in columns D1 to D5. Start with the serial number in D1. The first death should be given the serial number 01, the second death 02, etc. Record also the relationship in D2 of the deceased to the head of the current household, the SEX of the deceased in column D3 and his/her age in completed years at death in column D4. If the person was under 1 year at death enter 00. Lastly, in D5 you will have to collect information on where the deceased was living most of the times or usually before dying, which might help you establish if the deceased was really a member of the household. The deceased should be regarded as a member if he/she has stayed with the household for period of at least 14 days before death. Still births should not be considered to be deaths.

If there were no deaths, enter dashes in the spaces provided for answer codes in the first line only. Try by all means to eliminate the chances whereby one death is repeated in more than one household. The repetition of a death is common among relatives of the deceased who are not of the same household and confusion from those people who were staying in the same dwelling with the deceased but not being of the same household with the deceased. These situations could be avoided by finding out or probing for the usual residence of the deceased and whether the deceased had common provision for food with the household interviewed
[Table omitted]

Part E of the questionnaire

179. Columns E1-E7: Agriculture and land acquisition, and household cash activities, ICT equipment, and internet access

For some of the questions in this section, you may circle more than one code, if more than one response applies, i.e. for those whose codes are multiples of 2.

These questions relate only to members of the household - i.e. those listed in columns A1 and B1 but excluding any visitors listed in A1. Include also household members who normally would have spent the census night with the household but who were temporarily elsewhere in Botswana. For example, the usual head of household could be away on business during the census period, but he/she might be the only income earner for the household. Since he/she was not present in the household during the census, his/her employment would not be recorded in Part A and it would appear that the household had no source of income. However, the fact that the household receives income from his/her employment will be recorded in E5, E6 and E7.
Note that questions in Part E of the questionnaire relate only to activities within Botswana. For example, if a household member who is temporarily living in another country (and is therefore listed in Part B), has planted maize outside Botswana, that agricultural activity will not be recorded in column E2. If the same person owns cattle inside Botswana, then that ownership will be recorded in column E1.

The relevant portion of the sample questionnaire is shown on page 80.

180. Column E1: Ownership of livestock
Q. Does any member of this household own any of the following?

1. Cattle
2. Goats
4. Sheep
8. Pigs
16. Poultry
32. Donkeys/Mules
64. Horses
128. Ostrich
256. Game
512. None

Circle the appropriate answer code(s) if any usual member of the household owns any of the above listed livestock. For example, if any member of the household owns three goats and a few chickens, you would put rings around codes 2 and 16.

181. Column E2: Planting of crops
Q. Did any member of this household plant any of the following during the last agricultural season (harvested during the past 12 months)?

1. Maize
2. Millet
4. Sorghum
8. Beans
16. Watermelon
32. None
64. Other (specify)

Circle the appropriate answer code(s) if during the past agricultural season any member of the household planted any of the above. Write down the name(s) of any other crop(s) planted but not listed (e.g., sweet reeds). If they planted nothing at all, write 0 in the space below the codes, but not in the shaded area.

182. Column E3: Ownership/access to land used for planting
Q. Does any member of this household own or have access to land used for planting?
The objective of this question is to know whether the household owns the land used for planting or if the household borrowed/rented land used for planting. If the household borrowed/rented the land used for planting, this implies that the household does not own land but rather has access to the land used for planting.

Circle 1, 2, 3, for yes (own), yes (access) or no respectively depending on the answer provided by the respondent. If the response is no then go to E5.

183. Column E4: Land acquisition
Q. How was the land(s) used for planting acquired?
If a member of the household owns or has access to land used for planting, then ask how the land was acquired. Circle the appropriate answer code(s).

1. Land board
2. Tribal
4. Inheritance
8. Freehold
16. Lease
32. TGLP
64. Syndicate
128. Employer/Relative
256. Self-allocated

1. Land board
These are plots/fields used for planting which were allocated by land boards at the district level. The enumerator should note that there are no land boards in towns, therefore any response of land board in towns would be incorrect.
2. Tribal
These are plots/fields used for planting purposes which were allocated by tribal authorities (dikgosi or dikgosana) a long time ago before the formation of land boards.
4. Inheritance
These are plots/fields for planting acquired by inheritance regardless of means of previous acquisition. For example, any individual may inherit land from parents, relatives, etc.
8. Freehold
These are plots/fields used for planting acquired through purchasing land. The land is held in absolute ownership rather than a fixed period such as in the case of state land (i.e. Tuli Block Farms, etc.).
16. Lease
Land acquired through this policy entitles the owner a lease for a specified period of time.
32. TGLP
This is the land acquired through the Tribal Grazing Land Policy (TGLP). Examples of TGLP farms are Hainveld farms/ranches, farms in the Ncojane area, farms around the Lentsweletau area, etc.
64. Syndicate
A syndicate is a group of two or more people who collectively acquire a plot/field/farm. Usually, there is a mutual agreement (constitution) reached among the group on how to operate a farm/piece of land.
128. Employer/Relative
This is a situation whereby an individual has access to plant crops in a field that belongs to the employer (master)/relative. An example is that of a herd boy who might borrow some land to plant crops in his/her master's field.
256. Self-Allocated
This is the situation where an individual has accessed land for planting where no land authority (land authority implies any of the above listed categories of land acquisition) has made any allocation.

184. Column E5: Since Independence Day 2010, did any household members receive cash from: agricultural activities?
This could come from the sale of any of the following:

1. Cattle
2. Goats/sheep
4. Poultry
8. Maize
16. Sorghum/Millet
32. Watermelon/sweet reeds
64. Fruits and vegetables
128. Phane
256. Fish
512. Thatch/pole/reeds
1024. Firewood
2048. None

The most common cash-earning activities are listed above (and on the questionnaire), and you should circle the appropriate code(s) if, since September 30th, 2010, any member of the household earned money from the sale of any of these.

