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Republic of Botswana
1991 Population and Housing Census
Enumerator's Manual

[Table of contents has been omitted]

[p.1]

Part 1: Organisational Matters

Introduction

A Population and Housing Census is more than just a count of the country's population. It is also a survey of various demographic, social and economic facts about the people who live in Botswana.

It is being held in order to provide information which is essential both for development planning and for making administrative decisions. It is therefore of the greatest importance to every Person in Botswana.

The census is explained in the leaflet "Guide to the Census", which you have all been given and which you must read.

Census Organisation

The Government Statistician, as the head of the Central Statistics Office, is responsible to the Government for the conduct of the census. In order to facilitate the operations of census activities, a Census Office has been set up with a Census Officer in charge. The Census Officer is directly responsible to the Government Statistician. As the District Commissioner has the legal authority for the co-ordination of all government activities in his/her district, the Census Officer operates through him/her; but for the day-to-day co-ordination of census activities in the district, District Census Officers (DCOs) have been appointed to assist the District Commissioner. Representing the Census Officer in each District will be a Technical Officer (TO). The TOs will assist the DCOs on all technical matters relating to the census.

Your supervisor is your immediate superior in the census organisation. His/her job is to help you do your work efficiently, lo assist you in case of difficulty and to make certain checks designed to ensure that your work is accurate. He/she will be required to report on your work before you are paid.

For the purpose of the census, the country has been divided into 24 Census Districts. Six of these are the urban areas of Gaborone, Francistown, Lobatse, Selebi-Phikwe, Orapa and Jwaneng; the remainders are roughly equivalent to the Administrative Districts or Sub­ Districts. District Census Officers (with the assistance of TOs) are in charge of census operations in the Census Districts. The Census Districts are in tum divided into Enumeration Areas (EAs). Each EA is the responsibility of an enumerator who is required to visit every lolwapa and to obtain and record the information required of all persons and households in it.

Aim of the Census

The aim of the census is to determine the number of persons and certain characteristics of every person in Botswana, regardless of race or nationality. Since this cannot be done in one day, the census period will be from 14-23 August, 1991. In the remote areas of the country, the period may be longer due to difficult terrain and long distances. During this period we must enumerate everyone living in Botswana - young and old, citizen and non-citizen, resident and visitor.

Your Job as an Enumerator

Your job is to ask the questions and to record the answers. It is the most important single job in the census. You must make every effort to obtain complete and accurate answers and to record them carefully and correctly. The success of the census depends upon the public's willing cooperation, and it is your job to obtain this by being always polite, patient and tactful.

[p.2]

The information you collect is confidential and will be used only for the purpose of compiling statistics. You are not permitted to disclose any census data to anyone who is not a census officer, nor should you leave it where any unauthorised person may have access to it. On no account must you allow any unauthorised person to fill in any part of the census questionnaire. No information on an individual person or household will be published or passed on to any other Government department or to anyone other than census officers.

The Census Act (CAP 17:02) provides for severe penalties against any census officer who is found guilty of improper conduct. The relevant section of the Act reads as follows:

Any census officer who:
(a) without sufficient cause refuses or neglects to act as such or to use reasonable diligence and care in performing any duty imposed upon him,
(b) willfully puts an offensive or improper question or knowingly makes any false return,
(c) asks, receives· or takes from any person otherwise than an authorised officer of the Government any payment or reward,
(d) divulges any information obtained during the performance of his duty as a census officer,
shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable to a fine of four hundred Pula or to imprisonment for twelve months or to both.

In undertaking the work of an enumerator, you have become a census officer and these provisions apply to you.

Conclusion

The Population and Housing Census is a national undertaking of great importance to Botswana. Without the willing help of the public it cannot succeed, nor can it succeed without good enumerators who will do their job with care and a sense of responsibility. It is your job to make sure that the census succeeds.

In undertaking the work of an enumerator, you are contributing to the development of Botswana and it is work of which you can be proud.

[p.3]

Part 2: Definitions of Terms and Concepts

Enumeration Area

An Enumeration Area (EA) is the smallest geographic unit which represents an average workload for an enumerator over a specified period. The average size of an EA is approximately 120-150 malwapa.

An EA may be a whole locality (this is the case of a small village which is an EA by itself), a part of a locality (this is the case of a bigger village which has been divided into more than one EA) or a group of localities (this is the case of cattleposts, lands areas, or freehold farms).

You will be allocated one or more EAs, and you will be responsible for visiting every lolwapa in them and for recording the information required in respect of every person in the household(s) constituting the lolwapa.

It is important that you are able to identify the EAs assigned to you.

For an EA which forms part of a big village, you will also be given a sketch map which will show you the location of the EA relative to its adjacent areas in the village. For the identification of the EA you will depend on:

the EA map affixed to the EA file
the Control List - each line of the Control List in the EA File shows the name of the head of household or senior person who was living in the lolwapa when the mapping took place
the census numbers fixed to the malwapa
the knowledge of the local people

For an EA which consists of smaller localities, you will be given a map showing the location of the localities in the EA and the number of malwapa in each locality. For the identification of the EA you will depend on:

the EA map affixed to the EA file showing the position of the localities in the EA
the Control Lists which have been prepared for each of the localities
the census numbers fixed to the malwapa
the knowledge of the local people

For an EA in town, the boundaries are identifiable through landmarks like roads and streets which have names and plots which have numbers. In most cases the road/street names and plot numbers are marked on the ground and on the map. These, in addition to the Control List, are to be used for the identification of the EA.

EA boundaries are denoted by + on the map. In addition, your EA boundaries are highlighted, in red to distinguish it from other EAs which may appear on your map but which are not assigned to you. Make sure that you know the boundaries of your EA so that you do not leave out some malwapa or include those that do not belong to your area. Your supervisor will help you.

[p.4]

Locality

A locality is defined as any human settlement with a name and identifiable boundaries.

Lolwapa

A lolwapa, in its traditional sense, consists of one or more structures or buildings, permanent or temporary, usually surrounded by a fence/wall or something to mark its boundaries. In some areas the huts and/or other structures may not be fenced, but they are usually in very close proximity.

Mapping teams have already identified every lolwapa in Botswana and in rural areas, affixed a lolwapa number (on a metal plate) to the door of each lolwapa. In urban areas the plot number has been used as the lolwapa number - and, since the plot number is usually visible, no metal plates have been affixed to urban malwapa.

A lolwapa may contain more than one household. You must not miss any household in your area(s) nor count any twice.

A lolwapa is, in effect, a target address which provides access to the household(s). For you not to miss any household in any lolwapa in your EA, it is important that you fully understand what a household is.

Household

A household consists of one or more persons, related or unrelated, living together "under the same roof' in the same lolwapa, eating together "from the same pot" and/or making common provision for food and other living arrangements.

