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2001 Population and Housing Census
Enumerators Manual

[Table of content is omitted here]

[Introduction part 1 is omitted here]

Part 2: Definitions of terms and concepts

A. Enumeration area

13. An Enumeration Area (EA) is the smallest geographic unit, which represents an average workload for an enumerator over a specified period. The average size of an EA is approximately 120-150 malwapa.

14. An EA may be a whole locality (this is the case of a small village which is an EA by itself), a part of a locality (this is the case of a bigger village which has been divided into more than one EA) or a group of localities (this is the case of cattle posts, lands areas or freehold farms).

15. You will be allocated one or more EAs, and you will be responsible for visiting every lolwapa in them and for recording the information required in respect of every person in the household(s) constituting the lolwapa

16. It is important that you are able to identify an EA assigned to you with the help of a map and the list of names in the control list.

17. For an EA which consists of smaller localities, you will be given a map showing the location of the localities in the EA and the number of malwapa in each locality. For the identification of the EA you will depend on:

- the EA map affixed to the EA file showing the position of the localities in the EA

- the Control Lists which have been prepared for each of the localities

- the census numbers fixed to the malwapa

- the knowledge of the local people

18. For an EA which forms part of a big village, you will also be given a map which will show you the location of the EA relative to adjacent areas in the village. For the identification of the EA you will depend on:

- the EA map and the map affixed to the EA file.

- the Control List - each line of the Control List in the EA File shows the name of the head of household or senior person who was living in the lolwapa when the mapping took place

- the census numbers fixed to the malwapa; usually pinned to dwelling doors.

- the knowledge of the local people

19. For an EA in town, the boundaries are identifiable through landmarks like roads and streets, which have names and plots, which have numbers. In most cases the road/street names and plot numbers are marked on signboards and on the map. These, in addition to the Control List, are to be used for the identification of the EA.

20. EA boundaries are denoted by + + + + + + on the map. In addition, your EA boundaries are highlighted in red to distinguish it from other EAs which may appear on your map but which are not assigned to you. Make sure that you know the boundaries of your EA so that you do not leave out some malwapa or include those that do not belong to your area. Your supervisor will help you.

B. Locality

21. A locality is defined as any human settlement with a name and identifiable boundaries.

C. Lolwapa/Dwelling

22. A lolwapa, in its traditional sense, consists of one or more structures or buildings, permanent or temporary, usually surrounded by a fence/wall or something to mark its boundaries. In some areas the huts and/or other structures may not be fenced, but they are usually in very close proximity.

23. Mapping teams have already identified every lolwapa in Botswana and, in rural areas, affixed a lolwapa number (on a metal plate) to the door of each lolwapa. In urban areas the plot number has been used as the lolwapa number - and, since the plot number is usually visible, no metal plates have been affixed to urban malwapa.

24. A lolwapa may contain more than one household and it is part of your duty to identify them all. You must not miss any household in your area(s) nor count any twice.

25. A lolwapa is, actually a target address which provides access to the household(s). For you not to miss any household in any lolwapa in your EA, it is important that you fully understand what a household is.

D. Household

26. A household consists of one or more persons, related or unrelated, living together "under the same roof" in the same lolwapa, eating together "from the same pot" and/or making common provision for food and other living arrangements.

27. In some places, particularly in the towns, houses and blocks of flats have servants' quarters built within the same fence or compound. Servants occupying servants' quarters should be enumerated as separate households. There may be other people who are not servants and not part of the main household occupying these quarters; such persons should also be enumerated as separate households. Children or other family members occupying servants' quarters, but being part of the household, should be treated as part of the household.

28. In some urban areas, particularly on SHHA plots, rooms are let out to people for residential purposes. Each tenant unit should be regarded as a separate household. A tenant unit may consist of one or more rooms.

29. Sometimes two or more persons who are not related to each other share a house or flat. They should be enumerated as a single household, provided they share common budgetary and housekeeping arrangements. Otherwise, they should be enumerated as separate households.

30. You should use a separate questionnaire for each household you enumerate.

31. You will enumerate everyone who slept in the lolwapa on the night before your visit, according to the households to which they belong. If, on your first visit, you are able to enumerate the household, then this night is called the census night for that household, and all questions should be asked with respect to that night. If you are unable to enumerate the household, you must revisit the household. In such cases, the census night becomes the night before the revisit, if when you revisit you are then able to enumerate.

32. Sometimes there are persons who would normally have slept at the lolwapa but who are known to have been absent during the night before your visit (census night) and not to have slept at any other lolwapa. Such persons should be enumerated with the households with whom they would normally have spent the night. Examples of such persons include night watchmen or policemen on night duty; railway staff on the night shift; persons working in hospitals, hotels and prisons throughout the night; hunting parties who slept in the bush; parties away cutting thatch; persons at overnight prayer meetings; and persons away at funeral wake keeping.

33. Patients in hospitals, persons staying in hotels, prisoners, BDF personnel in barracks and miners in hostels should be enumerated on Institutional Questionnaires that will be provided by the supervisor. However, people living in houses in institutional compounds should be enumerated on Household Questionnaires, e.g. doctors in hospitals, teachers in schools, police officers, some army officers, etc. Persons staying in work camps should be enumerated on Household Questionnaires if they make their own arrangements for food; if they eat communally, then they should be enumerated on Institutional Questionnaires.

34. A person who died before 6:00 in the morning of the day of your visit should not be enumerated with the household in Part A. Particulars of such persons must be recorded in Part D of the questionnaire (Deaths). If a person died after 6:00 in the morning, he will be recorded in Part A of the questionnaire (information about individual household members), since he was alive during the whole of the census night.

35. However, in almost all cases of death just before your visit you would be advised to come back another time. Since, when you revisit, you will be asking for details of persons present in the household the night before your revisit, any person who died just before your first visit will now be included in Part D. Do not persist in enumerating the household unless members are willing to be enumerated.

36. There may be occasions when some people say that they have already been enumerated at another lolwapa and that they are only visiting the household where you find them. The rule stays the same. If they spent the census night with the household where you find them, you should enumerate them again, and write in the space provided on the questionnaire for comments "Person number ...... enumerated before at ....... (address)".

37. It is possible that a person might object to being counted twice. In that case you should ask his name together with the date and place where he was enumerated. Write this information down in the comments box, and report the matter to your supervisor when he comes to check your work.

E. Head of household

38. The head of a household is any person, male or female, at least 12 years old, who is regarded by other members of the household as their head. This person may or may not be a blood relative of other members of the household. In exceptional circumstances, if amongst those who spent the night there is no one aged 12 or over, the eldest child will have to be entered as head of household. A comment to this effect should be included in the comments box of the questionnaire.

39. In most cases the head will be either the husband or the wife, in the case of a married couple, but in other cases it may be any responsible or senior person in the household.

40. If the usual head of household is away from home and didn't spend the census night with the household, another responsible or senior person will have to be nominated as the head of household from amongst those who did spend the census night in the lolwapa.

F. Respondent

41. There may be instances where the head of household spent the census night with the household, but at the time of your visit he is not present. You may then ask any member of the household present (aged 12 years or over) for the information required. Whoever provides the information is referred to as a respondent.

42. A respondent need not be the head of household.

43. Sometimes a respondent may be someone who did not spend the census night with the household. You are allowed to ask such a person for information on behalf of members of the household, but the respondent should not be listed with the household. However, if the respondent did spend the census night with the household, he should be listed with the household and his relationship to the head of household coded accordingly.

[Part 3: Preparation for enumeration is omitted here]

Part 4: The enumeration procedure

[Part 4: The enumeration procedure from section A through D is omitted here]

E. The structure of the questionnaire

81. The questionnaire is divided into five parts - A, B, C, D and E. Portions of an example of a completed questionnaire are given as the corresponding various parts of the questionnaire are explained.

Part A:

82. In Part A you must list all those persons who spent the census night with this household in this lolwapa. Also to be included are those who would have slept in this lolwapa if they had not been on night duty as a nurse, guard, etc. (see paragraph 32).

83. Part A is sub-divided into the following five sections:

84. The first section consists of columns A1 - A12. Questions in these columns are to be completed for all persons in the household.

85. The second section comprises columns A13 - A15. Questions in these columns are applicable only to persons aged 2 years and over, and they refer to language, and education.

86. The third section consists of columns A16 - A26. Questions in these columns are to be asked of all persons aged 12 years and over. They are concerned with religion, marital status and economic activity of the eligible person.

87. The fourth section comprises columns A27 - A30. Questions in these columns refer only to females aged 12 years and over.

88. The fifth section consists of columns A31 and A32. Questions in these columns refer only to females aged between 12 and 50 years.

Part B:

89. Questions in Part B refer to any members of the household who were outside Botswana on the census night. This part should be completed in respect of Botswana citizens only.

Part C:

90. Questions in Part C refer to any disability affecting any person listed in Part A or B.

Part D:

91. Questions in Part D deal with any deaths that have occurred to members of the household between last Independence Day, 30th September 2000 and the census night.

Part E:

92. Questions in Part E deal with the household as a unit, as opposed to questions in Parts A, B, C and D, which deal with individuals.

F. How to fill in the questionnaire

93. On arrival at the lolwapa, greet the occupants and identify yourself as a census enumerator. Ask for the head of the household or, if he is not present, the next most senior person. Explain that you must record information for each person who slept in this housing unit last night, even if he is not there now. For example, if someone slept there the night before your visit, but left before you arrived, he should be enumerated even though he is not present.

94. It is important that you complete the questionnaire in the right order. First enter the names and codes of the District, Village, EA and Locality (all given in your EA file and Control List); the lolwapa/House Number; and the Household Number. For the lolwapa/House Number, you enter the number given on the Control List (though you should note the exception to this for blocks of flats etc., as described at the end of this paragraph). If the number on the Control List has less than 5 digits, then fill in zeros to the left of the number to make it a 5-digit number. If there is more than one household in the lolwapa, the different households must be assigned different household numbers, as follows:

[] Household no. first household enumerated and enter 01
[] second household enumerated enter 02 and so on, serially for any other households in the lolwapa.