But space is also provided for you to specify any other activity from which a member of the household earned money since Independence Day, 2010. Remember to include cash activities of household members who would normally have spent the census night with the household, but who were temporarily elsewhere in Botswana at the time of the census.

The household may have earned cash from selling cattle, goats/sheep, poultry, maize, millet/sorghum, phane, fish, thatch/poles/reeds, and firewood and matlhowa.

185. Column E6: Since Independence Day 2010, did household members receive cash from: Household based activities
Q. Sale of homemade produce?
At least one member of the household may have earned cash from the sale of one of the following items:

1. Traditional beer
2. Other beverages
4. Craftwork
8. Clothes
16. Cooked food
32. Other (specify)

The respondent must be asked if any member of the household sold any of the above, by reading them out to the respondent one by one and circling the codes where the respondent answers "yes". If the household sold other items not listed above, or if any household member earned cash from running a general trading store or from hawking a variety of goods or from similar trading activities, and then write the income source on the space below the codes or in the comments box.

186. Column E7: Since Independence Day 2010, Did Household Members Receive Cash or In-kind Receipts
Q. Since Independence Day 2010, did any member of this household receive cash from:

1. Inside Botswana
2. Outside Botswana
3. Other Receipts (Cash of In-kind)
4. Pension
8. Rent
16. Maintenance
32. Employment
64. Destitute allowance
128. Government Rations

In this section, we are interested in finding out whether the household received any cash payment or unearned income during the reference period. Unearned income refers to payments made to the household other than from business profits or sale of one's own produce, goods, or services.
If anyone in Part A (other than visitors) worked for cash in the past 7 days then you should automatically circle code 32. This code (32) should also be used if a household member had a job a few months ago, but is currently unemployed. Since the household received income from his/her previous employment since Independence Day, 2010, the code for Employment would be circled in E7.

To ensure that codes 32 for employment are covered ask the respondent whether any household member received income from employment since Independence day 2010. If the answer is yes, then circle code 32 for employment in E7.

The most common types of unearned income are as follows:

1. Inside Botswana
This includes cash gifts and transfers from relatives, friends, or other living or working elsewhere in the country. For example, if a household member's husband/wife lives and works in Tsootsha and regularly sends part of his/her salary to them in Maun, this salary transfer would be recorded as remittance from inside Botswana (code 1). Remittances from inside Botswana also include family payments receipts. It should be noted that cash remittances refer not only to cash, which has been sent by post or mail, but also to any cash transfers, which have been delivered by hand, or in some other way. Distance between households affected is immaterial. The transfer must be permanent-cash loans to the household must not be included.
2. Outside Botswana
This includes cash gifts and transfers from relatives, friends or others living or working outside Botswana. For example, if a household member listed in Part B sends part of his/her salary to other household members; this salary transfer would be recorded as a remittance from outside Botswana (code 2). As above, cash remittances refer not only to cash, which has been sent by post or mail, but also to any cash transfers, which have been delivered by hand, or in some other way. The transfer must be permanent - cash loans to the household must not be included.
4. Pension
This is a payment, usually on a regular basis, by a previous employer to a worker who has retired or is no longer working for other reasons. For example, retired employees, old age pensioners and world war veterans are entitled to retirement pension, old age pension and world war veteran's pension respectively.
8. Rent
A household may receive payment for any property it lets out, such as a house or field. It should also include payments received for allowing its donkeys/mules/oxen to be used for ploughing.
16. Maintenance
This money is received when there is at least one child in the family who is being taken care of by the father/mother (not married to the mother/father), either voluntarily or as an order from the relevant court. It should be noted that persons paying (sending) maintenance must not be members of the household in reference.
Circle the appropriate answer code(s) if, since Independence Day, 2010 any member of the household received money from any of these sources. If household members did not receive cash from employment or from selling goods or providing services, then write 0 in the space below the codes, but not in the shaded area.
32. Employment
To ensure that code 32 for employment is covered, ask the respondent whether any household member received income from employment since Independence Day 2010. If the answer is yes, then circle code 32 for employment in E6.
64. Destitute Allowance
Money paid out by the government to persons classified as destitute.
128. Government Ratio
For example: food, clothing, toiletry, etc.
If none of the above applies, enter 0 in the space just below the codes but not in the shaded area.

[Table omitted]

187. Columns E8-E13: Housing unit
These questions relate to the housing unit occupied by the household you are enumerating. A housing unit is the unit of accommodation for a household. You will usually be able to answer some of these questions yourself simply from observation. However, if in doubt, ask, and then circle the most appropriate answer code. Note that in each of these columns you are to circle only one code. The relevant portion of the sample questionnaire is shown on page 82.

188. Column E8: Type of housing unit
This question refers to the housing unit in which the household you are enumerating lives. There are different types of housing units, identified and listed below. Circle the appropriate code for the household you are enumerating.

1. Traditional
A traditional lolwapa/dwelling is a residential place comprising one or more huts and/or other traditional structures, which are fenced together. Such malwapa/dwellings are mostly found in rural areas.
2. Mixed
This is a situation where the dwelling unit or lolwapa/dwelling is made up of a mixture of traditional houses and the modern type of housing units.
3. Detached House
This is a building that stands on its own, without sharing a wall with any other building. In many cases a detached house will also be fenced. A traditional hut standing on its own is to be classified as a lolwapa/dwelling. Please note that servants' quarters that are stand alone are also regarded as detached houses.
4. Semi-detached house
This is a building that shares a wall with just one other building, but which has its own separate entrance. It may be one or two stories high.
5. Town house
This is a building, in a group of many others sharing walls on two sides; each building has its own entrance, and the building may be one, two or even three stories high. A "town house" does not mean a "house in town". Note that the last unit at the end of a Town/Terraced House is not classified as Semi-Detached.
6. Flat, apartment
This is a unit of accommodation in a building. The building itself will usually have a main entrance and each flat will also have its own separate entrance; the building is usually 2 or more stories high, but each flat forms part of just one story or floor.
7. Part of commercial building
Sometimes part of a commercial building is used as residential quarters, particularly by small shopkeepers. Factory buildings may occasionally be used as housing units either by security personnel or staff of building contractors.
8. Movable
This is a housing unit, which can be transported from place to place either as a unit or in component parts. Examples are tents, tin-huts, port camps, caravans, etc.
9. Shack
This is a shelter built of remnants of packaging materials, e.g. cardboard boxes, polythene sheets, etc. Shacks are mostly found in urban areas.
10. Room(s)
In urban areas, particularly on SHHA plots and on low-cost plots, rooms in a building are sublet to tenants. Sometimes additional rooms are built on the plot for letting purposes.