In some places, particularly in the towns, houses and blocks of flats have servants' quarters built within the same fence or compound. Servants occupying servants' quarters should be enumerated as separate households. There may be other people who are not servants and not part of the main household occupying these quarters; such persons should also be enumerated as separate households.

In some urban areas, particularly on SHHA plots, rooms are let out to people for residential purposes. Each tenant unit should be regarded as a separate household. A tenant unit may consist of one or more rooms.

Sometimes two or more persons who are not related to each other share a house or flat. They should be enumerated as a single household, provided they share common budgetary and housekeeping arrangements. Otherwise, they should be enumerated as separate households.

You should use a separate questionnaire for each household you enumerate.

You will enumerate everyone who slept in the lolwapa on the night before your visit, according to the households to which they belong. This night is called the census night.

Sometimes there are persons who would normally have slept at the lolwapa but who are known to have been absent during the night before your visit (census night) and not to have slept at any other lolwapa (for example - night watchmen or policemen on night duty; railway staff on the night shift; persons working in hospitals, hotels and prisons throughout the night; hunting parties who slept in the bush; parties away cutting thatch; persons at overnight prayer meetings; and persons away at funeral wake keeping). Such persons should be enumerated with the households with whom they would normally have spent the night.

[p.5]

Patients in hospitals, persons staying in hotels, prisoners, BDF personnel in barracks and miners in hostels should be enumerated on Institutional Questionnaires that will be provided by the supervisor. However, people living in houses in institutional compounds should be enumerated on Household Questionnaires, e.g. doctors in hospitals, teachers in schools, police officers, some army officers, etc.

A person who died before 6:00 in the morning of the day of your visit should NOT be enumerated with the household in Part A. His/her particulars must be recorded in Part D of the questionnaire (Deaths). If a person died after 6:00 in the morning, he/she will be recorded in Part A of the questionnaire (information about individual household members), since he/she was alive during the whole of the census night.

However, in almost all cases of death just before your visit you would be advised to come back another time. Since, when you revisit, you will be asking for details of persons present in the household the night before your revisit, any person who died just before your first visit will now be included in Part D. Do not persist in enumerating the household unless members are willing to be enumerated.

There may be occasions when some people say that they have already been enumerated at another lolwapa and that they are only visiting the household where you find them. The rule stays the same. If they spent the census night with the household where you find them, you should enumerate them again, and write in the space provided on the questionnaire for comments "Person number ... enumerated before at ... (address)".

It is possible that a person might object to being counted twice. In that case you should ask his/her name together with the date and place where he/she was enumerated. Write this information down in the comments box, and report the matter to your supervisor when he/she comes to check your work.

Head of Household

The head of a household is any person, male or female, at least 12 years old, who is regarded by other members of the household as their head. This person may or may not be a blood relative of other members of the household. In exceptional circumstances, if amongst those who spent the night there is no one aged 12 or over, the eldest child will have to be entered as head of household. A comment to this effect should be included in the comments box of the questionnaire.

In most cases the head will be either the husband or the wife, in the case of a married couple, but in other cases it may be any responsible or senior person in the household.

If the usual head of household is away from home and didn't spend the census night with the household, another responsible or senior person will have to be nominated as the head of household from amongst those who did spend the census night in the lolwapa.

Respondent

There may be instances where the head of household spent the census night with the household, but at the lime of your visit he/she is not present. You may then ask any member of the household present (aged 12 years or over) for the information required. Whoever provides the information is referred to as a respondent.

A respondent need not be the head of household.

Sometimes a respondent may be someone who did not spend the census night with the household. You are allowed to ask such a person for information on behalf of members of the
[p.6]
household, but the respondent should not be listed with the household. However, if the respondent did spend the census night with the household, he/she should be listed with the household and his/her relationship to the head of household coded accordingly.

[p.7]

Part 3: Preparation for Enumeration

Your Equipment

You will be issued with a satchel containing the following:

3 Enumeration Area (EA) Books
A file containing the EA map and Control Lists
Village/Country List, Botswana Events Calendar and Age Calendar
1 roll of printed white adhesive labels
1 roll of printed orange adhesive labels
2 blue or black ball-point pens
1 census badge

You should keep your equipment carefully because at the end of the enumeration you will be required to return it, and you will not be paid until all these items have been accounted for to your supervisor.

The Enumeration Area File

For each Enumeration Area (EA) assigned to you, there will be an Enumeration Area File which contains the following information and material:

The Front Cover

District name and code
Enumeration Area code
Names and codes of all localities listed in the EA
Inside the File
Control List(s)
A map of the Enumeration Area
Sketch map of the Enumeration Area (where relevant)

This file must be kept safely at all times and must be returned to your supervisor at the end of the census enumeration. A copy of the front cover of the EA File appears on the next page.

[p.8]

[Diagram on page 8 omitted]

[p.9]

The Control List - General Information

The Control List has three main functions:

- it provides you with a reference list of all the malwapa in your EA

- the "Status" column keeps you (and your supervisor) briefed as to which malwapa have not yet been enumerated - and why

- after enumeration it is used to summarize the numbers of households and persons enumerated in the lolwapa.

The Control List is therefore a very important document and you must look after it carefully. A copy of the Control List appears on page 11.

Discussion of the Control List is divided into two parts. Firstly, we look at the use of the Control List as a reference listing. Then, after the enumeration procedure has been described, we look at how the Control List is used to monitor the enumeration status of the lolwapa and to summarize the numbers of households and persons enumerated.

The Control List as a Reference Listing

The Control List provides you with a listing of all the malwapa that you must visit during the census. Each lolwapa is identified on the Control List by a Lolwapa/House Number. In rural areas this number will match the number on a metal plate attached to the door of the lolwapa. In urban areas the lolwapa number is the plot number. Also on the Control List is the name of the head of the household (or other senior person) at that lolwapa if it was found to be occupied during the mapping work.

The name that appears on the Control List (as household head or senior person) is just to help you identify a lolwapa (e.g. in the event that the metal plate has fallen off or been removed). Once you have located the lolwapa you must enumerate the household(s) now living there regardless of whether the person named on the Control List is still a member of the household(s). Every lolwapa on the list must be visited even if it was unoccupied or just a bare plot at the time the list was compiled. This is because there may now be someone living at that lolwapa.

A lolwapa may not have a metal number plate for a variety of reasons:

the lolwapa was not numbered during the mapping operation (either by mistake or because the lolwapa was built after the mapping and did not exist at that time)

the residents of the lolwapa or other persons may have removed the number

the number affixed to the lolwapa door or gate may have been transferred with the door or gate to a different locality.