If there is only one household in the lolwapa, enter 01 in the household number box.

You will, in most situations, use the number given on the Control List as the lolwapa/House Number. The exceptions to this are when several flats/staff houses are located on the same plot and appear on the Control List in the form: 40353/1, 40353/2, 40353/3 etc. The census lolwapa/House No. for all malwapa on plot 40353 will be the same: the plot number, 40353. But since all malwapa on the plot now have the same census lolwapa number it is necessary to use the Household Number to uniquely identify one lolwapa from another, as follows:

lolwapa/House Number lolwapa/House No. to Household No. to use shown on Control List use on Questionnaire on the Questionnaire
40353/1 40353 01
40353/2 40353 02
40353/3 40353 03

However, by using the household number in this way we can no longer use it to identify separate households within the same flat or house. If you find more than one household living within a lolwapa each has to be enumerated as a separate household. The first household should be assigned the number used on the Control List. For the second household, use a two-digit number that will not otherwise be used on this plot. (For instance, if there are 20 flats in total, the first available number will be 21. So number 21 would be the household number to use to identify a second household within a lolwapa on the same plot. If lolwapa number 14 was found to be occupied by two households, the first household would be assigned household number 14; the second household would be given number 22).

95. Work steadily and systematically through the questionnaire and make sure you understand the answers before you write them down.

96. After entering the geographic information (paragraph 94), you should fill in the rest of the questionnaire in the following order:

1. List the names of all persons who spent the census night with the household (including those described in paragraph 32), starting with the household head. After recording each name, probe for more members or persons to listed.

Enter each person's serial number (A2), relationship to the head (A3) and the rest of the information column-wise until A12.

2. Then from A13 move across the page and obtain all the other information required for each person listed, one at a time.

3. After completing Part A for all household members, complete Parts B, C, D and E.

G. The questions and the answers

Part A of the questionnaire:

97. Columns A1 - A5 collect the basic identifying information about the persons in the household (name, relationship to the head, sex and age).

98. Column A1: Name

Q: What are the names of all persons who spent last night here?
Have you included babies?
Have you included elderly persons?
Have you included visitors and those who normally spend the night here but who were away on night duty, at prayer meetings, etc.

Enter the names of all persons who spent the census night in the household, starting with the head's. Every household must have a "head" from amongst those who spent the census night in this lolwapa or those described in paragraph 32. If the "usual" head was not present, someone else should be chosen as head.

Include visitors who spent the night there. Include small children and babies if they slept there, even if they were born the day before. If they have not yet been given a name, write "baby boy" or "baby girl". A baby born in the lolwapa before six o'clock in the morning of the day of your visit should be counted. If the baby was born in hospital and had not been brought home by six o'clock in the morning, then it would be included (with its mother) in the Institutional Questionnaire completed for that hospital.

Include persons usually belonging to the household who were away from home on the night before your visit if they were elsewhere in the country and did not spend the night in another household. For example, include those who were on night duty, out fishing all night, or out hunting or cutting thatch or at wake keeping (see paragraph 32). If a person was with another household, assume that he was enumerated with that household.

Only the name of the head of household should be written in full. For other members, the first name (or the name by which the person is usually known) will be sufficient. You must write the name of the head of household on the first line. The order in which you record the names of the other members of the household does not matter greatly, but you might wish to list them in this order:

Head or acting head of household
Spouse of head
Never married children of head or spouse
Ever married children of head or spouse and their own children
Other relatives
Non-relatives and visitors

99. Column A2: Serial number

In this column enter the serial number of each person enumerated. The first person enumerated should be given the number 01, the second 02, the third 03, and so on. If a household has more than ten members and you have to continue onto the next questionnaire page, the persons listed on this next page will have serial numbers 11, 12, etc. Write "continued" in the comments box on the current page before turning to the next page in the EA book (be sure to enter the geographic information at the top of the questionnaire). If you are using the last page of an EA book and must continue onto another questionnaire page, write "continued on page 1 of EA book (number)". When you record data for parts b, c and d, return to the first page and enter the information there. However, data for part e should be recorded on the last page used for listing the household.

[Table in P.20 of the original document showing serial number is omitted here]

100. Column A3: Relationship

Q: What is [the person]'s relationship to the head of this household?

Enter the appropriate two-digit code in the shaded area under column A3 as follows:

[] "00" when the person is the head of household
[] "01" when the person is the head's spouse
[] "02" for the head's son/daughter
[] "03" for the heads step child
[] "04" for the head's grandchild
[] "05" for heads parent
[] "06" for the head's grandparent
[] "07" for the head's brother/sister
[] "08" for the head's nephew or niece
[] "09" for other relations
[] "10" not related

The respondent may indicate that someone is the head's spouse even if the man and woman are not legally married. They may be living together without having gone through any form of marriage ceremony, whether tribal, civil, religious or other. Nevertheless, if the respondent indicates that someone is the spouse of the head of household, you should enter code 01, even if you later are told in column A20 that the two individuals are "living together". A person may effectively be the spouse, in terms of the role that person plays in the household, even if legally that person is not married to the head of the household.

101. Column A4: Sex

Enter the appropriate one-digit code in the shaded area under column A4 as follows:

[] 1 Male
[] 2 Female

Usually a person's sex will be obvious, but be careful to get the sex of young children right. Do not guess - ask!

Before going on to complete column A5, make sure that you have written down the names and the correct relationship and sex codes for every person who spent the night before your visit with the household. Remember to ask about persons described in paragraph 32.

102. Column A5: Age

Q: How old of [the person] in completed years?

This is one of the most important questions in the questionnaire. It is also one that is often difficult to answer correctly. You should take particular care with it. You should record the age of a person in completed years, i.e. as of last birthday.

For example, a person aged twenty-six years and four months should be recorded as "26". Similarly, a person aged twenty-six years and 10 months should be recorded as "26". A child aged under one year should recorded as "00". For persons aged 98 years and over, enter 98. A person aged 98 will therefore be coded 98 and so will a person aged 99 or 104. The code 99 is for "age not known" and is to be used only when you cannot possibly estimate a person's age, even using the techniques described below. However failure to estimate age must be avoided at all cost.

Some people may not know their ages. When this happens, ask first for the year in which the person was born, then look up the age in the age calendar provided. If the year of birth is not known you should try to find out the age by using the Botswana events calendar. Ask how old the person was at the time of some known event. Check the answer by relating it to some other event the person can remember well. The events listed in the Botswana events calendar are arranged both by district and alphabetically, and corresponding to each event you will find listed the year in which the event occurred and the number of years ago the event occurred. From this information you can calculate the person's age.

If you already know the age of another person in the household, you may find it helpful to ask if the person is older or younger and by how many years. If there is no other way, you may have to estimate the person's age by looking at him (if present). Other documents such as birth certificates, clinic cards, passports, or omang cards could help you in accurately establishing ages. Suggest to the respondent(s) that they might refer to such documents. They might even show you these documents, but do not demand to see them.

When you have made the best estimate you can, you should check whether it is compatible with the person's position in the family/household (for example, a child should be at least 12 years younger than his natural mother; of course, if the mother isn't the natural mother, then the age difference will be irrelevant). Some people have fixed ideas about their ages which are mistaken. Do not accept answers that are obviously wrong, but do it tactfully and diplomatically. Try and get accurate answers.

Example: In the sample questionnaire shown on page 19, the first person to be listed is Maungo Nyeps, as the head of household, so she is listed first. Her eldest son, Mothusi, is listed next, followed by three of her grandchildren, Itumeleng, Balisa and Mbigi. The last person to come on the list is Mmantsheledi who is an adopted girl by the family. Note that the head of the household (Maungo) is assigned serial number 01 in addition to being listed first. The rest of the household members follow in order of their seniority and membership status in the household.

According to the relationship column in A3, Maungo Nyeps as the head of household, is coded 00. Mothusi who is the son to the head is coded 02 to show this relation. The heads three grandchildren, Itumeleng, Balisa and Mbigi, are all coded 04; Mmantsheledi's relationship to the head is best suitable for in the category 09 for "other relatives". Column A4 Maungo is coded 2 to show that she is female, and code 1 and 2 have been used interchangeably for other members of the household depending on their sex.

Still in the sample questionnaire above, Maungo is 52 years, Mothusi 23, Itumeleng 8, Balisa 8, Mbigi 5 and Mmantsheledi is 19, as such they have been coded 52, 23, 08,0 8,0 5 and 19 respectively.

In the sample questionnaire below, all the persons listed are citizens of Botswana (code 01), except for Mmantsheledi, who is a citizen of Namibia. As such Namibia is written in the unshaded area and the code for Namibia, 06, is written in the shaded area.

103. Columns A6 - A10 Collect information about the citizenship and places of residence of the persons listed in column A1. This portion of the sample questionnaire is inserted on page 24 for easy reference.

104. Column A6: Citizenship

Q: What is the country of [the person's] citizenship?

For Botswana citizens, enter 01 in the shaded area under column A6. For citizens of other countries, write the name of the country in the unshaded area and the code for that country in the shaded area beneath. The codes for most southern African countries are shown on the questionnaire. If a person is a citizen of a country not listed, look up the code in the village/country list.

105(A). Column A7: Place of birth

Q: Where was [the person] born?
State the place (locality) of usual residence of the mother at the time of birth of the child. The codes should be a seven digits number with the first two digits standing for the district and the next two standing for a district and the last three for a locality written as per the corresponding ones from the village country list. For those people whose place of usual residence of their mother's at the time of their births was outside Botswana, write the code of that country in the shaded area and the code of that country, preceding it with a "77777" the unshaded area.

105 (b). Column A8: Place of usual living: now

Q: Where does [the person] usually live?
The place where a person spends or lives most of the time is that person's place of usual living. For example, for children in boarding school or teachers teaching away from home, enter the name and code of the village where the school is located - or, if the school is outside Botswana, enter the name and code of the country where the school is located.