189. Column E9: Tenure of housing unit
Q. How was this housing unit acquired?
This question captures information on how the household acquired the housing unit which they occupy.

1. Self-built (owner occupied)
This is a housing unit built by occupants.
2. Rent individual
This is a housing unit rented from an individual.
3. Job related free
This is a housing unit acquired without making any rental plans.
4. Rent central government
This is a housing unit rented from the Central Government
6. Inherited-free (owner occupied)
This is a housing unit acquired by inheritance regardless of means of previous acquisition.
7. Rent company
This is a housing unit rented from a company.
8. Rent BHC
This is a housing unit rented from Botswana Housing Corporation (BHC).
9. Rent local institutions
This is a housing unit rented from Local Institutions (Councils, Land boards, etc.).
10. Rent: VDC
This is a housing unit rented from a Village Development Committee (VDC).
11. Donated
This is a housing unit donated to occupants by different donor individuals/organizations.
12. Don't know
This code should be used if the respondent does not know how the housing unit was acquired.

190. Column E10: Number of rooms in the housing unit
Q. How many living rooms are there in this housing unit, excluding kitchen, toilet, bathroom, garage, and storage?

Enter in the space provided in the questionnaire, the number of rooms used for sleeping purposes, or as living rooms, in the housing unit where you are enumerating.

The following are excluded: kitchen(s), toilet(s), bathroom(s), garage(s) and store(s). However, if one of these is used for living or sleeping it should be counted as a living room - for example, a room which is used both as kitchen and living room would be counted. You will find examples of these in some rented SHHA houses in the urban areas and rondavels in the rural areas.

If more than one household shares one living room, count it only once for one of the households. You cannot count it more than once, as this would give an overestimate of the availability of accommodation in the country.

[Table omitted]

191. Columns E11/E12/E13: Material of construction of main housing unit
These questions refer to the material of construction of the main housing unit (the floor, the walls and the roof) where you are enumerating.

If it is a lolwapa/dwelling having more than one "sleeping" hut or house, obtain information about the material of construction of the main unit - the "main house" - which will usually be the one used by the head of the household.

If the housing unit is a room, it is the material for the room that is required and this is usually the same as the material for the house.

If more than one type of material is used, e.g. zinc and thatch for the roof, enter the one that has been used for the greater part of the roof.

192. Column E11: Walls
Observe the material of construction for the walls and circle the appropriate code.

1. Conventional bricks/blocks
2. Mud bricks/blocks
3. Mud and poles/cow dung/thatch/reeds
4. Poles and reeds
5. Corrugated iron/zinc/tin
6. Asbestos
7. Wood
8. Stone
9. Other (specify)

If none of the above applies, write the name of the material in the space below the codes.

192. Column E12: Floor
Observe or request to check the material of construction for the floor and circle he appropriate code.

1. Cement
2. Floor tiles
3. Mud
4. Mud and dung
5. Wood
6. Brick/Stones
7. None
8. Other (specify)

If none of the above applies, write the name of the material in the space below the codes.

193. Column E13: Roof
Observe the material of construction for the roof and circle the appropriate code.

1. Slate
2. Thatch/straw
3. Roof tiles
4. Corrugated iron/zinc/tin
5. Asbestos
6. Concrete
7. Other (specify)

If none of the above applies, write the name of the material in the space below the codes.

194. Column E14: Principal water supply
Q. What is the principal water supply for this household?
Circle the appropriate answer code for the principal source of water supply. If the particular source of water supply is not listed, write down the source under "Other (specify)". In cattle post areas, where people have to travel long distances to obtain water from a communal tap, indicate in the "Comments" column that it is a cattle post situation if the response is "communal tap".

1. Piped indoors
2. Piped outdoors
3. Neighbor's tap
4. Communal tap
5. Bouser/tanker
6. Well
7. Borehole
8. River/stream
9. Dam/Pan
10. Rain water tank
11. Spring water
12. Other (specify)

195. Column E15: Toilet facility
Q. What type of toilet is used by this household?

1. Own
2. Shared
3. Communal
4. Neighbor
50. None
-1. Flush toilet
-2. Ventilated improved pit latrine (VIP)
-3. Pit latrine
-4. Dry compost

An Own toilet is one, which has been built by a private household for its use. A toilet which is used by more than one household in the lolwapa/dwelling is still Own. They may share it with neighboring household(s) by private arrangement. If the toilet facility is Own and flush toilet, circle 1 for own and -1 for flush toilet as appropriate.

A communal toilet is one built by the community or local authorities for use by members of the public. If the toilet facility is communal and it is Pit Latrine, circle 3 for Communal and 3 for Pit Latrine as appropriate.

196. Column E16: Refuse disposal
Q. How does this household dispose of its refuse/rubbish?
Find out the method used by the household to get rid of waste or rubbish. If the household uses more than one method, ask for the one they regard to be the main or the one most often used. Only one code should be circled among the following:

1. Regularly collected
2. Irregularly collected
3. Burning
4. Roadside collection
5. Rubbish pit
6. Other (specify)

Incinerated/burn: Incinerated is the process of burning up completely (often done by the use of chemicals in institution such as hospital) whereas burning involves the process of destroying by fire.

If the method used is not among the ones above, circle other and write down that method in the space below the codes.