Only in the first of these three situations should it be necessary to assign a new number to the lolwapa, but first you need to ascertain which of these three situations applies.

Check the name of the head of household (or other senior person) now living in the lolwapa. If either name appears on the Control List you will know that this lolwapa has already been numbered. Use the lolwapa number that already appears on the Control List and do not assign a new number.

[p.10]

If the lolwapa has no number and the name of the head or of senior person of the lolwapa/household does not appear on your Control List, then assume it is a new lolwapa and assign the lolwapa a number as instructed in paragraph 55.

If you find a door or a gate bearing a number which is totally different from the other numbers affixed to the rest of the malwapa in the locality or in the Enumeration Area and to those appearing on your Control List, ignore the number. It is a wrong number. Assign the correct number to the lolwapa. You will do this by asking the occupants of the lolwapa for the name of the head of household (or other senior person). Check the Control List and if such a name appears, use the lolwapa number already assigned. If not, assign a new number as instructed in paragraph 55.

Unlisted Localities

If you find in your EA a locality which has not been listed in your Control List, ascertain the name of the locality. Check with your supervisor that you haven't accidentally strayed into a locality that belongs to an adjacent EA. If your supervisor confirms that it is an unlisted locality within your EA, proceed as follows: On a blank Control List form, enter the Village/District names and codes, EA number, and locality name - but leave the locality code blank. Assign new numbers to all the malwapa that you find in this unlisted locality as instructed below in paragraph 55, and carry out the enumeration. Mark in your EA map the approximate location of this unlisted locality (if it is not already mapped) and write the name of the locality next to where you have marked its location. Show it to your supervisor.

How to Assign New Numbers to Unnumbered Malwapa

If EA is composed of different localities:

In cattlepost areas, lands areas and freehold farms (or mixtures of these) your EA will consist of more than one locality. For each locality you will assign new numbers to unnumbered malwapa independently. That is, for unnumbered malwapa in Locality X, you will assign sequentially from 77001 to the last unnumbered lolwapa. For unnumbered malwapa in Locality Y, you will assign sequentially from 77001 to the last unnumbered lolwapa in that locality. You will follow the same procedure for the rest of the localities in your EA.

If EA is a whole locality:

A small village may be a whole EA. If it is, simply assign new numbers sequentially starting with 77001 to the last unnumbered lolwapa in that EA.

If EA is part of a locality:

In towns and big villages, an EA will be part of the town, village or ward. As in (b) above, simply assign new numbers sequentially from 77001 onwards.

Enter each new number in the "Lolwapa/House Number" column of the Control List for that locality. This number is also the Lolwapa/House Number to be entered at the top of every questionnaire. Indicate in the "Comments" column of the Control List the location of the unnumbered lolwapa, e.g. "between lolwapa 120 and 122".

Start your enumeration with the first lolwapa on your list:

Remember a lolwapa may contain more than one household, so, before you start enumerating, find out how many separate households live within the lolwapa (using the definition of a household as given in paragraph 26).

[p.11]
[Diagram on page 11 omitted]

[p.12]

Part 4: The Enumeration Procedure

How to Approach the Public

You should wear your badge and carry your letter of appointment to show that you work for the census. You should at all times be patient and tactful. You should always explain who you are and what you are doing.

You should politely request entry into the lolwapa, exchange proper greetings, explain what your visit is all about and respond to any questions about the census which members of the lolwapa may ask, before you start enumerating. At the end of enumeration, politely thank the people for their cooperation and carefully shut the gate (if any) behind you on leaving the premises.

During the enumeration, let people take their time, never put answers into their mouths, work steadily and systematically through the questionnaire and make sure that the answers are clear to you before you write anything down. Do not accept at once an answer if you think it might be wrong. Instead, tactfully ask further questions to obtain the correct answer.

If a person refuses to cooperate or answer questions, maintain a courteous manner. Stress the importance of the census, that it has nothing to do with politics or tax collecting, and that the information is treated confidentially. If he/she is still reluctant to help, report the matter to your supervisor as soon as possible.

When leaving a household, remember to thank the head and the other members for their help.

Who to Enumerate

You must enumerate everyone in your enumeration area. You will do this by visiting every lolwapa in the area and enumerating every household. You will enumerate every person in the household who spent the census night in that lolwapa (see paragraph 31) and those who, for reasons given in paragraph 32, did not spend the census night there but who did not spend the night with any other household either. In addition, you will record those citizens absent from Botswana but who would usually live in the lolwapa if they were in the country. A questionnaire must be completed in respect of each household.

Using the definition of a household you will identify all the households in the lolwapa.

You will ask for the head of the household or the most senior person of those present at the time of your visit. This is the person to whom you should address all questions.

What Happens if there is No One at Home

It may happen that when you visit a lolwapa there is no one at home or no one old enough to answer questions. You must make further calls until you find someone or until you are quite certain that the lolwapa is unoccupied. Neighbors can very often tell you when the members of the household are likely to be at home and you should arrange your next visit accordingly. You should also ask the neighbors whether the people are just away for the day or whether they will be away for some time. In all cases, you should make at least three revisits to establish contact with the household. It may also happen that you are calling at an inconvenient time, in which case you should make an appointment to call again. Complete your return visits as soon as possible. Space has been provided on the back cover of the EA book for you to enter the particulars of malwapa and household(s) you have to revisit.

[p.13]

The Questionnaire - General Points

You (and not the respondent) must fill in the questionnaire. Remember that the information is confidential and that it must not be left lying around or given to anyone other than a census officer.

Use the blue/black ball-point pens provided. You must not use felt pens or pencils.

Keep the questionnaire clean, write legibly and leave no column blank.

All codes must be entered on the shaded portion of the line, and other entries that have to be written out should be on the unshaded portion. The only exception is in Part E, where you must not write in the shaded portion at all (see the sample questionnaire on the next page).

Where questions do not apply to a particular person, you should enter a dash (-). If there are no entries to be made in Parts B, C or D, enter dashes on the first line to show that you have asked the question(s).

For a question for which the answer is not known, enter 9 in the appropriate column. If more than one digit is required for the answer, enter as many 9s as the number of digits provided for. For example, if Marital Status (A11) is not known, enter code 9; if Past Residence (AS) is not known, enter code 9999.

Sometimes you may wish to explain more fully some entry you have made on the questionnaire, either because there is not enough space on the form or because the entry needs further, explanation in order to help those who will work with the questionnaire after you have finished. There is a box on the questionnaire marked "Comments" which you should use for this purpose. If the comments box is not sufficient for the purpose use the back of the questionnaire and indicate in the comments box that you have written comments on the back of the questionnaire.