For a person who usually lives in this housing unit (i.e. where he is being enumerated), enter 001. For a person who usually lives somewhere else in the general locality (as indicated on the top of the questionnaire) where enumeration is taking place, enter 002. (However, in urban areas, if they live elsewhere in the same town they should be coded 002 even if the actual locality within that town is different from the one stated at the top of the questionnaire).

For a person who usually lives somewhere else in Botswana, write down the name of the district in the unshaded area under column A8. Prefixing the code a 6, e.g. 610 for Southern district.

For a person who usually lives outside Botswana, enter the name and code number of the country, prefixing the code number by 7, e.g., if Zimbabwe, write code 710.

For non-citizens working permanently or on contract in Botswana, their place of usual living is where they usually live in Botswana. People whose usual place of living is outside Botswana will include; tourists or visiting businessmen (in Botswana for anything from a few days to a month or so); children who are at boarding school outside Botswana, but who, during the census, are here on holiday; and people who work outside Botswana (e.g. on the mines in South Africa) and are visiting their families or friends for a period of leave.

106a. Column A9: Place of usual living: a year ago

Q: Where did [the person] live this time last year?

This question deals with the usual place where each person was living a year before the census. If a person was temporarily away from home a year before the census, record the place where the person was living, not the place the person was temporarily visiting. For example, if someone living in Kgalagadi was away from home visiting friends or relatives in Jwaneng, or if someone was in hospital in Jwaneng, do not record the place of usual living a year ago as Jwaneng. Use the code for Kgalagadi instead. If a child was attending boarding school in Lobatse, a year ago was with his family in Central district during the school holiday, then the child's place of usual living a year ago was Lobatse; he was merely visiting Lerala at this time a year ago.

For children who are under one year of age at the time of enumeration, enter 000 (because this time a year ago they had not been born).

For a person who is living in the same housing unit now as last year, enter 001. For a person who was living elsewhere in the locality (as indicated on the top of the questionnaire) last year, enter 002.

For a person who was living somewhere else in Botswana, write down the name of the district (as described for A8), and also look up the appropriate code from the Village/Country List as above. Enter the district code preceded by a "6", below the name of the district you have just written.

For a person who was living outside Botswana a year before the census, enter the name and code number for the country, prefixing the code by 7, e.g., if Lesotho, enter code 703. In cases where the place of usual residence was not known a year ago write 999.

106b. Column A10: Place of usual living: 5 years ago

Q: Where did [the person] live 5 year ago?

This question deals with the usual place where each person was living 5 years before the census. If a person was temporarily away from home 5 years before the census, record the place where the person was living, not the place the person was temporarily visiting. Like in 106 above, if someone living in Ngamiland was away from home visiting friends or relatives in Francistown, or if someone was in hospital in Francistown, do not record the place of usual living 5 years ago as Francistown. Use the code for Ngamiland instead. If a child was attending boarding school in Gaborone, 5 years ago and was always with his family in Southern district during the school holiday, then the child's place of usual living a 5 years ago was Gaborone; he was merely visiting Southern at this time 5 years ago.

For children who are under 5 years of age at the time of enumeration, enter 000 (because this time 5 years ago they had not been born).

For a person who is living in the same housing unit now as 5 years, enter 001. For a person who was living elsewhere in the locality (as indicated on the top of the questionnaire) 5 years, enter 002.

For a person who was living somewhere else in Botswana, write down the name of the district (as described for A8), and also look up the appropriate code from the Village/Country List as above. Enter the code which is preceded by a "6" below the name of the district you have just written.

For a person who was living outside Botswana 5 years before the census, enter the name and code number for the country, prefixing the code by 7, e.g., if Lesotho, enter code 703. Lastly write 999 if the place of usual residence was not known 5 years ago.

Example: In column A7 below, Maungo, Mothusi and Mmantsheledi were born in Kauxwi while the rest were born in Tsootsha. The enumerator wrote the district for Mothus, because he was living elsewhere in Botswana. The same situation applies for A9 and A10. For example in column A8 the sample questionnaire below shows that Maungo, Itumeleng, Mbigi and Mmantsheledi usually live in this household, so they are coded 001, Mothusi usually lives in Okavango at a boarding school.

Still on the portion of the completed questionnaire below parental survival in columns A11 and A12 were recorded code 2 for those whose biological fathers or mothers are dead. Note that for Itumeleng, Balisa and Mbigi, the respondent who is their grandmother does not know whether the fathers of these children are still alive or dead as she has never known them.

[Table in P. 25 of the original document showing place of usual living 5 years ago is omitted here]

107a. Columns A11 - A12: Parental survival:
Collect information on the parental survival of the people listed on column A1. It should be made clear to the respondent the difference between biological parents and other parents like stepparents and foster parents. The need for the biological parents should be emphasized.

107b. Column A11: Father

Q: Is [the person's] biological father alive?

Find out from the respondent if the biological father of each and every person listed in A1 is alive or dead. If the biological father is still alive write code "1" in the shaded area, if the biological father is dead or no longer alive write code "2" and finally if it is not known if the father to the person in question is alive write code "3" in the shaded area. The enumerator must probe thoroughly before accepting that it is not known if the father is alive or not.

107b. Column A12: Mother

Q: Is [the person's] biological mother alive?

Like in the case of the father above find out from the respondent if the biological mother of each and every person listed in A1 is alive or dead. If the biological mother is still alive write code "1" in the shaded area, if the biological mother is dead or no longer alive write code "2" and finally if it is not known if the biological mother to the person in question is alive write code "3" in the shaded area. The enumerator must probe thoroughly before accepting that it is not known if the mother is alive or not.

107b. Column A13: Language

Q: What language does [the person] speak most often at home?

Ask for the language spoken mostly at home by each and every person listed in A1 aged 2 years and over. For those people speaking Setswana or English, write down "01" or "02" respectively on the shaded areas. If the person speaks any other language other than the two write down the reported language on the unshaded area.

107e. Columns A14 - A15 These questions apply only to persons aged 2 years and more. If the person is under 2 years of age, then when you reach column A13 you should put dashes in the shaded areas for columns A13 -- A32 and proceed to the next listed person in the household. The relevant portion of the sample questionnaire is shown on page 28 for easy reference.

108. Column A14: School Attendance

Q: Has [the person] ever attended school?

This question refers to formal schooling only. Non-formal education like the adult education and those who did their education at their homes like in the Zezuru community are not covered by this question. Government recognized private schools are included.

If a person has never attended school, enter 1 in A14 and a dash in A15, and go to A16.

If a person is still attending school, enter 2 in A14 and go to A15.

If a person has attended school but has since left school, enter 3 in A14 and go to A15.

If it is not known whether or not someone ever attended school, enter 9 in A14 and 99 in A15.

109a. Column A15: Highest grade completed

Q: What is the highest level that [the person]completed?

Enter the highest school level or grade the person has completed as per the codes below:

For Pre-school

If year 1 not completed enter 00
If year 1 completed enter 01
If year 2 completed enter 02
If year 3 completed enter 03

For Non-Formal Education

If prima 1 not completed enter 60

If prima 1 completed enter 61
If prima 2 completed enter 62
If prima 3 completed enter 63
If prima 4 completed enter 64
If prima 5 completed enter 65

For Primary school

If Standard 1 not completed enter 10
If Standard 1, enter 11
If Standard 2, enter 12
If Standard 3, enter 13
If Standard 4, enter 14
If Standard 5, enter 15
If Standard 6, enter 16
If Standard 7, enter 17

For Sub A or Sub B enter 11. If the person, at the time of enumeration, is in Standard 1, enter 10.

If the person has attended or is attending secondary school, enter the highest form completed:

If Form 1, enter 21
If Form 2, enter 22
If Form 3, enter 23
If Form 4, enter 24
If Form 5, enter 25
If Form 6, enter 26

If the person is currently in Form 1, enter 17. Someone who completed Form 3 but failed the exam will be coded 23. Someone who completed Junior certificate (JC) under the two year JC certificate system will be coded 22, while for those who completed JC under the three year system will be coded 23.

109b. Column A16-A26: These questions apply only to persons aged 12 years and more. If the person is under 12 years of age, then when you reach column A16 you should put dashes in the shaded areas for columns A16 -- A32 and proceed to the next listed person in the household.

109c. Column A16: Training
Q: Has [the person] ever attended training of any type for at least 3 months?

If the person has never undergone any formal training of three months or more record in A16 code "1", irrespective of the kind of work the person is doing; in this case A17 and A18 should be skipped. Code "2" should be used for those people who are still in a training of three months or more. For those people who have completed three months or more training code "3".

109d. Column A17: Highest training completed

The following codes and their corresponding categories applies for those people who are still in training or who have completed training of at least 3 months as the highest level attained:

Certificates codes:

For Apprenticeship certificates, enter 31
For Brigades certificates enter, enter 32
For Vocational certificates, enter 33
For Education colleges certificates, enter 34
For University certificates, enter 35
Other certificates enter 36

Diploma's codes are:

For Vocational diploma's, enter 41
For Education colleges Diploma's, enter 42
For University Diploma's, enter 43
Other Diploma's, enter 44

Degree's codes are:

For University Degree's, enter 51
Other Degree's, enter 52

Preliminary courses, e.g. the Pre-Entry Science Course (PESC) should not be considered as training courses.

109e. Column A18: Subject of training

Q: What was [the person's] training course?

Write down the subject of training course the person did, i.e. write nursing if the person is doing or did nursing during the time of the training course was nursing at the institution of training, auto electrician if the person was or is being trained as an electrician of cars and not houses electrician, medicine for human beings and vet for animal doctor. Training course should not be confused with occupation as occupation is what the person did or worked as. Driving should only be regarded as a course if it is used for employment as a major way of survival.