197. Column E17: Principal fuel for lighting
Q. What is the principal energy used by this household for lighting?
Ask for the principal source of fuel used by the household for lighting and circle the appropriate code. It is possible that a household may use more than one fuel at any one time but it is the one that is used most often that should be recorded. Only one code should be circled.

1. Electricity grid
2. Electricity petrol
3. Electricity diesel
4. Solar power
5. Gas (LPG)
6. Bio gas
7. Wood
8. Paraffin
9. Candle
10. Other (specify)

If the particular fuel used is not listed, write down the name of the fuel used in the space below the codes.

198. Column E18: Principal fuel for cooking
Q. What is the principal energy used by this household for cooking?
Ask for the principal energy source used by the household for cooking and circle the appropriate answer code. It is possible that a household may use more than one fuel at any one time but it is the one that is used most often that should be recorded. Only one code should be circled. Possible codes are as follows:

1. Electricity grid
2. Electricity petrol
3. Electricity diesel
4. Solar power
5. Gas (LPG)
6. Bio gas
7. Wood
8. Paraffin
9. Cow dung
10. Coal
11. Crop waste
12. Charcoal
13. Other (specify)

If the particular fuel used is not listed, write down the name of the fuel used in the space below the codes.

199. Column E19: Principal fuel for heating
Q. What is the principal energy used by this household for space heating?
Ask for the principal fuel used by the household for space heating and circle the appropriate answer code. It is possible that a household may use more than one fuel at any one time but it is the one that is used most often that should be recorded. Only one code should be circled. Possible codes are as follows:

1. Electricity grid
2. Electricity petrol
3. Electricity diesel
4. Solar power
5. Gas (LPG)
6. Bio gas
7. Wood
8. Paraffin
9. Cow dung
10. Coal
11. Charcoal
12. None
13. Other (specify)

If the particular fuel used is not listed, write down the name of the fuel used in the space below the codes.

[Table omitted]

200. Column E20: Ownership of durables
Q. Does any member of this household/housing unit own any of the following in working condition?
You should circle the appropriate code(s) if any member of the household owns any of the following durables in good working order:

1. Van/Bakkie
2. Tractor
4. Motor car
8. Donkey cart
16. Bicycle (kid bicycles for play excluded)
32. Wheelbarrow
64. Mokoro/boat
128. Sewing machine
256. Refrigerator
512. Motorbike

201. Column E21
Q. Does any member of this household/housing unit own any of the following in working condition?
You should circle the appropriate code(s) is any member of the household owns any of the following ICT equipment in good working order:

1. Desktop
2. Laptop
4. Radio
8. Television (TV)
16. Telephone (land line)
32. None

202. Column E22
Q. Does any member of this household own a working cellular-phone?

1. Yes
2. No

Skip to E24 is the answer is No.

203. Column E23
List the serial numbers of all members (from Column A1 and B1) of this household who own cellular phones.

204. Column E24
Q. Does any member of this household have access to the Internet?
You should circle the appropriate code(s) if any member of the household has access to internet from any of the following places:

1. Home
2. Workplace
4. Primary school
8. Secondary school
16. Other institutions
32. Internet cafe
64. Cellular phone internet
128. Post office (Kitsong Centre)
256. Elsewhere
512. No access
1024. Don't know

[Table omitted]

Part 5: Procedure after each household enumeration

205. When you have completed the enumeration of a household, thank the household members for their co-operation. If it is the only household in the lolwapa/dwelling, stick a white label (see paragraph 201) to their door next to the metal plate (or to the doors in urban areas) and record the summary data for that lolwapa/dwelling on the Control List.

206. If there were two or more households in the lolwapa/dwelling and you have completely enumerated all of them, attach a white label and record the summary data for each household on the Control List.

207. If one of the households in the lolwapa/dwelling hasn't been enumerated, use an orange label (see paragraph 202) and update your enumerator revisit record following the instructions in paragraphs 193-200. In such cases complete summary details for the enumerated households.

208. The paragraphs above briefly describe the procedure you must follow after each household enumeration or lolwapa/dwelling visit. The detailed procedure is now described under four sub-headings:

A. The control list - Its used during revisits and after enumeration
B. The enumerator revisit record
C. The white and orange labels
D. Completing the EA book summary

A. The Control list—Its use during revisits and after enumeration

208. Use of the status codes
After each visit (or revisit) to a lolwapa/dwelling you must update the Control List by entering in the status column (after any status codes recorded at previous visits) whichever of the following codes reflects the latest enumeration status of this lolwapa/dwelling.

209. Status=1: Enumerated
This is the code to use when enumeration has been completed for the only household or for all the households in the lolwapa/dwelling. Having completed the enumeration of the household(s) in the lolwapa/dwelling, you must also record data for the entire lolwapa/dwelling under the appropriately named columns of the Control List as follows:

a. The total number of households enumerated in the lolwapa/dwelling.
b. The total number of persons present that have been enumerated in each of the households in the lolwapa/dwelling (from Part A of the questionnaire).
c. The total number of persons enumerated as being outside Botswana separately for each of the households in the lolwapa/dwelling (from Part B of the questionnaire).
d. Any comments you may have with regards to the enumeration in the lolwapa/dwelling.
e. In the case of more than four households in the lolwapa/dwelling, use the first blank line of the control list and indicate on the comments box that it is a continuation. Repeat the lolwapa/dwelling number on the dwelling number column. If there are more than eight households, repeat the process until all the enumerated households have been accommodated.

210. Status=2: Revisit
Status should be set equal to 2 if contact has not yet been made with every household in the lolwapa/dwelling and a revisit is going to be necessary in order to conduct or complete the enumeration. Enter the details of all such household(s) in the lolwapa/dwelling on the enumerator revisit record (one line per household) at the back of the enumeration area book.

211. Status=3: Empty
Use this code if you have determined that the lolwapa/dwelling is definitely unoccupied. For instance, neighbors may tell you that nobody lives there. In isolated areas, look for signs of occupation, such as fresh water marks, warm ashes, domestic animals, utensils, food marks, etc. If a lolwapa/dwelling is definitely unoccupied, then the following things should happen.

a. You will not be revisiting the lolwapa/dwelling.
b. You should fill in dashes in all columns from "Number of Enumerated Households."
c. Write under the comments column why you have coded the lolwapa/dwelling with this status (i.e. house demolished).