If you make a mistake do not try to rub it out and do not use "Tippex"; cross it out neatly with a single line and correct it. If there is no room to make the correction cross out the whole line, write "mistake" .along the line and complete a new line. The reason you should cross out with a single line only is that if there is any doubt about the answer you have given, we can see what you wrote first and perhaps amend the answer accordingly. If you cross out heavily or use "Tippex", we cannot see what the original answer was.

Having introduced yourself to the household and explained about the census you must first establish whether, in this lolwapa, there is just one household or more than 'one household (see definition of household). Complete a separate questionnaire for each household.

If you encounter any problems when filling in the questionnaire, make a note in the comments box (or on the back of the questionnaire) and ask your supervisor about it when you next see him/her.

All the census information required is to be recorded on the questionnaire which will be issued to you in bound pads of 50 forms. Each form is numbered at the top right hand corner. None should be taken out or destroyed. You will have to account for all of them at the end of enumeration.

These bound pads of 50 forms are referred to as Enumeration Area Books (EA Books). Each EA Book is also uniquely numbered, on the front cover.

[p.14]

You will be given 3 EA Books for the EA assigned to you. You will use one EA Book until it is completely full before starting on a fresh one.

When you find that not all of the households in a lolwapa are available for enumeration, you must not leave any of the pages of the EA Book blank in reservation for those households.

You will continue filling in the EA Book, page after page, until you are able (on a revisit) to enumerate those households, numbering them in sequential order from the last household enumerated in that lolwapa. You will know which household number to assign from the Enumerator Revisit Form, which is discussed later in paragraphs 164-170. Remember that the District, the Village, the EA, the Locality and the Lolwapa/House Number will be the same as the already enumerated household(s), but the Household Number will change sequentially from the last household enumerated in that lolwapa.

[p.15]
[Diagram on page 15 omitted]

[p.16]

The Structure of the Enumeration

The questionnaire is divided into five parts - A, B, C, D and E. An example of a completed questionnaire is given on page 15. You may wish to refer to this example as the various parts of the questionnaire are explained.

Part A:

In Part A you must list all those persons who spent the census night with this household in this lolwapa. Also to be included are those who would have slept in this lolwapa if they had not been on night duty as a nurse, guard, etc. (see paragraph 32).

Part A is sub-divided into five sections.

The first section consists of columns A1 A8. Questions in these columns are to be completed for all persons in the household.

The second section comprises columns A9 and A10. Questions in these columns refer only to persons aged 5 years and over.

The third section consists of columns A11 - A15. Questions in these columns are to be asked of all persons aged 12 years and over.

The fourth section comprises columns A16 - A19. Questions in these columns refer only to females aged 12 years and over.

The fifth section consists of columns A20 and A21. Questions in these columns refer only to females aged between 12 and 50 years.

Part B:

Questions in Part B refer to any members of the household who were outside Botswana on the census night. This part should be completed in respect of Botswana citizens only.

Part C:

Questions in Part C refer to any disability that affects any person listed in Part A or B.

Part D:

Questions in Part D deal with any deaths that have occurred to members of the household between last Independence Day, 30th September, 1990 and the census night.

Part E:

Questions in Part E deal with the household as a unit, as opposed to questions in Parts A, B, C and D, which deal with individuals.

How to Fill in the Questionnaire

On arrival at the lolwapa, greet the occupants and identify yourself as a census enumerator. Ask for the head of the household; if he/she is not present, then ask to speak to the next most senior person. Explain that you must record information for each person who slept in this housing unit last night, even if he/she is not there at the time of your arrival. For example, if someone slept there the night before your visit, but left before you arrived, he/she should be enumerated even though he/she is not present.

[p.17]

It is important that you complete the questionnaire in the right order. First enter the names and codes of the District, Village, EA and Locality (all given in your EA file and Control List); the Lolwapa/House Number; and the Household Number. For the Lolwapa/House Number, you enter the number given on the Control List. If the number on the Control List has less than 5 digits, then fill in zeros to the left of the number to make it a 5- digit number. If there is more than one household in the lolwapa, the different households must be assigned different household numbers, as follows: 04980-01 for the first household enumerated 04980-02 for the second household enumerated, and serially for subsequent households in the lolwapa.

If there is only one household in the lolwapa, enter 01 in the box provided for the household number.

Work steadily and systematically through the questionnaire and make sure you understand the answers before you write them down.

After entering the geographic information (paragraph 94), you should fill in the rest of the questionnaire in the following order:

List the names of all persons who spent the census night with the household (including those described in paragraph 32), starting with the household head. After recording each name, enter each person's serial number (A2), relationship to the head (A3) and sex (A4).

Call out the name of each person, in the order listed, and establish his/her age before asking the subsequent questions.

Then move across the page and obtain all the other information required for each person listed, one at a time.

After Part A has been completed for all household members, complete Parts B, C, D and E, in that order.

The Questions and the Answers
Part A of the Questionnaire

Columns A1-A5

Collect the basic identifying information about the persons in the household (name, relationship to the head, sex and age). This portion of the questionnaire on page 15 is shown below for easy reference.

[p.18]
[Diagram on page 18 omitted]

Column A1: Name

What are the names of all persons who spent last night here? Be sure to include babies, elderly persons, visitors and those who normally spend the night here but who were away on night duty, at prayer meetings, etc.

Enter the names of all persons who spent the census night in the household, starting with the head's. Every household must have a "head" from amongst those who spent the census night in this lolwapa. If the "usual" head was not present, someone else should be chosen as head.

Include visitors who spent the night there. Include small children and babies if they slept there, even if they were born the day before. If they have not yet been given a name, write "baby boy" or "baby girl". A baby born in the lolwapa before six o'clock in the morning of the day of your visit should be counted. If the baby was born in hospital and had not been brought home by six o'clock in the morning, then it would be included (with its mother) in the Institutional Questionnaire completed for that hospital.

Include persons usually belonging to the household who were away from home on the night before your visit if they were elsewhere in the country and did not spend the night in another household. For example, include those who were on night duty, out fishing all night, or out
[p.19]
hunting or cutting thatch or at wake-keeping (see paragraph 32). If a person was with another household, we shall assume that they were enumerated with that household.

Only the name of the head of household should be written in full. For other members, the first name (or the name by which the person is usually known) will be sufficient. You must write the name of the head of household on the first line. The order in which you record the names of the other members of the household does not matter greatly, but you might wish to list them in this order:

Head or acting head of household
Spouse of head
Never married children of head or spouse
Ever married children of head or spouse and their own children
Other relatives
Non-relatives and visitors

In the sample questionnaire shown in paragraph 97, the head of household is James Mulemba, so he is listed first. His spouse, Anne, is listed next, followed by their two children, Mimi and
Anthony. Two nephews, Molelo and David, are listed next, followed by Thembe, who was visiting them from South Africa. Note that only the head's name is written out in full.