Example: The questionnaire section below covers Language, education, training, and religion. Maungo is coded 01 in A13 and 10 in A19 to show that she speaks Setswana and she is a Christian. This is the same for the rest of the household members. The education section of Maungo is coded 3 in A14 to show that she has left school and 17 in A15 to show that she completed primary school standard seven. Itumeleng is still at school hence coded code 2 in A14 and that she is currently doing standard 3 by being coded 12 showing that primary second level is the highest level completed.

It must be noted that training part only applies to those people aged 12 years and over, therefore Itumeleng, Balisa and Mbigi are no longer going to be asked any questions from this point until the end. To show that they are not eligible for the rest of the questions, dashes (-) are used so that one will know that they have not been skipped by mistake. In A16 Maungo and Mmantsheledi have all never had any training as such coded 1. The skip instruction for code 1 is to skip A17 and A18 to A19. Dashes are once more used to show that these people have been excluded from A 17 and A18. However still in A16, Mothusi did a training, which was more than 3 months long; as a result she is coded 3, making her eligible for A17 and A18. The training Mothusi did was a three-year certificate in dress making at the Vocational Training Centre, hence she is coded code 33 in A17 and Dress Making is written on the unshaded area of A18 as that is what the course was about. Initially the respondent had said that Mothusi did a course in designing, but since designing could be in house plans, house decoration, clothing and many more, the enumerator had to probe in order to establish that the course was designing clothes.

[Table in P.29 of the original document is showing language spoken, education, subject of training and religion is not presented here]

107d. Column A19: Religion

Q: What is [the person's] religion?

Ask for the religious affiliation of people listed in A1. Find out if the person is a Christian, Muslim, Bahai or believes in the ancestral spirits (Badimo), Hindu, any other or none. Circle the code corresponding to the religion stated by the respondent.

110. Column A20: Marital status

Q: What is [the person's] marital status?

Enter the appropriate one-digit code in the shaded area:

[] 1 Never married:
A person who has never gone through any type of formal or informal marriage (tribal, civil, religious or other) and does not consider that he is presently "living together" with anyone is to be coded as never married.

[] 2 Married:
A person should be regarded as married if he has been through any form of marriage ceremony, whether tribal, civil, religious or other, and is still married.

[] 3 Living together:
A man and a woman may "live together" like husband and wife (even if they do not stay together in the same locality) without having gone through any form of marriage ceremony.

[] 4 Separated:
A person who has been formally married should be regarded as separated if he is living apart from his spouse by Court order, or by mutual or unilateral decision.

[] 5 Divorced:
A person should be regarded as divorced if his marriage has ended. If the person has remarried then he is to be coded 2, as married.

[] 6 Widowed:
This means that either the husband or the wife has died and the surviving partner has not remarried. If the surviving partner has remarried he or she is coded 2, as married.

Note that someone may indicate to you that the person is his spouse, yet, in response to the question on marital status, he said that they were living together, not married, since they had never formally married. You should accept what people tell you concerning their marital status and simply record their response; do not change the relationship code in A2 if the respondent tells you that the head and his "spouse" are "living together".

111. Column A21: Usual economic activity: This is the work or something of economic value that someone usually does for either for payment in any form or for no pay.

Q: What has [the person] been doing mainly since Independence Day 2000?

Enter the appropriate two-digit code in the shaded area:

[] 01 and 02 Seasonal work:
Codes 01 and 02 should be used respectively for someone who did seasonal work for payment and for no payment. Seasonal work should be regarded as work or economic activity which is normally done during certain seasons or periods of the year. An example of these type of work is harvesting which is normally done for three months of the year when it is the time for harvesting. So those people engaging in such activities for no payment like those in family business should be coded code 02. Payment could be in cash, in kind or any other form.

[] 03 and 04 Non-seasonal work:
This refers to economic activity or normal work usually done at all times of the year. Just like in seasonal work above this could also be paid in kind or for cash payment. When the activity is done for payment the code to be used should be 03 and 04 when the activity is done for no pay.

[] 05 Job seeker:
A person who was mainly seeking work during the past year should be considered to be actively seeking work.

[] 06 Home maker:
Remember that either a female or a male not economically active could be responsible for daily housework, i.e. cleaning of the house and premises, preparing food and other household duties. People doing this kind of activity should be coded 06. It should be noted, however, that domestic servants working for pay are classified as economically active.

[] 07 Student:
A student is a person, at least 12 years of age, who, as a result of attending school for most of the day, does not work.

[] 08 Retired:
A retired person is a woman or a man who, as a result of old age or disability, cannot do any type of work.

[] 09 Sick:
This is a person who cannot or who had to leave work as a result of illness or due to poor health conditions. A medical doctor could have made a recommendation that the person should not work at all.

[] 10 Other (specify):
If the person was doing something else other than the categories listed above, then write in what the person was doing in the unshaded area of column A21. If you need more space, use the comments box.

112. Column A22: Current economic activity: This is the work or something of economic value that someone is currently doing either for payment in any form or for no pay.

Q: What has [the person] been doing mainly in the past 7days?

Enter the appropriate one-digit code in the shaded area:

[] 01 Worked for payment (cash or in-kind):
Codes 01 should be used for someone who did work or any economic activity for payment where the payment was either hard cash or in any form (referred to as payment in kind)

[] 02 Worked in family business (unpaid):
There are people who work in businesses of family members or other relatives and they are not paid as the work they do is regarded as help to the owner of the business, because the owner is a family member, relative or a friend. So those people engaging in such activities for no payment like those in family business should be coded 02.

[] 03 Worked at the lands/farms/cattle post (unpaid):
Those individuals who worked at farms, lands or cattle-posts, but did not receive payment of any form should be coded 03. This situation is common among farmers who grow mainly for household consumption (rather than to sell their products), and their children, other relatives and friends are normally expected to do work without any reward. Seasonal workers are the most affected by this situation.

[] 04 Job Seeker:
This category applies to all those people who are actively looking for a job. These people could be visiting potential employers, looking for jobs advertisements on the newspapers, or in any other way of looking for a job. The steps should have been taken during the past seven days. When this category is encountered A23 to A25 which for persons who have not reported to be unemployed are skipped, as such this category takes us to A26 where there is more probing on job seeking efforts.

Note: If the person in question is male and the response are categories 05 to 08, then skip to the next person.

[] 05 Home maker:
Remember that either a female or a male not economically active could be responsible for daily housework, i.e. cleaning of the house and premises, preparing food and other household duties. People doing this kind of activity should be coded 05. It should however be noted that domestic servants working for pay are classified as economically active.

[] 06 Student:
A student is a person, at least 12 years of age, who, as a result of attending school for most of the day, does not work.

[] 07 Retired:
A retired person is a woman or a man who, as a result of old age or disability, cannot do any type of work.

[] 08 Sick:
This is a person who cannot or who had to leave work as a result of illness or due to poor health conditions. A medical doctor could have made a recommendation that the person should not work at all.

[] Other (specify):
If the person was doing something else, other than the possibilities listed above, then write in what the person was doing in the unshaded area in column A22. If you need more space, use the comments box.

Generally speaking, if a person has had more than one activity during the past 7 days, it is the foremost of these that must be taken (i.e. that which took up most time and/or which was most rewarding). There is, however, an exception to this:

Everything takes precedence over "home maker". For example, if a person spent all his time doing housework - except for half a day when he went looking for work - he must be coded 04 as "job seeker" and not 05 as being "homemaker".

113. Column A23: Employment status

Q: What was [the person's] work status during the past 7 days?

This column relates to persons who were either self-employed or working for other persons for payment during the 30 days before the census. Find out what they were employed as during most of the reference period and probe if necessary.

Enter the appropriate one-digit code in the shaded area:

[] 01 Employee-Paid cash
A person who does a job and receives cash or money in exchange for the job done is an employee who is paid in cash.

[] 02 Employee-Paid in kind
A person may be working in a family business without receiving any cash payment for his labour. For example, a woman runs a small kiosk from which she sells snacks to office workers. Her younger brother helps her there, but instead of paying him a wage she gives him a bag of mealie meal and some other food each month. This is the kind of payment referred to as payment in kind.

[] 03 Self Employed (No employees)
This is where by the person is running his/her own business, like a taxi or a tuck shop, without the assistance of any employee. This category includes those Gardeners and Cleaners who are freelancing.

[] 04 Self Employed (With employees):
A person may be operating a business of any form with the assistance of one or more employees. The employees could be paid in cash or in kind.

[] 05 Member of the producers' cooperative
People, who serve the cooperatives either for payment or for other reward falls in this category.

[] 06 Working in Family business (Unpaid)
A person may be working in an economic enterprise operated by a relative; such would fall under this category. For example, a boy could be helping in his father's business and as such there would be no payment.

[] 07 Lands/Farms/Cattle post:
This category includes farmers who grow mainly for household consumption (rather than to sell their products), and those individuals who worked at farms, lands or cattle-posts but who did not receive any payment.

[] 08 Apprentices
Included in this group are boys or girls who are working in a company, or with any expert individual in a particular field with the aim of acquiring knowledge. These are normally not charged for the knowledge they are acquiring and they are not paid for the help they are providing.

[] Other (specify):
If the person was doing something else other than the possibilities listed above, then write in what the person was doing in the unshaded area in column A23. If you need more space, use the comments box.

If a person says he was doing "nothing" during the past 7 days, probe to find out what the person was really doing. It is very unlikely that the person was literally doing nothing.

If a person says he does housework, or that he is a student/retired/other, probe to find out whether he did any work for cash during the past 7 days, no matter how little the cash or how short the period. If yes, go back to A21and A22 to correct codes to reflect that they worked for pay or for no pay accordingly.

In the example since all eligible persons have never been married they are coded 1. Maungo is coded 01 in A21 as she was a paid worker, while it was admitted by the respondent in A22 that Mothus did agricultural activities at the lands or cattle post for no pay. Maungo was working as an employee who was paid in cash, Mothusi and Mmantsheledi worked at the lands for no pay. Mmantsheledi was at the same time looking for job, as such she is coded code 05, "Jobseeker" in A21 and code 04 in A22. The skip instruction for Mmantsheledi in A22 takes her to A26, so dashes for her row were used in A23, A24 and A25.