Whenever you use code 3, your supervisor is required to verify that the lolwapa/dwelling was definitely unoccupied. When your supervisor visits the lolwapa/dwelling to check this, he/she may discover that the lolwapa/dwelling is now occupied. In such cases, your supervisor should/will ask you to revisit the lolwapa/dwelling to enumerate them; you should then write in the comments box of the questionnaire that the lolwapa/dwelling is now occupied and record a status code of 1 after the 3 in the "Status" column.

212. Status=4: Other
Use this code if any situation apart from the above three applies. It will mostly be used when contact has been made with the only household or all households in the lolwapa/dwelling, but enumeration cannot be started or completed for reasons such as refusal, or because there has just been a death or birth in the household. Status code 4 is very similar to status code 2 in that a revisit is going to be necessary. So, when the status code is 4, you must enter the details of all the households in the lolwapa/dwelling on the enumerator revisit record (one line per household) at the back of the enumeration area book (see further details in paragraphs 183-186).

213. For status codes of 2 or 4, further visits will be necessary and at any one of these revisits you may succeed in completing the enumeration of all the households in the lolwapa/dwelling (when the status code will become 1 and you proceed as indicated for status code 1).

214. The only other possible situation is that, after your third (and possibly final) revisit, the status code remains at 2 or 4 - because at this third revisit you have still not been able to complete enumeration of all the households in the lolwapa/dwelling. In such a situation your completion of the Control List will depend on whether it is a one-household or multi-household lolwapa/dwelling.

a. One-household lolwapa/dwelling
If status is 4 and you made some original contact with the household you may know how many people are usually present in this household. If your original contact didn't help (or if status is 2) see if any neighbor can tell you. If you can estimate the number of persons in the household, enter "1 hh" in the "Comments" column, followed by the estimated number of persons, using a "p" for persons. For example, if there were 3 persons present, you would write "1 hh, 3 p" in the "Comments" column. If you cannot estimate the number of persons, enter dashes in the various columns and, in the "Comments" column, write "unable to enumerate". In either case, enter another 2 or 4 in the "Status" column.

b. Multi-household lolwapa/dwelling
Obtain from the other occupants of the lolwapa/dwelling the number of persons living in the household(s) you are unable to enumerate. Complete the remaining columns of the Control List as follows:

i. Enter another 2 or 4 in the status column.
ii. Complete the remaining columns for in the households that you were able to enumerate as instructed earlier for status code 1.
iii. Enter the number of households you are unable to enumerate in the comments column, followed by the number of persons you are told are living in the household(s) you were unable to enumerate, using the symbol "hh" for households and "p" for persons. For example, if there were two households and seven people, you would write "2 hh, 7p" in the comments column.

215. Institutions
The treatment of institutions is a special case and is discussed fully in part 6.

B. Enumerator revisit record

216. The Enumerator Revisit Record is designed for you to keep a record of those households you must revisit.

217. If there is more than one household in a lolwapa/dwelling and you haven't been able to enumerate all of them at your first visit, you must:

a. If you have not been back on a revisit, record village code, locality code, locality name, lolwapa/dwelling number, and household number under the appropriate columns.
b. Enter the date/time of appointment for a revisit in the first date/time of appointment/revisit columns and leave subsequent columns blank. You can, of course, only make a real appointment if you have met the household(s) and arranged a time convenient for them. But date/time of appointment in this context could also mean the date/time when you will revisit the household and try again.
c. If at your first revisit, you have not been able to enumerate the household(s), make an appointment for a second revisit and enter the date/time of appointment/revisit in the second date/time of appointment/revisit columns.
d. If at your second revisit you still have not been able to enumerate, make an appointment for a third revisit and enter the date/time of appointment/revisit in the third date/time of appointment/revisit columns.
e. If at your final revisit you still have not been able to enumerate, you will enter dashes into the remaining columns and comment accordingly in the comments column.
f. If at one of the revisits you are able to enumerate, you will enter dashes in any remaining date/time of appointment/revisit columns and complete the rest of the enumerator revisit record.

218. If there is only one household in the lolwapa/dwelling and you were unable to enumerate the household at your first visit, then follow the above steps.

219. This may seem to be unnecessary additional work, but it is important that the information for all the households in a lolwapa/dwelling be in one place and not scattered all over the EA Book(s). Remember that, no blank pages are to be left in the EA book for households that cannot be enumerated first time round. Information for a household enumerated at a revisit will be further on in the EA book or even in a different EA book from the other households in the same lolwapa/dwelling that were enumerated at the first visit.

220. You will note that the enumerator revisit record has been designed so that you can make up to four visits (or three revisits) to any one household.

221. This has been done because the census enumeration period is of only ten days duration and it may not be possible to make more than three revisits to any one household and completely enumerate the EA in the time available. However, if time allows you may make as many visits as possible within the time frame of the enumeration period.

222. If more than three revisits are possible use the "comments" column for recording dates and times of further appointments.

223. It is important that revisits are scheduled so that you are able to contact the household(s). If the first visit was during the daytime, schedule a revisit for an evening or early morning (See also part 6 page 86 onwards). The Census Act allows you to collect data at any time between the hours of 6:00 in the morning and 08:00 in the evening; but in practice you may find that respondents prefer that you avoid the extremes of early morning or late evening.

C. The white and orange labels

224. A label is to be affixed to every lolwapa/dwelling to ensure that no household is enumerated more than once and that none is missed. The white label should be affixed on a lolwapa/dwelling when all the households living there have been completely enumerated. The label should be affixed where it would be easily visible to your supervisor and others checking your work. Where possible, it should be affixed next to the metal plate, or on doors in urban areas. The date of enumeration/visit and the time should be entered on the label. This will help your supervisor when trying to locate you during enumeration.