Column A2: Serial Number

In this column enter the serial number of each person enumerated. The first person enumerated should be given the number 01, the second 02, the third 03, and so on. If a household has more than eight members and you have to continue onto the next questionnaire page, the persons listed on this next page will have serial numbers 09, 10, 11, etc. Write "continued" in the comments box on the first page before turning to the next page m the EA Book. If you are using the last page of an EA Book and must· continue onto another questionnaire page, write "continued on page 1 of the EA book (number)". When you record data for Parts B, C and D, return to the first page and enter the information there (be sure to enter the geographic information at the top of the questionnaire). However, data for Part E should be recorded on the last page used for listing the household.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 97, James is assigned serial number 01, Anne 02, Mimi 03, Anthony 04, Molelo 05, David 06 and Thembe 07.

Column A3: Relationship

What is [the respondent]'s relationship to the head of this household?

Enter the appropriate one-digit code in the shaded area under column A3 as follows:

0 Head of household
1 His/her spouse
2 Head's son or daughter
3 Head's grandchild
4 Head's parent
5 Head's brother or sister
6 Head's nephew or niece
7 Head's in-law
8 Other relations or any persons not related
9 Don't know

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 97, James Mulemba, as the head of household, is coded 0. Anne is his spouse, so she is coded 1. His two children, Mimi and Anthony, are both coded 2; his nephews, Molelo and David, are coded 6; and the visitor, Thembe, is coded 8.

[p.20]

Column A4: Sex

Enter the appropriate one-digit code in the shaded area under column A4 as follows:

1 Male
2 Female

Usually a person's sex will be obvious, but be careful to get the sex of young children right. Do not guess - ask!

James, Anthony, Molelo and David are coded 1 in the sample questionnaire in paragraph 97, whilst Anne, Mimi and Thembe are all coded 2.

Before going on to complete column A5, make sure that you have written down the names and the correct relationship and sex codes for every person who spent the night before your visit with the household. Remember to ask about persons described in paragraph 32

Column A5: Age

How old is [the respondent]?

This is one of the most important questions in the questionnaire. It is also one that is often difficult to answer correctly. You should take particular care with it. You should record the age of a person in completed years, i.e. as of last birthday.

For example, a person aged twenty-six years and four months should be recorded as "26". Similarly, a person aged twenty-six years and 10 months should be recorded as "26". A child aged under one year should be recorded as "00". For persons aged 98 years and over, enter 98. A person aged 98 will therefore be coded 98 and so will a person aged 99 or 104. The code 99 is for "age not known" and is to be used only when you cannot possibly estimate a person's age, even using the techniques described below.

Some people may not know their ages. When this happens, ask first for the year in which the person was born, then look up the age in the Age Calendar provided inside the back cover of the EA Book or at the back of the Village/Country List and Botswana Events Calendar. If the year of birth is not known you should try to find out the age by using the Botswana Events Calendar. Ask how old the person was at the time of some known event. Check the answer by relating it to some other event the person can remember well. The events listed in the Botswana Events calendar are arranged by District, and corresponding to each event you will find listed the year in which the event occurred and the number of years ago the event occurred. From this information you can calculate the person's age.

If you already know the age of another person in the household, you may find it helpful to ask if the person is older or younger and by how many years. If there is no other way, you may have to estimate the person's age by looking at him/her (if present). Other documents such as Birth Certificates, Clinic Cards, Passports or Omang Cards could help you in accurately establishing respondents' ages. Suggest to the respondent(s) that they might refer to such documents. They might even show you these documents, but do not demand to see them.

When you have made the best estimate you can, you should check whether it is compatible with the person's position in the family/household. (For example, a child should be at least 12 years younger than his/her natural mother; of course, if the mother isn't the natural mother, then the age difference will be irrelevant). Some people have fixed ideas about their ages which are mistaken. Do not accept answers that are obviously wrong. Try and get accurate answers.

[p.21]

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 97, James is 39 and Anne is 35. Mimi is only 6 months old, so her age is recorded as 00. Anthony is 14, Molelo is 10, David is 19, and Thembe is 58.

Columns A6 - A8

Collect information about the citizenship and places of residence of the persons listed in column A1. This portion of the questionnaire on page 15 is shown below for easy reference.

[Diagram on page 21 omitted]

Column A6: Citizenship

What is the country of [the respondent]'s citizenship?

For Botswana citizens, enter 01 in the shaded area under column A6. For citizens of other countries, write the name of the country in the unshaded area and the code for that country in the shaded area beneath. The codes for most southern African countries are shown on the questionnaire. If a person is a citizen of a country not listed, look up the code in the Village/Country List.

[p.22]

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 103, all the persons listed are citizens of Botswana (code 01), except for Thembe, who is a citizen of South Africa. "RSA" is written in the unshaded area under column A6, in line 6, whilst the code for South Africa, 07, is written in the shaded area.

Column A7: Place of Usual Living

Where does [the respondent] usually live?

The place where a person spends or lives most of the time is that person's place of usual living. For example, for children in boarding school or teachers teaching away from home, enter the name and code of the village where the school is located - or, if the school is outside Botswana, enter the name and code of the country where the school is located.

For a person who usually lives in this housing unit (i.e. where he/she is being enumerated), enter 0001. For a person who usually lives somewhere else in the general locality (as indicated on the top of the questionnaire) where enumeration is taking place, enter 0002. (Though, in urban areas, if they live elsewhere in the same town they should be coded 0002 even if the actual locality within that town is different from the one stated at the top of the questionnaire).

For a person who usually lives somewhere else in Botswana, write down the name of the place in the unshaded area under column A7. If the place is a lands area or cattlepost write down the name of the village to which the lands area or cattlepost belongs. If the place 1s a freehold farm, write down the name of the nearest village. Check from the Village/Country List for the appropriate code of the village. Enter the code on the questionnaire, below the name of the village. If the person lives in an Extension Area in a town, write down the flame of the town and enter the appropriate code for the town.

For a person who usually lives outside Botswana, enter the name and code number of the country, prefixing the code number by 77, e.g. if Zimbabwe, write code 7710.

For non-citizens working pern1anently or on contract in Botswana, their place of usual living is where they usually live in Botswana. People whose usual place of living is outside Botswana will include: tourists or visiting businessmen (in Botswana for anything from a few days to a month or so); children who are at boarding school outside Botswana, but who, during the census, are here on holiday; and people who work outside Botswana (e.g. on the mines in South Africa) and are visiting their families or friends for a period of leave.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraphl03, James, Anne, Mimi and Molelo usually live in this household, so they are coded 0001 in column A1. Their son, Anthony, is usually away at boarding school in Francistown, so he is coded 0201. Note that "Francistown" has been written in the unshaded area and the code for Francis town is in the shaded area of column A 7, in the line corresponding to Anthony. David usually lives elsewhere in the same locality, although he frequently spends the night with James and his family. He is therefore coded 0002. Thembe usually lives in South Africa, so "RSA" is written in the unshaded area and 7707 is written in the shaded area.