[Table showing economic activity to all persons aged 12 years and over is omitted here]

114. Column A24: Occupation

Q: What type of work did [the person] do in the past 7 days?

A person's occupation depends on the tasks and duties, which the person performs. Remember that if a person worked at all during the past 7 days, whether for cash or not, and for however short a period, then you should try to find out what kind of work the person did. You should try to get the respondent to give both a job title and a two- or three-word description of the tasks performed. For example, if a person states that he is a mechanic, ask him what he repairs. You should record his response in the unshaded area of column A24 as follows: "mechanic, fixes cars" or "mechanic, fixes radios". Use the comments box if you need more space.

If a person moved from job to job you should enter the most recent occupation even if it only lasted for a day or two. This may happen with people who are casual labourers.

If a person has more than one occupation, record the one on which he spends the most time. However, if someone has a temporary job during the school holidays - but has a permanent job during term time, it is his permanent occupation that should be described. A census enumerator or supervisor who is a schoolteacher during term time must therefore be described as "primary school teacher" or "secondary school teacher".

Probing for better occupational information: You will usually have to probe the respondent to get good information about a person's occupation. For example, people who make things (bread, clothing, pottery, wood objects, tools, beer, food products, furniture, bricks, etc.) should be asked how they make them. It is important to find out whether they mostly use their hands or hand-held tools, or whether they mostly produce these goods by operating machinery. A person who brews beer at home using traditional techniques belongs to a different occupational category from a person who operates a machine that ferments the grains used in making beer. (See probing examples below).

You should also probe when the information provided by the respondent does not seem reasonable. For example, if a person has only completed Form 4, it seems unlikely that he or she could be an auditor or an engineer. If you probe, you may discover that the person is actually an accounting clerk or an engineering assistant.

[Table in P. 37-41 of the original document which provides specific examples of how to probe for better occupational information and response suggested probing questions is omitted here]

115. Column A25: Industry

Q: What was the main product, service or activity of [the person's] place of work?

The industry identifies the main kind of product produced or the main service provided by the establishment or the work unit in which the individual works. It is important to understand the difference between industry and occupation. An occupation summarizes the tasks performed by an individual who is working. The industry has to do with the products or services, or main functions or activities, of the workplace. For example, a woman may be an Accounts Clerk who is employed by a Dairy Farmer. Her occupation is "Accounts Clerk" and the industry in which she works is "Farming". If the same person were employed by a mine, the occupation would still be "Accounts Clerk" but the industry would be "Mining". A man working in the same mine might be a Mine Sampler - his occupation would be "Mine Sampler, but he also belongs to the Mining industry. Clearly, an industry may include a number of different occupations, and the same occupation may be found in many different industries.

If the respondent can give you the name of the company for which an individual works or the name of a self-employed person's business, then the Central Statistics Office will often be able to identify the industry from the company name. However, you should still try to find out what goods or services are produced by the company or individual. Record both the name of the company (abbreviate if necessary, then write out the name in full in the comments box) and the goods or services produced.

Probing for Better Industry Information: You will usually have to probe the respondent to get good information about the industry in which a person works. Some general tips for probing and the Botswana Standard Industrial Classification -- Revision 3 are given below:

General Tips:

- first ask the respondent what the name of the company or business is

- you should then ask the respondent what kinds of goods are produced at the place where the person works, especially if the name of the business is not known, or if the individual is self-employed, working on a farm, lands or cattle post, or working for another individual/household rather than for a company or business - if you need more space use the comments box; see below for some examples of goods produced

- if the business or workplace does not produce goods, ask what kinds of services are provided; see below for some examples of services provided

- in recording the response, be sure to indicate whether the business is making or selling goods (if relevant); e.g. write "makes beer" or "sells beer", not just "beer"

- if the above approaches do not work, ask the respondent what type of business the person works in and, if necessary, see more examples below.

1. Examples of goods produced: bread, traditional beer, biltong, textiles, tinned meat, glass, bricks, tiles, metal tools, shoes, leather bags, rope, books, baskets, clothing, fat cakes, brooms, newspapers, plastic pipes, kgotla chairs, boilers, mats, pots, wooden spoons, plastic pipes, vaccines, maize flour, milk, soap

2. Examples of services provided: repairing cars, repairing shoes, repairing watches, cleaning houses, guarding houses, taking care of children, typing, hawking goods, driving a taxi, cutting and styling hair, treating illnesses, teaching, selling property, selling airline tickets, renting videos, dry-cleaning clothes, selling beer, running a restaurant, running a shop

3. Examples of types of businesses or economic activities: building houses, building roads, wholesale trade, general retailer, hotel, restaurant, butchery, petrol station, airline, railway, selling cars, transporting goods, bank, insurance, real estate, prospecting, architectural services, church, school, hospital, clinic, local government, brigades, traditional farming, fishing, hunting, blacksmith, traditional healing, performing at nightclubs, travel agency, employers' organisation, labour union, co-operative, electrical construction, law firm, accounting firm, market stall, dairy farming, commercial farming

[Specific examples of how to probe for better industrial information and the Botswana Standard Industrial Classification -- Revision 3 are omitted here]

115a. A26: Job seeker:

Q: What steps did [the person] take during the last 30 days to seek work?

Politely ask the respondent what each and every unemployed person over 12 years of age listed in column A1 did to look for work. The things done in looking for a job by the unemployed include sending out applications to potential employers, physically visiting places to verbally talk to the potential employers, registering with the labour office or employment agencies as well as reading advertisements in newspapers.

In the questionnaire portion of A24 to A26, Maungo is working as a messenger and Mothusi worked at the lands ploughing. A26 is not applicable to both Maungo and Mothusi, but it is applicable to Mmantsheledi as she is unemployed and looking for a job. Mmantsheledi have been sending applications and visiting work places in looking for work.

[Table in P. 43 of the original document is no presented here]

116. Columns A27 - A32: Fertility and child survival (females)

Questions A27 - A30 must be completed for all females aged 12 years and over, regardless of their marital status and their relationship to the head of household. For males of any age and females under 12 years of age, enter a dash in these columns. For young girls (e.g. 12-15 years old) who are still living at home with their parents, this question may be considered rather personal. Take care how you ask the question.

Questions A31 - A32 are asked only of females between age 12 and 50. For others, enter a dash in these columns. The enumerator should always check at all times that the number of children in A27 should be equal to the sum of those in A28, A29 and A30. The enumerator should therefore always crosscheck that this balances before moving on to the next section.

The relevant portion of the sample questionnaire is shown on page 44 for easy reference:

117. Column A27: Children born alive

Q: How many children have been born alive by[the person]?

In column A27 you must record (as a two-digit code) the total number of children ever born alive to the woman/girl. Children born alive are those children who cried at least once after birth. All other births are stillbirths. Remember to include all those children who have died, but do not include stillbirths. When recording, you must always ensure that the total number of male children ever born to a woman in A27 equals to those living with the mother (in A28) plus those living elsewhere (in A29) and those dead (in A30). Similarly the sum of females in A28 and A29 and A30 should sum to females in A27.

118. Column A28: Children living with mother

Q: How many are living with the mother?

In column A28 enter the number of children born to the woman who live with her at her usual place of residence. These children should be recorded by their sex such that they satisfy the sum condition in 117. For visiting mothers, this means those children who live with her at her own household or at her usual residence and not at the household where she spent the last night.

119. Column A29: Children living elsewhere

Q: How many are living elsewhere?

In column A29 enter the number of children born to the woman who are not living with her at her usual place of residence. These children should be recorded by their sex such that males and females living with mother, male and female children living elsewhere, and males and females children who have died together should be equals to total number of males and female children ever born to a woman.

120. Column A30: Children who have died

Q: How many children have died?

In column A30 enter the number of children born alive by the woman who have since died separately for males and females. Sometimes a woman may forget to mention children who died in infancy or may not want to be reminded of painful events; you must therefore put the question sympathetically and tactfully. These children should be recorded by their sex such that they satisfy the sum condition in 117.

121. Check that the number of male children and female children entered in column A27 is the sum of the male and female children respectively entered in columns A28, A29, and A30. Reconcile any differences with the respondent before leaving the household.

Remember that the codes in columns A27 - A30 are all two-digit codes. In most cases you must therefore remember to put a zero in front, e.g. 2 children would be coded as 02.

If a woman has never had a live birth, enter 00 in all the columns. Never leave any column blank. If a woman has children in only one or two categories, insert the figures in the appropriate columns and enter 00 in the remaining column(s).

If unknown, enter 99 and explain in the comments box.

122. Columns: A31 and A32: Fertility for females 12 - 50 Years

122a. Column A31: Children surviving

Q: How many children have been borne alive by [the person]since Independence Day 1999?

These columns must be completed for females aged between 12 and 50 years. For a female aged 51 or more, enter a dash in each of columns A31 and A32.

If the woman has not had a live birth since Independence Day, 1999, enter 0 in these columns. Otherwise enter the number of male and female children born in column A31 under male and female columns respectively. These are single-digit codes.

122b. Column A32: Children surviving

Q: How many of these children are still alive?
Like in column A31 above, this column must be completed for the females aged between 12 to 49 years. What is needed is the number of children still alive among those children born alive since last independence day to a woman aged 12 to 49 years.

Example: Maungo and Mmantsheledi are eligible for A27 to A30 as such the latter is coded 04 and 02 in A 27and 02 and 01 respectively to show that she has 4 male and 2 female children and 2 males and 1 female children respectively. The number of children who are living with Maungo, those not living with her and those dead in columns A28, A29 and A30 respectively add up to those in A27. However all Mmantsheledi's children are not living with her hence codes 00 in question A28. Furthermore Mmantsheledi is eligible for question A31 and A32 as her age is within the range 12 to 49 years and she gave birth to her last child early this year, which means that she has had a birth since Independence Day last year.