225. The orange label is to be fixed on any lolwapa/dwelling that has not been enumerated or where enumeration has not been completed. The code you should record is the "Status" code that you will also have recorded on the Control List - this will be 2, 3 or 4. The date and time of each visit to the lolwapa/dwelling must be entered on the label. If you do not know the exact time of the visit, then estimate the time.

226. On a subsequent visit, if the lolwapa/dwelling is completely enumerated, remove the orange label and replace it with a white one. Enter the date and time of enumeration on the label.

227. In general, the white label should only be affixed to a lolwapa/dwelling when a questionnaire has been completed for EACH of the households occupying the lolwapa/dwelling.

D. Completing the EA book summary

228. On the front cover of each EA Book, you will see an area entitled Enumeration Check Control. You must use this to summarize the number of enumerated households and persons that were listed in this particular EA Book.

229. The only other part of the front cover that need concern you is in the panel to the right of the Enumeration Check Control where you will sign and record the date when you have completed your checking of the EA Book and completed the front cover summary. You may also use the comments box in the bottom right hand corner if you have any additional points that you wish to bring to the attention to your supervisor, the DCO, or Census Office.

230. The Enumeration Check Control area consists of six columns and twenty-five rows or lines. Beneath 25 lines there is a row for the totals of enumerated households, persons present, and persons outside Botswana. It is important that you complete this section immediately after you have completed another page of the questionnaire.

231. The lines numbered 1 - 25 correspond to the page numbers of the questionnaires in the EA Book. Your first entry on the Front Cover will be a summary of the data recorded on page 1 of the EA Book. From page 1, transfer the following information:

a. Village code, locality code, and lolwapa/dwelling number to be entered in columns 2, 3, and 4, respectively.
b. Number of enumerated households in column 5
c. Number of enumerated persons present in column 6, from Part A of the questionnaire.
d. Number of enumerated persons outside Botswana in column 7, from Part B of the questionnaire.

232. Remember that a household may have more than the maximum of ten people present that can be accommodated on a single page and/or more than the maximum of three people outside of Botswana or deceased or with disability. But the summary data on the front cover must reflect the contents of each page of the questionnaire.

233. To help you understand how to complete the Enumeration Check Control, please see the completed one in page 91. The various situations in this example are discussed in the following paragraphs. For instance, on pages 1 and 2 of the EA Book a household of 15 persons was enumerated with the first 10 persons listed on page 1 and the remaining 5 persons on page 2. So on the front cover the number of persons present is 10 for page 1 and 5 for page 2. Also note that in this case the number of households is 1 for page 1. Since a new household was started on this page, but the number of households for page 2 is shown as a dash, because the household listed on page 2 is simply a continuation of the household from page 1. The identification codes for line 1 and 2 are the same as it is the same household.

234. Situation 1: Page 3 of the EA Book is a household with two people listed in Part A and one person in Part B. On line 3 of the front cover, enter:

a. The village and locality codes and the lolwapa/dwelling number
b. 1 in the number of enumerated household(s) column
c. 2 in the number of enumerated person(s) present column
d. 1 in the number of enumerated person(s) outside Botswana column

235. Situation 2: On page 4 of the questionnaire is a household with 11 people present from Part A and no people outside Botswana from Part B. On lines 4 and 5 of the front cover, enter:

a. The usual identification codes on line 4 and repeated on line 5, followed by the following.
b. 1 in the number of enumerated household(s) column
c. Dash (-) in the number of enumerated households for line 5
d. 10 in the number of enumerated person(s) present column
e. 1 in the number of enumerated person(s) outside Botswana column

236. Situation 3: There are 12 people present in the next hold from Part A and four outside Botswana from Part B. The first 10 of the 12 persons present would be listed on page 6 and the remaining 2 on page 8 as page 7 is cancelled due to a mistake made; and the first 3 persons outside Botswana would be listed on page 6 and the remaining person on page 8. On line 6 of the front cover, enter the usual identification codes, followed by:

a. 1 in line 6 in the number of enumerated household(s) column
b. 10 in the number of enumerated person(s) present column
c. 3 in the number of enumerated person(s) outside Botswana column

On line 8 of the front cover enter the same identification codes as on line 6, followed by:

a. A dash (-) in the number of enumerated household(s) column
b. 2 in the number of enumerated person(s) present column
c. 1 in the number of enumerated person(s) outside Botswana column

237. Situation 4: A household has five persons present and six persons outside Botswana. The five persons present would all be listed on page 9, and the six persons outside would be listed on two pages of the questionnaire, pages 9 and 10. One line 9 of the front cover, enter the usual identification codes followed by:

a. 1 in the number of enumerated household(s)
b. 5 in the number of enumerated person(s) present column
c. 3 in the number of enumerated person(s) outside Botswana column

On line10 of the front cover enter the identification codes as on line 9, followed by:

a. A dash (-) in the number of household(s) column
b. 0 in the number of enumerated person(s) present column
c. 3 in the number of enumerated person(s) outside Botswana column

238. Situation 5: A household has seven persons present and four persons died since last year. This would be summarized on line 11 as follows:

a. 1 in the number of enumerated household(s) column
b. 7 in the number of enumerated person(s) present column
c. 0 in the number of enumerated person(s) outside Botswana column

Enter the same identification codes on line 12, followed by:

a. A dash (-) in the number of enumerated household(s) column
b. A dash (-) in the number of enumerated person(s) present column
c. A dash (-) in the number of enumerated person(s) outside Botswana column

239. Situation 6: A household has 22 persons present and therefore three pages of the EA Book were needed to list them all. They also have no persons outside Botswana. On page 13 the first ten household members were listed. The next ten persons would have been listed on page 14 but the enumerator recorded details for someone who shouldn't have been listed, realized his/her mistake, and had to delete a whole line. He/she could therefore only record nine persons in Part A on page 14. The final three persons were then listed on page 15. In line 13, enter the following:

a. 1 in the number of enumerated household(s) column
b. 10 in the number of enumerated person(s) present column
c. 0 in the number of enumerated person(s) outside Botswana column