Column 8: Past Residence

Where did [the respondent] live this time last year?

This question deals with the usual place where each person was living a year before the census. Proceed as follows:

[p.23]

For children who are under one year of age at the time of enumeration, enter 0000 (because this time a year ago they had not been born).

For a person who is living in the same housing unit now as last year, enter 0001. For a person who was living elsewhere in the locality (as indicated on the top of the questionnaire) last year, enter 0002.

For a person who was living somewhere else in Botswana, write down the name of the place (as described for A7), and also look up the appropriate code from the Village/Country List as above. Enter the code below the name of the place you have just written.

For a person who was living outside Botswana a year before the census, enter the name and code number for the country, prefixing the code by 77, e.g. if Lesotho, enter code 7703.

Remember, this is the usual place of residence a year before the census - even if on the same night one year ago they were temporarily away (e.g. visiting friends/relatives, in hospital).

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 103, James, Anne and Molelo were all living in this household a year ago, so they are coded 0001 in column AB. Since Mimi had not yet been born a year ago, she is coded 0000. Anthony was living at the boarding school in Francis town a year ago, so he is coded as he was in column A7. David was living in Gaborone last year, so "Gaborone" is written in the unshaded area and the code 0101 is entered in the shaded area. Thembe was living in South Africa, and she is coded as she was in column A7.

Columns A9-A10

Collect information on the amount of formal schooling each person in A1 has had. These questions apply only to persons aged 5 years and more. If the person is under 5 years of age, then when you reach column A9 you should put dashes in the shaded areas for columns A9 - A21 and proceed to the next listed person in the household. The relevant portion of the sample questionnaire on page 15 is shown on the next page for easy reference:

Column 9: School Attendance

Has [the respondent] ever attended school?

This question refers to formal schooling only. Pre-schooling and non-formal education are not covered by this question, and the only form of tertiary education covered is university attendance.

If a person has never attended school, enter 1 in A9 and a dash in A10, and go to A11.

If a person is still attending school, enter 2 in A9 and go to A10.

If a person has attended school but has since left school, enter 3 in A9 and go to A10.

If it is not known whether or not someone ever attended school, enter 9 in A9 and a dash in A10, and go to A11.

In the sample questionnaire on page 24, James attended school but he left school a long time ago. He is coded 3 in column A9. Anne never attended school, so she is coded 1. Mimi is not yet 5 years old, so this question does not apply to her. Enter a dash in the shaded area for her. Anthony and Molelo are still in school, so they are coded 2. David and 1hembe have both left school, so they are coded 3.

[p.24]
[Diagram on page 24 omitted]

Column A10: Highest Grade Passed/Completed

What is the highest grade that [the respondent] passed/completed?

Enter the highest school grade the person has passed (if this grade ends in an exam) or has completed (if the grade doesn't end in an exam).

If Standard 1, enter 11
If Standard 2, enter 12
If Standard 3, enter 13
If Standard 4, enter 14
If Standard S, enter 15
If Standard 6, enter 16
If Standard 7, enter 17

For Sub A or Sub B enter 11. If the person, at the time of enumeration, is in Standard 1, enter 10.

If the person has attended or is attending secondary school, enter the highest form passed as follows:
[p.25]

If Form 1, enter 21
If Form 2, enter 22
If Form 3, enter 23
If Form 4, enter 24
If Form 5, enter 25
If Form 6, enter 26

If the person is currently in Form 1, enter 17. Someone who completed Form 3 but failed the exam will be coded 22. Someone who completed Form 2 (which doesn't end with an exam) v\'ill also be coded 22 - even if they never went on to Form 3. Someone who completed JC under the old educational system will be coded 23, while someone who completed JC under the new system will be coded 22.

If the person has attended or is attending University, enter the number of completed years the person has spent attending University as follows:

If 1 year, enter 31
If 2 years, enter 32
If 3 years, enter 33
If 4 years, enter 34
If 5 years and over, enter 35

For a person still doing preliminary courses, e.g. the Pre-Entry Science Course (PESC), enter 25 or 26 as may be appropriate.

In the sample questionnaire on page 24, James completed Standard 3, so he is coded 13. Since Anne never attended school, a dash is entered in column A10 for her. Mimi is not yet 5 years old, so the question does not apply to her - a dash appears in column A10. Anthony is currently in Standard 7; since the highest standard which he has completed is Standard 6, 16 is entered for him. Molelo is currently in Standard 5 (code 14), and David completed Standard 7 (code 17). Thembe dropped out of Standard 5, so she completed Standard 4 and is coded 14.

Columns A11-A15 only apply to those persons aged 12 years and over.

If the person is under 12 years of age, then when you reach column A11 you should put dashes in the shaded areas for columns A11 to A21 and proceed to the next listed person in the household. For those who are 12 years of age or more, continue with questions A11-A15, described on the following pages. The relevant portion of the sample questionnaire on page 15 is shown on page 26.

Column A11: Marital Status

Is [the respondent] currently married?

Enter the appropriate one-digit code in the shaded area:

1 Married: A person should be regarded as married if he/she has been through any form of marriage ceremony, whether tribal, civil, religious or other, and is still married.

2 Living Together: A man and a woman may "live together" like husband and wife (even if they do not stay together in the same locality) without having gone through any form of marriage ceremony.
[p.26]
3 Never Married: A person who has never gone through any type of formal or informal marriage (tribal, civil, religious or other) and does not consider that he/she is presently "living together" with anyone is to be coded as never married.

4 Separated: A person who has been formally married should be regarded as separated if he/she is living apart from his/her spouse by Court order, or by mutual or unilateral decision.

5 Divorced: A person should be regarded as divorced if his/her marriage has ended. If the person has remarried then he/she is to be coded 1, as married.

6 Widowed: This means that either the husband or the wife has died and the surviving partner has not remarried. If the surviving partner has remarried he/she is coded 1, as married.

[Diagram on page 26 omitted]

[p.27]

In the sample questionnaire on page 26, James and Anne are coded as living together (code 2) in column A11. Mimi and Molelo are under 12 years old, so the question does not apply to them and dashes are entered. Anthony and David have never been married, so they are coded 3, while Thembe was widowed a few years ago and is coded 6.

Note that James had indicated to the enumerator that Anne was his spouse, yet, in response to the question on marital status, he said that they were living together, not married, since they had never formally married. You should accept what people tell you concerning their marital status and simply record their response; do not change the relationship code in A2. If the respondent tells you that the head and his/her "spouse" are "living together".