[Table in P.45 of the original document showing fertility and child survival to females is not presented here]

Part B of the Questionnaire:

123. Columns B1 to B14: Members of the Household outside Botswana

These questions apply only to citizens of Botswana who were absent from the country on the census night, but who would usually live in the household if they were in Botswana, such as citizens working or temporarily living with relatives in South Africa, studying abroad or away on private or government business. The relevant portion of the sample questionnaire is shown on page 47 for easy reference.

If no member of the household was absent from Botswana on the census night, enter dashes in the spaces provided for answer codes in the first line only.

If you had to continue the listing of (Part A) household members on a second or third page, return to the first page for recording Part B information. If more than three persons have to be listed in Part B, go to the next page after writing "continued" in the comments box on the first page. Don't forget to copy the geographic identification codes (District, Village, etc.) onto the continuation questionnaire. Remember that when you complete Part B you should return to the first page for the household to answer Parts C and D. Only Part E will be answered on the last page for the household.

124. Column B1: Name

Ask for the names of all citizen members of the household who were outside the country on the census night. The first name (or the name by which the person is usually known) is sufficient.

It is important that the respondent understands that you are not asking for members of the household who are non-citizens or who did not spend the census night with the household but are inside the country. It should also be understood that if a household member spent the census night in the lolwapa, but left to travel to another country before your visit, then he would be listed in Part A, even if at the time of your enumeration he is already in another country. No person can be listed in both Part A and in Part B.

125. Column B2: Serial number

Like A2, this is also a two-digit number, with the first digit being a 9 ie the first person will be 91, the second will be 92 and so on.

126. Column B3: Relationship to head of household

This must be the relationship to the person listed in Part A as head of household (coded 00 under Relationship to Head).

127. Columns B4/B5: Sex/Age

The same instructions applying in A4/A5 applies here.

127a. Column B6/B7 Education:
These questions should be treated the way A14 and A15 were treated. Therefore those codes used in A14 and A15 should apply here.

128. Column B8/B9: Training: The codes, rules and instructions applying in A16 and A17 applies here, as such see the two columns (A16 and A17).

129. Column B10: Marital status
Q: (See paragraph 110 for A20)
Treat this question in the same way A20 was treated.

130a. Column B11: Country of visit/residence

Q: In what country is [the person] now?

Ask for the name of the country where the person is and record the name of the country and its code. Instructions for coding this are the same as given in paragraph 104 for coding A6. For a country not listed on the questionnaire, refer to the Country List to obtain the country code.

130b. Columns B12/B13: Duration of absence

Q: How long ago did [the person] last visit?

Ask for the duration since the last visit and record the answer in years and months.

If a member has not visited since he left, enter the duration of absence since departure (in years and months).

If a child born to a household member abroad has not been brought back to Botswana, enter the child's age in years and months. If the child has just been born and is less than one month old, enter 00 for both years and months; if the child is less than one year old, enter 00 for years and the appropriate two-digit code for the number of months.

If the duration of absence is given in months and is greater than 12 months, say 15 months, enter the period given as 1 year and 3 months (01 in column B12 and 03 in column B13). Always check that the duration of absence is not greater than the age of the person concerned, particularly for children. If the duration of absence given is greater than the age given, probe the respondent and correct accordingly.

130b. Reason for absence

Q: What is the main reason for [the person's]absence?

It is possible that a person may have more than one reason for absence. Ask for the MAIN reason. Enter the appropriate code as follows:

[] 01 Working in mines
[] 02 Working in farms
[] 03 Working as domestic
[] 04 Other employment
[] 05 Student 10 Medical
[] 06 Visiting
[] 07 Official business
[] 08 Other business
[] 09 Accompanying
[] Other (specify)

If you cannot decide which code is the right one to use, or if the reason is not listed above, make sure you have described the reason in the comments box and leave the shaded area blank.

Example: In section B, one member of this household called L. Toteng is outside the country in the United Kingdom studying. She has been away for the last ten months, according to the codes in B13.In B10 code 2 shows that L. Toteng is married. It must be noted that the same codes used in section A above applies for the same questions.

[Table in P. 48 of the original document showing list of all members of household now outside Botswana is omitted here.]

Part C of the questionnaire:

131. Columns C1/C2/C3: Disability

Q: Does any person(s) listed in A1 or B1 suffer from any of the following disabilities?

[] 11 Defect of seeing in 1 eye
[] 12 Defect of seeing in 2 eyes
[] 13 Blindness in 1 eye
[] 14 Blindness in 2 eyes
[] 21 Defect of hearing in 1 ear
[] 22 Defect of hearing in 2 ears
[] 23 Deafness in 1 ear
[] 24 Deafness in 2 ears
[] 31 Defect of speech
[] 32 Inability to speak
[] 41 Inability to use 1 leg
[] 42 Inability to use 2 legs
[] 51 Inability to use 1 arm
[] 52 Inability to use 2 arms
[] 52 Inability to use 2 arms
[] 62 Severe retardation
[] 63 Mental illness

You should read out the list of disabilities to the respondent as a reminder to him or her of the types of disabilities to which we are referring. Be very tactful in asking these questions so as not to cause offence or embarrassment.

If anyone does have a disability, enter the person's first name in column C1, then enter in column C2 the same serial number that you assigned to this person in column A2 or B2. A person from Part A will have serial numbers 01, 02 or 03, etc., whilst Part B will have serial numbers 91, 92 or 93, etc.

A disabled person has incapacities as a result of physical or mental deficiencies such as bodily abnormalities, defects and impairments. Impairments are defects of structure or functions of the body which give rise to personal inabilities to perform necessary activities. The defects and impairments might occur from birth, or may be brought about by disease, injury or just old age.

Defect of Seeing: A person wearing glasses will not usually be defined as having a defect of seeing. Only if, when wearing glasses, the person cannot count the fingers of a hand from a distance of 3 metres will you record him as having a seeing defect. If the defect is in one eye, code 11, and, if the defect is in both eyes, code 12. If there is complete blindness in one eye enter 13; if there is blindness in both eyes enter 14.

Defect of Hearing: If a person cannot hear a whisper at a distance of 2 metres, that person is said to have a defect of hearing. If the defect is in one ear enter code 21, if both ears are affected, enter code 22. If there is complete deafness in one ear enter 23; if the deafness is in both ears enter 24.

Defect of Speech: A person who makes unintelligible speech, stammers or speaks with an abnormal voice is said to have a defect of speech. If this defect applies, enter code 31.

Inability to Speak: For a person who cannot speak at all (i.e. is completely dumb or mute), enter 32.

Inability to Use One or Both Legs: For a person who has one leg lame or a leg or foot missing enter 41; if both legs are lame or both feet/legs are missing, enter 42.

Inability to Use One or Both Arms: For a person who has one arm lame or a hand or arm missing enter 51; if both arms are lame or both hands/arms are missing, code 52.

Mental Retardation: A person who is capable of taking care of himself/herself but who cannot adjust to a situation needing ordinary skills consistent with age is said to be moderately retarded, and the code should be 61.

A person who, despite good physical condition, is incapable of doing normal daily self-care activities consistent with age is said to be severely mentally retarded. For this condition enter 62.

If a person suffers from a combination of any of the listed disabilities, enter the applicable codes, e.g. if there is a defect of hearing in two ears and a defect of speech enter 2231. After you have recorded the disability code(s) for a particular person, fill the remaining boxes with dashes.

Mental Case: This situation must not be confused with retardation, as this is abnormal perceptions associated with delusional misinterpretation of events; or it could be said to be thinking so disordered as to prevent the patient making a reasonable appraisal of his situation or having reasonable communication with others (as defined in http://www.hyperguide.co.uk/mha/contents).

The relevant portion of the sample questionnaire is shown below.

Example: Itumeleng does not hear at all in one ear, hence his name and serial number in C1 and C2. The type of disability, which is not hearing in one ear, is shown by code 21.

[Table P. 50 of the original document is not presented here]

Part D of the questionnaire:

132. Columns D1, D2, D3 and D4: Deaths in the household

Q: Since Independence Day 2000, has any member of this household died?

In general people are not happy to talk about deaths, especially recent ones, so be careful when asking this question. We are interested in recording information about any deaths since last Independence Day, September 30th, 2000, of anyone who had, up until their death, been a member of this household. The relevant portion of the sample questionnaire is shown below:

If there was any such death, enter the details under columns D1 to D3. Start with the serial number in D1. The first death should be given the serial number 01, the second death 02, etc. Record also the relationship in D2 of the deceased to the head of the current household, the SEX of the deceased in column D3 and his AGE at death in column D4. If the person was under 1 year at death enter 00. Lastly, in D5 you will have to collect information on where the deceased was living most of the times or usually before dying, which might help you establish if the deceased was really a member of the household. The deceased should be regarded a usual member if he/she has stayed with the household for period longer than 14 days before death. Still deaths should not be considered to be deaths.

If there were more than three deaths in the household, write "continued" in the comments box and enter the particulars of these other deaths in Part D of the next questionnaire form, starting with serial number 04.

If there were no deaths, enter dashes in the spaces provided for answer codes in the first line only. Ensure that one death is not repeated in more than one household. The repetition of one death is common among relatives of the deceased who are not of the same household, and another confusion from those people who were staying in the same dwelling with the deceased but not being of the same household with the deceased. These situations could be avoided by finding out the usual residence of the deceased and whether the deceased had common provision for food with the household interviewed.

Example: The household has had one death since independence day last year, this death is assigned serial number 1, coded 06 in D2 to show that the deceased was Maungo's grandparent and coded 1 in D3 to show that the person was male. This person was aged 96 years and was living in Francsitown most of the time, at the time of death the deceased had moved to Tsootsha until his death two months later.

[Table in P.52 of the original document is not presented here]

Part E of the questionnaire:

133. Columns E1 - E7: Agriculture and land acquisition, and household cash activities

For some of these questions (e.g. for those whose codes are multiples of 2) you may circle more than one code, if more than one response applies.