In line 14, enter the following:

a. A dash (-) in the number of enumerated household(s) column
b. 9 in the number of enumerated person(s) present column
c. 0 in the number of enumerated person(s) outside Botswana column

In line 15, enter the following:

a. A dash (-) in the number of enumerated household(s) column
b. 3 in the number of enumerated person(s) present column
c. A dash (-) in the number of enumerated person(s) outside Botswana column

240. Take note if the following procedure has been followed correctly.

a. For households with more than 10 persons in Part A or more than 3 persons in Part B of the Questionnaire, the locality and lolwapa/dwelling/house numbers will be repeated more than once on the front covers.
b. The Number of Enumerated Households will always be 1 or a dash in any one line on the front cover.
c. Entries in the columns headed "Number of Enumerated Persons Present" will always be a number between 1 and 10 for any one line on the front cover or a dash.
d. Entries in the columns headed "Number of Enumerated Persons Outside Botswana" will always be a number between 0 and 3 for any one line on the front cover.

241. If for any reason you have cancelled a page of the questionnaire, say page 7 (see the completed EA book front cover on page 102), you will write, "cancelled" on line 7 of the front cover.

242. If you have made a mistake on entering the front cover, cross out the wrong entry neatly and enter the correct one. Do not cross out the whole line because, if you do, the front cover entries will no longer correspond to the questionnaire pages. If you are doubtful that the entry is legible, comment accordingly in the "Comments" column, giving the correct entry.

243. After filling all the 25 lines with entries, you must add up, for page numbers 1-25, the number of enumerated households, persons present and persons outside Botswana and enter the total in the row labelled "total".

244. It is important that you correctly transfer the information required from all the pages of the Questionnaire as this summarizes your work and these summaries will also be used for compiling preliminary counts of the population.

245. The totals calculated from all your EA Books should be the same as the totals calculated from all your Control Lists in the Enumeration Area.

246. A similar form is to be found on the cover of every Institutional Questionnaire book. Its completion is discussed fully in Part 6.

Part 6: Institutional questionnaire

247. Persons living in institutions are to be enumerated on a separate questionnaire - the Institutional Questionnaire. Such persons will include: patients in hospitals, persons staying in hotels, prisoners, BDF personnel in barracks and miners in hostels. Twenty-five copies of the Institutional Questionnaire will be bound together into one book.

248. The Institutional Questionnaire is a shortened version of the household questionnaire. Parts B, D and E are excluded; and Part A questions on "relationship to head" and some of the fertility questions are also omitted from the institutional questionnaire. The instructions for completing the institutional questionnaire are, otherwise, the same as those for completing the household questionnaire. On the institutional questionnaire the name of the institution should also be recorded at the top of the page, after the lolwapa/dwelling/house number. The "institution code" should be left blank. The lolwapa/dwelling/house number for the institution should be taken from the control list, in the usual way. When enumerating an institution using the household questionnaire, you should remember that there are questions, which are in the institutional questionnaire but are not in the household questionnaire. These questions are very crucial and need to be asked.

a. Residence Question (F7)
If the response in F7 is 1, then continue interviewing; otherwise, if the response is non-resident then the interview ends.
b. In F21, there is a category for a prisoner as option 10.

Resident is a person who resides permanently in a place at a specified time period or a person who is in possession of a residence permit/work permit/study permit.
Non-resident is a person who resides temporarily at a place at a specified period in time and is not in possession of the above documents.

249. An institutional questionnaire (IQ) book will not be required in every EA, so they will be issued only for those EAs in which an institution was identified at the mapping stage. However, the District Census Officers will have spare IQ books in case some institutions were not identified during the planning of the census. If an IQ book is not readily available, the Household Questionnaire may be used for enumerating institutions (see paragraph 236 for further details).

250. For patients in hospital who are seriously ill, it might not be possible to obtain all the required information; efforts should be made to obtain available information from hospital officials.

251. Because of security restrictions at BDF barracks, special arrangements are being made for BDF personnel to carry out the enumeration.

252. Whilst hospital patients, hotel guests and soldiers in barracks will be listed on the Institutional Questionnaire, staff who live in houses or flats within institutional compounds should be enumerated on Household Questionnaires, e.g. hospital doctors, school teachers, police officers, some army officers, etc. Persons staying in work camps should be enumerated on Household Questionnaires if they make their own arrangements for food; if they eat communally, then they should be enumerated on Institutional Questionnaires.

253. Although school boarders will be away on holiday during August, schools may be used by other groups for workshops, courses etc. and the participants in these courses may be using the boarding facilities. So always check as to whether or not anyone is staying at the school.

254. Your guide to the malwapa/dwellings in your EA will, of course, be the Control List. If an institution was found within the EA, it will be recorded on a single line of the Control List with the "head of household" left blank and the name of the institution recorded under Comments. If there are any separate staff houses/flats within the same institutional compound, these will have been listed separately, one per line, in the conventional way as for ordinary malwapa/dwellings. The numbering of staff houses will depend on whether or not the institution was in an urban area with a plot number.

255. Institutions with plot numbers
If the institution has a plot number, e.g. 4063, then 4063 will appear on the Control List as the lolwapa/dwelling number for the institution and 04063 should be recorded on the Institutional Questionnaire as the lolwapa/dwelling/house number. The staff houses/flats will then be listed as having lolwapa/dwelling number 4063/1, 4063/2, 4063/3, 4063/4 etc. You will have to treat these as you treated blocks of flats in urban areas. So every lolwapa/dwelling on that plot will have the same lolwapa/dwelling number - 04063 - but each will have a different household number. So you must assign household number 0001 to 4063/1; household number 0002 to 4063/2 ; 0003 to 4063/3 etc. If you find more than one household living within a flat/house, you cannot use the same approach as for conventional housing because the household numbers have already been used to identify the different staff houses. Instead, use a much bigger household number that won't otherwise be used. For example, there are 25 malwapa/dwellings on a staff compound and you find that at flat/house number 7 there are two households. Assign household number 7 to the first household and household number 26 to the second household. If you find a similar situation within another staff house, use number 27 for the second household etc.