Column A12: Work done for cash during the past 30 days

During the past 30 days did [the respondent] work for cash?

Enter the appropriate one-digit code in the shaded area:

1 Yes, for someone else: This code applies if a person has worked for someone else for cash payment during the 30 days before the census, no matter how short the period. If a person was on paid leave - annual, sick or maternity - 1 is still the appropriate code. If you enter 1 in column A12, you should put a dash in column A13 and go to column A14.

2 Yes, for self: This code applies if a person was self-employed during the 30 days before the census. Remember that those who work for cash reward include those who work for wages, salaries, fees, commissions and the like, while the self-employed include those who are in business for themselves, such as farmers (who farm with the specific intention of selling their products), shop owners, hawkers, those who repair shoes or cut hair under a tree, or those who weave baskets or sell oranges for their living. If you enter 2 in column A12, you should put a dash in column A13 and go to column A14.

3 No: This code applies if the person did not work at all for cash payment during the last 30 days. Included in this group are farmers who grow mainly for household consumption; individuals who worked at farms, lands or cattleposts without receiving cash payment; and those who worked in a family business without receiving cash payment. If any of these individuals received any cash payment for their work, however small, they should be coded 1 or 2, as appropriate.

If you enter 3 in column A12, you should go to A13 to find out what the person was doing during the past 30 days (since he/she was not working for cash).

In the sample questionnaire on page 26, James worked for someone else during the past 30 days and received cash, so he is coded 1 in column A12. Anne did not work for cash (although she did some farming on the lands), so she is coded 3. Since Mimi and Molelo are under 12 years old, the question does not apply to them, and dashes are entered in column A12 for them. Anthony did not work for cash (since he is a student), so he is coded 3. David was self-employed and is coded 2. Thembe did not work for cash either and is coded 3.

[p.28]

Column A13: Type of Activity

Then what did [the respondent] do during the past 30 days?

This column relates to persons who were neither self-employed nor working for other persons for cash payment during the 30 days before the census. Find out what they were doing instead during most of the reference period and probe if necessary.

Enter the appropriate one-digit code in the shaded area:

1 Family Business: A person may be working in a family business without receiving any cash payment for his/her labour. For example, a woman runs a small kiosk from which she sells snacks to office workers. Her younger brother helps her there, but instead of paying him a wage she gives him a bag of mealie meal and some other food each month. The woman would be classified as self-employed (code 2 in column A12) since she was working for profit, but her brother would be coded 3 in column A12 and 1 in column A13, since he did not receive any cash payment. If you enter code 1 in column A13, you must then go to columns A14 and A15 to ask what the person's occupation and industry were.

2 Work at Lands/Farms/Cattlepost: This category includes farmers who grow mainly for household consumption (rather than to sell their products), and those individuals who worked at farms, lands or cattleposts but who did not receive any cash payment. If you enter code 2 in column A13, you must then go to columns A14 and A15 to find out what the person's occupation and industry were.

3 Actively Seeking Work: A person who has applied for any job during the past 30 days should be considered to be actively seeking work (although categories 1, 2 and 5 take priority). If you enter code 3 in column A13, put dashes in columns A14 and A15. If the person is female, go to column A16. If the person is male, put dashes in columns A16 - A21 and continue on to the next person listed in column A1.

4 Housework: Remember that either a woman or a man could be responsible for daily housework, i.e. cleaning of the house and premises, preparing food or generally caring for the other members of the household. If you enter code 3 in column A13, put dashes in columns A14 and A15. If the person is female, go to column A16. If the person is male, put dashes in columns A16 - A21 and continue on to the next person listed in column A1.

5 Student: A student is a person, at least 12 years of age, who, as a result of attending school for most of the day, does not work. If you enter code 3 in column A13, put dashes in columns A14 and A15. If the person is female, go to column A16. If the person is male, put dashes in columns A16 - A21 and continue on to the next person listed in column A1.

6 Retired: A retired person is a woman or a man who, as a result of old age or disability, cannot do any type of work. If you enter code 3 in column A13, put dashes in columns A14 and A15. If the person is female, go to column A16. If the person is male, put dashes in columns A16 - A21 and continue on to the next person listed in column A1.

[p.29]

Other (specify): If the person was doing something other than the possibilities listed above, then write in what the person was doing in the space just below the words "Other (specify)" in column A13. If you need more space, use the comments box.

If a person says he/she was doing "nothing" during the past 30 days, probe to find out what the person was really doing. It is very unlikely that the person was literally doing nothing.

If a person says he/she does housework, or that he/she is a student/retired/other, probe to find out whether he/she did any work for cash during the past 30 days, no matter how little the cash or how short the period. If yes, go back to A12 and correct the code to 1 or 2 as appropriate, enter a dash in column A13, and continue to column A14.

Generally speaking, if a person has had more than one activity during the past 30 days, it is the foremost of these that must be taken (i.e. that which took up most time and/or which was most rewarding). There is, however, an exception to this:

Everything takes precedence over "housework". For example, if a person spent all his/her time doing housework - except for half a day when he/she went looking for work - he/she must be coded 3 as "actively seeking work" and not 4 as doing "housework".

In the sample questionnaire on page 26, a dash appears in column A13 for the head of household because he was working for someone else for cash during the past 30 days. Anne was working at the lands during the last 30 days (although not for cash payment), so she is coded 2. The question does not apply to Mimi or Molelo since they are under 12 years old, so dashes are entered for them. Anthony is a student, so he is coded 5. Since David is self-employed, the question does not apply to him, and a dash is entered. Thembe did not work because she has retired so code 6 is entered.

Column A14: Occupation

What type of work did [the respondent] do?

A person's occupation depends on the tasks and duties which the person performs. Remember that if a person worked at all during the past 30 days, whether for cash or not, and for however short a period, then you should try to find out what kind of work the person did. You should try to get the respondent to give both a job title and a two- or three-word description of the tasks performed. For example, if a person states that he is a mechanic, ask him what he repairs. You might record his response (in the unshaded area of column A14) as follows: "mechanic, fixes cars 11 or "mechanic, fixes radios". If you need more space use the block which says "Probe as necessary" at the top of column A14. You may also use the comments block.

If a person moved from job to job you should enter the most recent occupation even if it only lasted for a day or two. This may happen with people who are casual labourers.

If a person has more than one occupation, record the one on which he/she spends the most time. However, if someone has a temporary job during the school holidays - but has a permanent job during term time, it is their permanent occupation that should be described. A census enumerator or supervisor who is a school teacher during term time must therefore be described as "Primary School Teacher" or "Secondary School Teacher".