These questions relate only to members of the household - i.e. those listed in Parts A and B but excluding any visitors listed in Part A. Include also household members who normally would have spent the census night with the household but who were temporarily elsewhere in Botswana. For example, the usual head of household could be away on business during the census period, but he might be the only income earner for the household. Since he was not present in the household during the census, his employment would not be recorded in Part A and it would appear that the household had no source of income. However, the fact that the household receives income from his employment will be recorded in E5, E6 and E7.

Note that questions in Part E of the questionnaire should relate only to activities within Botswana. For example, if a household member who is temporarily living in another country (and is therefore listed in Part B), has planted maize outside Botswana, that agricultural activity will not be recorded in column E2. If the same person owns cattle inside Botswana, then that ownership will be recorded in column E1.

The relevant portion of the sample questionnaire is shown on page 57:

134. Column E1: Ownership of livestock

Q: Does any member of this household own any of the following?

[] 1 Cattle
[] 2 Goats
[] 4 Sheep
[] 8 Pigs
[] 16 Poultry
[] 32 Donkeys/Horses
[] 64 Ostrich
[] 128 Game

Circle the appropriate answer code(s) if any member of the household owns any of the above listed livestock. For example, if a household owns three goats and a few chickens you would put rings around codes 2 and 16.

If none of the above applies, write 0 in the space below the codes, but not in the shaded area.

135a. Column E2: Planting of crops

Q: During the last agricultural season, did any member of this household plant any of the following during the agriculture season:

[] 1 Maize
[] 2 Millet
[] 4 Sorghum
[] 8 Beans
[] Other (Specify)

Circle the appropriate answer code(s) if during the past agricultural season any member of the household planted any of the above. Write down the name(s) of any other crop(s) planted but not listed (e.g. watermelon, sweet reeds). If they planted nothing at all, write 0 in the space below the codes, but not in the shaded area.

135b. Column E3: Land ownership

Q: Does this household own the land used for planting?
Circle 1 or 2 for yes or no respectively depending on the answer provided by the respondent. If the response is "no" skip E4 and go to E5

136. Column E4: Land acquisition

Q: How was the land for planting obtained?

If a member of the household planted anything, then ask how the land for planting was obtained. Circle the appropriate answer code(s):

[] 1 Landboard
[] 2 Tribal/communal
[] 4 Inheritance
[] 8 Freehold (land held in absolute ownership)
[] 16 Lease/TGLP (land held in ownership for a specified period of time)
[] 32 Syndicate
[] 64 Employer/relative
[] 128 Self-allocated

If none of the above applies enter 0 in the space below the codes, but not in the shaded area.

137a Column E5: Since Independence Day 2000 did household member(s) receive cash from: Agricultural activities

Q. Sale of [the person]?

[] 1 Cattle
[] 2 Goats/Sheep
[] 4 Poultry
[] 8 Maize
[] 16 Sorghum /Millet
[] 32 Melon/Sweetreeds
[] 64 Phane
[] 128 Fish
[] 256 Thatch/Poles/Reeds
[] 512 Firewood
[] 1024 Silk worm cocoons
[] Other (Specify)

The most common cash-earning activities are listed above (and on the questionnaire), and you should circle the appropriate code(s) if, since August, 2000, any member of the household earned money from the sale of any of these. But space is also provided for you to specify any other activity from which a member of the household earned money during the past 12 months. Remember to include cash activities of household members who would normally have spent the census night with the household, but who were temporarily elsewhere in Botswana at the time of the census.

The household may have earned cash from selling cattle, goats/sheep, poultry, maize, millet/sorghum, phane, fish, thatch/poles/reeds, firewood and silkworm cocoons.

137b. Column E6: Since Independence Day 2000 did household member(s) receive cash from: Household based activities

Q: Sale of [the person]?

At least one member of the household may have earned cash from the sale of one of the following:

[] 1 Beer
[] 2 Craftwork
[] 4 Clothes
[] 8 Cooked food
[] Other (Specify).

The respondent must be asked if any member of the household sold any of the above, by reading them out to the respondent one by one and circling the codes where the respondent answers "yes".

If household members did not receive cash from employment or from selling goods or providing services, then write 0 in the space below the codes, but not in the shaded area.

If the household sold other items not listed above, or if any household member earned cash from running a general trading store or from hawking a variety of goods or from similar trading activities, then write the income source to the space below the codes or in the comments box.

137. Column E7: Since Independence Day 2000 did household member(s) receive cash from: Other receipts

Q: Since Independence Day last year (2000), did any member of this household receive cash from:

Remittances from:

[] 1 Inside Botswana
[] 2 Outside Botswana
Other receipts:
[] 4 Pension
[] 8 Rents
[] 16 Maintenance
[] 32 Employment

In this section, we are interested in finding out whether the household received any cash payment or as unearned income during the reference period. Unearned income refers to payments made to the household other than from business profits or sale of one's own produce, goods or services.

If anyone in Part A (other than visitors) worked for cash in the past 30 days then you should automatically circle code 32. This code (32) should also be used if a household member had a job a few months ago, but is currently unemployed. Since the household received income from his previous employment since August 1990, the code for Employment would be circled in E7.

To ensure that codes 32 for employment are covered ask the respondent whether any household member received income from employment since Independence day (2000). If the answer is yes, then circle code 32 for employment in E6.

The most common types of unearned income are as follows:

1. Remittances from Inside Botswana:
This includes cash gifts and transfers from relatives, friends or others living or working elsewhere in the country. For example, if a household member's husband lives and works in Tsootsha and regularly sends part of his salary to her in Maun, this salary transfer would be recorded as a remittance from inside Botswana (code 1). Remittances from inside Botswana also include family and child maintenance payments receipts. It should be noted that cash remittances refer not only to cash which has been sent by post or mail, but also to any cash transfers which have been delivered by hand or in some other way. Distance between households affected is immaterial. The transfer must be permanent - cash loans to the household must not be included.

2. Remittances from Outside Botswana:
This includes cash gifts and transfers from relatives, friends or others living or working outside Botswana. For example, if a household member listed in Part B sends part of his salary to other household members; this salary transfer would be recorded as a remittance from outside Botswana (code 2). As above, cash remittances refer not only to cash which has been sent by post or mail, but also to any cash transfers which have been delivered by hand or in some other way. The transfer must be permanent - cash loans to the household must not be included.

4. Pension:
This is a payment, usually on a regular basis, by a previous employer to a worker who has retired or is no longer working for other reasons. For example, certain Government employees are entitled to stop work and draw their pensions on attaining the age of 45 years.

8. Rent:
A household may receive payment for any property it lets out, such as a house or field. It should also include payments received for allowing its donkeys/mules/oxen to be used for ploughing.

16. Maintenance:
This money is received when there is at least one child in the family who is been taken care of by the father, either voluntarily or as an order from the relevant court.

Circle the appropriate answer code(s) if, since August 2000, any member of the household received money from any of these sources.

If none of the above applies, enter 0 in the space just below the codes, but not in the shaded area.

Example: The agriculture and land acquisition section captured that there is at least one member of the household with poultry as well as one who planted sorghum. There is however none who owns land as the land used is a tribal communal. In E5 to E7 the household sold poultry in E5 for earning cash and employment was another cash earning activity.

[Table in P 57 of the original document showing agriculture and land acquisition section is omitted here]

139. Columns E8 - E14: Housing unit

These questions relate to the housing unit occupied by the household you are enumerating. A housing unit is defined as "the unit of accommodation for a household". You will usually be able to answer some of these questions yourself simply from observation. However, if in doubt, ask, then circle the most appropriate answer code. Note that in each of these columns you are to circle only one code.

The relevant portion of the sample questionnaire is shown on page 59.

140. Column E8: Type of housing unit

This question refers to the housing unit in which the household you are enumerating lives. There are different types of housing units, identified and listed below. Circle the appropriate code for the household you are enumerating:

[] 01 Traditional (lolwapa):
A lolwapa is a residential place comprising one or more huts and/or other structures which are fenced together. Such malwapa are mostly found in rural areas.

[] 02 Mixed:
This is in a situation where the dwelling unit or lelwapa is made up of a mixture of traditional houses and the modern type of housing units.

[] 03 Detached house:
This is a building that stands on its own, without sharing a wall with any other building. In many cases a detached house will also be fenced. A traditional hut standing on its own is to be classified as a lolwapa.

[] 04 Semi-detached house:
This is a building that shares a wall with just one other building, but which has its own separate entrance. It may be one or two storeys high.

[] 05 Town/terraced house:
This is a building, in a group of many others sharing walls on two sides; each building has its own entrance, and the building may be one, two or even three storeys high. A "town house" does not mean a "house in town". Note that the last unit at the end of a Town/Terraced House is not classified as Semi-Detached.

[] 06 Flat, apartments:
This is a unit of accommodation in a building. The building itself will usually have a main entrance and each flat will also have its own separate entrance; the building is usually 2 or more storeys high, but each flat forms part of just one storey or floor.

[] 07 Part of commercial building:
Sometimes part of a commercial building is used as residential quarters, particularly by small shopkeepers. Factory buildings may occasionally be used as housing units either by security personnel or staff of building contractors.

[] 08 Movable:
This is a housing unit, which can be transported from place to place either as a unit or in component parts. Examples are tents, tin-huts, port camps, caravans, etc.

[] 09 Shack:
This is a temporary shelter built of remnants of packing materials, e.g. cardboard boxes, polythene sheets, etc. Shacks are mostly found in urban areas.

[] 10 Room(s):
In urban areas, particularly on SHHA plots and on low-cost plots, rooms in a building are sublet to tenants. Sometimes additional rooms are built on the plot for letting purposes.

141. Column E9: Method of acquisition of housing unit/plot

Q: How was this housing unit/plot acquired by the household?

Enquire from the household what entitles them to live in this particular housing unit/plot.