256. Institutions without plot numbers
In rural areas (and in some urban areas), you will find institutions listed that had to be assigned numbers on metal plates. In these situations you will again find the institution listed on a single line of the Control List and each lolwapa/dwelling within the institutional compound listed separately, one per line. But in these cases the lolwapa/dwelling numbers assigned to the institution and to the staff malwapa/dwellings will all be different. So you can simply use each lolwapa/dwelling number as the lolwapa/dwelling/house number at the top of the questionnaires. The household number can be used in the conventional way to separately identify different households within the same lolwapa/dwelling.

257. Remember that people who were working at the institution during the night should not be included on the Institutional Questionnaire. Instead, they will be included on the Household Questionnaire where they would have spent the night had they not been working.

258. Hotels, Safari Camps, and Hunting Lodges
For all other institutions you will record the information directly onto the Institutional Questionnaire. But for hotels, safari camps and hunting lodges we have designed a special individual form (see pages 106-110) to be completed by every guest staying at the hotel on the chosen census night. You will decide which night is to be selected as census night for the hotel/camp/lodge and go to the hotel the day before the chosen census night. Introduce yourself to the hotel receptionist and/or manager. All managers have been sent a letter explaining all about the census. However, you will have spare copies of this letter in case the manager cannot remember seeing the original letter. Give the receptionist a number of individual forms - as many as there are guests staying in the hotel, plus a few spare forms for possible late arrivals. Also give the receptionist a similar number of Hotel Guest Letters and envelopes. The letter explains to the hotel guests the purpose of the census and the procedure for completing the forms. A form is to be completed for every guest (including babies and children) and the completed forms are to be placed in the sealed envelope provided and left with the receptionist with the room number clearly marked on the front of the envelope.

You should return the following day to collect the envelopes containing the completed forms from the receptionist. When you have left the hotel you should open the envelopes and transfer the information from the individual forms to an Institutional Questionnaire. The information from the first form will be recorded on the first line of the Questionnaire; information from the second form will be recorded on the second line, etc. Even when you have transferred the data from the individual forms you should still keep these completed forms with you and hand them over to your supervisor at the end of the census.

If, when you return to the hotel to collect the completed forms, you are told that some guests have not yet handed in an envelope, your course of action will depend on whether or not these guests are still in the hotel. If they have already checked out, ask if the receptionist can provide you certain details from the hotel register (name, sex and home address - for place of usual living). Record this data directly onto an Institutional Questionnaire, filling in 9s for any other information. If the guests are still in the hotel you should ask the receptionist/manager if you could be allowed to see the guests to remind them to complete the forms. You may then have to revisit the hotel again to collect the completed forms.

[Table omitted]

259. Using a household questionnaire for enumerating institutions
If you have no Institutional Questionnaires and you cannot obtain any from your supervisor or DCO you may instead use the Household Questionnaire. Record the name of the institution in the space after the "household number" at the top of the questionnaire. In Part A, certain questions will not apply. These are the "Relationship" to head of household (A3) and parts of the fertility section - columns A28, and A29. Dashes should be recorded under these columns instead. None of the questions in Sections B, D and E should be asked either. These sections should be crossed out. Section C is to be asked of people living in institutions so remember to record details of anyone with any of these disabilities. If you have to use a Household Questionnaire for an institution, think of the institution as one large "household". Enumerate the first ten people on the next available page of your EA Book; then continue listing on the following pages until you have listed everyone in the institution. Finally, write an appropriate remark in the Comments Box so that the Census Office is made aware that these pages have been used to enumerate an institution, not a household.

260. Completing the enumerator revisit record
On the back of every EA Book is an Enumerator Revisit Record which you are to use to keep a record of those households that you must revisit. Similarly, on the back of every IQ Book is a slightly different Revisit Record. Instead of listing households that are to be revisited you must list those units within an institution that must be revisited. Like in the case of households, for institutions you also need only a list of those units that need to be revisited. The "unit" referred to here will depend on the type of institution. At a hotel, lodge or safari camp the unit will be the room, rondavel or tent. When you collect the envelopes from reception, find out which of the previous night's occupants failed to hand in an envelope. If they are still staying at this hotel/lodge, you may be able to see them immediately to enumerate them or to collect their completed form(s). If not, record their room/rondavel numbers (and hotel name) on the Revisit Record. When you are able to make contact with the occupants of the room, confirm that they were staying at the hotel/lodge on the census night for that hotel. We only wish to collect information from those staying at institutions on the fixed census night.

If the institution is a hospital you may have failed to totally enumerate every ward in the hospital, so write down on the Revisit Record the name of the hospital and the ward number. The Revisit Record is to help you keep a record of revisits you still have to make. Institutions range from luxury hotels to hospitals to prisons and the Revisit Record will have to be used in whatever way you think appropriate for the institution you are enumerating. Note that the "Institution Code" on the Revisit Record should be ignored and left blank.

261. Completing the control list
When you have completed the enumeration of an institution, you must also complete the information for that institution on the Control List as follows:

a. Put a dash under the number of households
b. Record the total number of persons enumerated at the institution under "Persons Present"
c. Put dashes under the column "persons outside Botswana"

262. Completing the IQ book summary
When you have completed the enumeration of all the institutions in your EA you should record on the IQ book cover the total number of people enumerated on each of the questionnaires. This is similar to the EA book cover. For each page of the questionnaire you must record:

a. The village code and the locality code
b. The lolwapa/dwelling number
c. The name of the institution that was enumerated on that page
d. The total number of persons enumerated on that page
e. You should leave blank the "Institutional Code" spot just as you should leave it blank on each questionnaire

Part 7: Tlhanolo

[This section was not translated and therefore was omitted]
[Appendices omitted]