[] 1 Landboard
[] 2 Tribal Authority
[] 3 Purchase/Freehold
[] 4 SHHA
[] 5 Self-Allocated
[] 6 Inheritance

Some of the above codes need further explanation as follows:

2. Tribal authority:
These are housing units on plots which were allocated by tribal authorities a long time ago before the formation of landboards.

4. SHHA:
These are housing units on plots which were acquired through the Self Help Housing Agency Scheme.

5. Self-allocation:
Circle code 5 for households occupying tribal/estate land or a freehold farm where no allocation was made by any authority or employers.

6. Inheritance:
These are housing units on plots acquired by inheritance regardless of means of previous acquisition.

142. Column E10: Tenure ship of Housing Unit

Q: How was this housing unit acquired?

[] 01 Purchased (Owner occupied):
This applies when the household occupying the housing unit bought it.

[] 02 Rent: Circle code 02 for housing units rented from BHC

[] 03 Rent: Circle code 03 for housing units rented from Government

[] 04 Rent: Circle code 04 for housing units rented from Council

[] 05 Rent: Circle code 05 for housing units rented from private individuals

[] 06 Rent: Circle code 06 for housing units rented from companies and institutions other than the above ones

[] 07 Free:
Circle code 07 for those households not owning their housing unit, but not paying any rent either. They may be living in a housing unit provided by relatives or an employer. Members of the Police Force or BDF and some domestic servants are examples of persons who obtain housing free from their employers.

[] 08 Inheritance:
These are housing units acquired by inheritance regardless of means of previous acquisition.

[] 09 Self built (Owner occupied):
Code 09 should used for housing units built by occupants for occupation.

143. Column E11: Number of Rooms in the Housing Unit

Q: How many rooms are there in this housing unit (excluding kitchen, toilet, bathroom, garage and store)?

Enter, in the space provided in the questionnaire, the number of rooms used as sleeping accommodation, or as living rooms, in the housing unit where you are enumerating.

The following are excluded: kitchen(s), toilet(s), bathroom(s), garage(s) and store(s). However, if one of these (kitchen or garage) is used for living or sleeping accommodation it should be counted as a living room - for example, a room which is used both as kitchen and living room would be counted. You will find examples of these in some rented SHHA houses in the urban areas and rondavels in the rural areas.

If more than one household shares one living room, count it only once for one of the households. You cannot count it more than once, as this would give an overestimate of the availability of accommodation in the country.

Example: The housing unit for the household was a traditional lolwapa, rented from someone, and as such the way the plot was acquired is not known to the household. E11 is coded 03 showing that there are 3 rooms used as living rooms by the household. The walls of this household is made of conventional bricks/blocks,the floor is made of cement/stones while the roof is made of corrugated iron. This is shown by the codes in E12, E13 and E14.

[Table in P. 60 of the original document is omitted here]

143a. Columns E12/E13/E14: Material of Construction of Main Housing Unit

These questions refer to the material of construction of the housing unit (the floor, the walls and the roof) where you are enumerating.

If it is a lolwapa having more than one "sleeping" hut or house, obtain information about the material of construction of the main unit - the "main house" - which will usually be the one used by the head of the household.

If the housing unit is a room, it is the material for the room that is required and this is usually the same as the material for the house.

If more than one type of material is used, e.g. zinc and thatch for the roof, enter the one that has been used for the greater part of the roof.

144. Column E12: Walls

Observe the material of construction for the walls and circle the appropriate code:

[] 01 Conventional bricks/blocks
[] 02 Mud bricks/blocks
[] 03 Mud and poles/cow dung/thatch/reeds
[] 04 Poles and reeds
[] 05 Corrugated iron/zinc/tin
[] 06 Asbestos
[] 07 Wood
[] 08 Stone
[] Other (Specify)____

If none of the above applies write the name of the material in the space below the codes.

145. Column E13: Floor

Observe the material of construction for the floor and circle the appropriate code:

[] 1 Brick
[] 2 Tiles
[] 3 Mud/mud and dung
[] 4 Wood
[] 5 Cement/stones
[] Other (Specify)

If none of the above applies, write the name of the material in the space below the codes.

146. Column E14: Roof

Observe the material of construction for the roof and circle the appropriate code:

[] 1 Slate
[] 2 Thatch/straw
[] 3 Roof tiles
[] 4 Corrugated iron/zinc/tin
[] 5 Asbestos
[] 6 Concrete
[] Other (Specify)____

If none of the above applies, write the name of the material in the space below the codes.

147. Column E15: Principal Source of Water Supply

Q: What is the principal source of water supply for this household?

Circle the appropriate answer code for the principal source of water supply. If the particular source of water supply is not listed, write down the source under "Other (specify)". In cattle post areas, where people have to travel long distances to obtain water from a standpipe, indicate in the "Comments" column that it is a cattle post situation if the response is "standpipe".

[] 1 Piped indoors
[] 2 Piped outdoors
[] 3 Communal tap
[] 4 Bouser/tanker
[] 5 Well
[] 6 Borehole
[] 7 River/stream
[] 8 Dam/pan
[] 9 Rain water tank
[] 10 Spring water
[] Other (specify) ____

148. Column E16: Toilet facility

Q: What type of toilet facility is used by this household?

Possible answers to this question are as follows:

Own:

[] 1 Flush toilet
[] 2 Ventilated Improved Pit latrine (VIP)
[] 3 Pit latrine

Communal:

[] 4 Flush toilet
[] 5 VIP
[] 6 Pit latrine
[] 7 Neighbours toilet
[] 8 None

An own toilet/latrine is one which has been built by a private household for its use. A toilet/latrine which is used by more than one household in the lolwapa is still own. They may share it with neighbouring household(s) by private arrangement. If the toilet facility is own, circle 1, 2 or 3 as appropriate.

A communal toilet/latrine is one which has been built by the community or local authorities for use by members of the public. If the toilet facility is communal, circle 4 or 5 or 6 as appropriate. Code 7 to be circled if the household uses a neighbours toilet.

If none of the above applies, meaning that the household either uses river or bush, circle 8.

149. Column E17: Principal Fuel for Lighting

Q: What is the principal energy source used by this household for lighting?

Ask for the principal source of fuel used by the household for lighting and circle the appropriate code. It is possible that a household may use more than one fuel at any one time but it is the one that is used most often that should be recorded. Only one code should be circled.

[] 1 Electricity
[] 2 Solar Power
[] 3 Gas (LPG)
[] 4 Bio Gas
[] 5 Candle
[] 6 Wood
[] 7 Paraffin
[] Other (specify) ____

If the particular fuel used is not listed, write down the name of the fuel used in the space below the codes.

150. Column E18: Principal Fuel For Cooking

Q: What is the principal energy source used by this household for cooking?

Ask for the principal energy source used by the household for cooking and circle the appropriate answer code. It is possible that a household may use more than one fuel at any one time but it is the one that is used most often that should be recorded. Only one code should be circled. Possible codes are as follows:

[] 1 Electricity
[] 2 Solar Power
[] 3 Gas (LPG)
[] 4 Bio Gas
[] 5 Wood
[] 6 Paraffin
[] 7 Cow-dung
[] 8 Coal
[] 9 Crop waste
[] 10 Charcoal
[] Other (specify) ____

If the particular fuel used is not listed, write down the type of fuel used in the space below the codes.

150a. Column E19: Principal Fuel for Heating

Q: What is the principal energy source used by this household for space heating?

Ask for the principal fuel used by the household for space heating and circle the appropriate answer code. It is possible that a household may use more than one fuel at any one time but it is the one that is used most often that should be recorded. Only one code should be circled. Possible codes are as follows:

[] 1 Electricity
[] 2 Solar Power
[] 3 Gas (LPG)
[] 4 Wood
[] 5 Paraffin
[] 6 Cow-dung
[] 7 Coal
[] 8 Charcoal
[] Other (specify)

If the particular fuel used is not listed, write down the type of fuel used in the space below the codes.

151a. Column E20: Refuse Disposal

Q: How does this household dispose off its refuse/rubbish?

Find out the method used by the household to get rid of waists or rubbish. If the household uses more than one method ask for the one they regard to be the main or the one most often used. Only one code should be circled among the following:

[] 1 Regularly collected
[] 2 Irregularly collected
[] 3 Incinerated
[] 4 Roadside dumping
[] 5 Rubbish pit
[] 6 Other

If the method used is not among the ones above, circle other and write down that method in the space below the codes.

Example: The coding in the questionnaire portion below shows that the household depend on the pipe outside house for their water supply and have their own flush toilet. The household uses paraffin, gas and wood for lighting, cooking and heating according to the codes in E17, E18 and E19. The rubbish from the household is regularly collected where there is an arrangement like in towns where the town council collects the rubbish regularly.

[Table in P. 64 of the original document showing principal fuel water supply, toilet facility and refuse disposal is not presented here]

151b. Column E21

Q: Does any member of this household own a working?

You should circle the appropriate code(s) if any member of the household owns any of the following durables in good working order:

[] 1 Van/bakkie
[] 2 Car
[] 4 Tractor
[] 8 Donkey cart
[] 16 Bicycle (kids bicycles are excluded in this category)
[] 32 Wheelbarrow
[] 64 Radio
[] 128 TV
[] 256 Computer
[] 512 Phone

Column E31-E32: Home Based Care:

151c. Column E31
Q: Is there any critically ill person in this housing unit?

Circle a "1" for yes and or a "2" for no depending on the response from the respondent, after probing should the need to probe arouse.

151d. Column E32
Q: Do nurses, social workers, etc visit any critically ill persons in this housing unit?

Circle a "1" for yes or a "2" for no depending on the response from the respondent, after probing should the need to probe arise.

Example: Codes from E21 shows that the enumerator was told by the household respondent that at least one member of the household own at least one of the following in good working condition:

[Table in P. 66 of the original document is not presented here]

[Part 5 in P. 67-74 of the original document is omitted here]

[Part 6 in P. 75-81 of the original document is omitted here]

[Part 7 in P. 82-86 of the original document is omitted here]

[Appendices of the original document are omitted here]