Probing for Better Occupational Information: You will usually have to probe the respondent to get good information about a person's occupation. For example, people who make things (bread, clothing, pottery, wood objects, tools, beer, food products, furniture, bricks, etc.) should be asked how they make them. It is important to find out whether they mostly use their hands or hand-held
[p.30]
tools, or whether they mostly produce these goods by operating machinery. A person who brews beer at home using traditional techniques belongs to a different occupational category than a person who operates a machine which ferments the grains used in making beer.

You should also probe when the information provided by the respondent does not seem reasonable. For example, if a person has only completed Form 4, it seems unlikely that he or she could be an auditor or an engineer. If you probe, you may discover that the person is actually an accounting clerk or an engineering assistant. Specific examples of how to probe for better occupational information are given on page 31.

In the sample questionnaire on page 26, the head of household works as a labourer in a mine, so "mine labourer" is written in the unshaded area under column A14. Anne, although she did not work for cash payment, did work in the lands as a farmer. The enumerator probed and found out that she was growing melons for family consumption. The response is recorded as "farmer" in the unshaded area under column A14, and the information obtained by further probing is recorded in the large block above as "grew melons for family consumption". The question does not apply to Mimi or to Molelo because they are under 12 years old, and it does not apply to Anthony because he is a student. Dashes are entered for them. David, who is self-employed, is a taxi driver, and that information is recorded in the unshaded area of column A14. Thembe has retired, so the question does not apply to her (a dash is entered).

[p.31]

Specific examples of how to probe for better occupational information:

[Column headings:]
(A) Response
(B) Suggested probing questions

(A) Builder
(B) Does [the respondent] build using mostly traditional materials and techniques?

(A) Brewer
(B) Where and how does [the respondent] make the beer? (at home or elsewhere using traditional techniques, in a commercial brewery using machines)

(A) Carpenter
(B) What kinds of things does [the respondent] make or build? (furniture, door and window frames, wood frames for houses, etc.)

(A) Cleaner
(B) What does [the respondent] clean? (streets, houses, offices, shoes, clothes)

(A) Clerk
(B) Does [the respondent] work in an office mostly or does [the respondent] mostly deal with customers? What kind of clerk is [the respondent]? (stock, production, accounting, bookkeeping, statistical, finance, transport, library, filing, mail sorting, coding)

(A) Driver
(B) What does [the respondent] drive? (car, taxi, bus, van, combi, lorry, truck, tractor, bulldozer, excavator, grader, scraper, compactor)

(A) Electrician
(B) What kinds of things does [the respondent] repair? (cars, electrical wires in buildings, electrical power lines, electrical equipment or appliances, electrical machinery)

(A) Engineer
(B) Does [the respondent] have a college degree in engineering? What kind of engineer is [the respondent]? (chemical, civil, construction, electrical, electronic, telecommunications, mechanical, mining)

(A) Farmer
(B) Does [the respondent] produce mostly animals or crops? What kind of animals does [the respondent] raise? (livestock, poultry, other) Does [the respondent] raise the animals (or grow the crops) mostly to sell them or for family consumption?

(A) Foreman supervisor
(B) What kinds of workers does [the respondent] supervise? Does [the respondent] help those he or she supervises to do the work? If so, what kind of work is it?

(A) Gardener
(B) In what kind of garden does [the respondent] work? (private home, commercial farm, commercial nursery) Are the things grown in the garden mostly consumed by the household or sold?

(A) Labourer
(B) Where does [the respondent] work as a labourer? (construction site, mine, factory, shop, shipping company, railroad, airport, farm, forest)

(A) Machine operator
(B) What kind of machine does [the respondent] operate?

(A) Manager
(B) In what kind of organisation is [the respondent] a manager? (government, humanitarian organisation, hospital, retail shop, compru1y, factory, bank, etc.) Does [the respondent] manage a whole company or a department in the company? What department does [the respondent] manage? (production, operations, other)

(A) Mechanic
(B) What does [the respondent] fix? (cars, refrigerators, air conditioners, other machines or equipment)

(A) Painter
(B) What does [the respondent] paint? (buildings, ceramics, artistic pah1tings, wood, cars, metal, interior walls)

(A) Salesperson
(B) What does [the respondent] sell? Where does [the respondent] sell? (shop, kiosk, market, street, from home)

(A) Scientist
(B) What kind of scientist is [the respondent]? (chemist, biologist, geologist, meteorologist, pharmacologist, botanist, zoologist, pathologist, agronomist)

(A) Security guard
(B) By whom is [the respondent] employed? (security firm, company, government, office, private individual, shop)

(A) Seller
(B) What does [the respondent] sell? Where does [the respondent] sell? (shop, kiosk, market stall, street, from home)

(A) Teacher
(B) At what level does [the respondent] teach? (pre-primary, primary, secondary, college, university, brigades, trade school, commercial school, computer academy)

(A) Technician
(B) What kind of technician is [the respondent]? (health, engineering, physical science, life science, computer, agronomy, forestry, veterinary)

[p.32]

Column A15: Industry

What was the main product, service or activity of [the respondent]'s place of work?

The industry identifies the main kind of product produced or the main service provided by the establishment or the work unit in which the individual works. It is important to understand the difference between industry and occupation. An occupation summarizes the tasks performed by an individual who is working. The industry has to do with the products or services, or main functions or activities, of the workplace. For example, a woman may be an Accounts Clerk who is employed by a Dairy Farmer. Her occupation is "Accounts Clerk" and the industry in which she works is "Farming". If the same person were employed by a mine, the occupation would still be "Accounts Clerk" but the industry would be "Mining". A man working in the same mine might be a Mine Sampler - his occupation would be "Mine Sampler" or "Miner", but he also belongs to the Mining industry. Clearly, an industry may include a number of different occupations, and the same occupation may be found in many different industries.

Probing for better industry information: You will usually have to probe the respondent to get good information about the industry in which a person works. Some general tips for probing are given below, and specific examples of how to probe are given on page 34.

General Tips:

first ask the respondent the name of the business or establishment - if you abbreviate, write out the name in full in the comments box

if the name of the business is not known, or if the individual is self-employed, working on a farm, lands or cattlepost, or working for another individual/household rather than for a company or business, ask the respondent what kinds of goods are produced at the place where the person works - if you need more space, use the block at the top of column A15; see section I below for some examples of goods produced

if the business or workplace does not produce goods, ask what kinds of services are provided; see section 2 below for some examples of services provided

in recording the response, be sure to indicate whether the business is making or selling goods (if relevant); e.g. write "makes beer" or "sells beer", not just "beer"

if the above approaches do not work, ask the respondent what type of business the person works in and, if necessary, list some examples from section 3 below; a complete list of industry groups is given on page 35

1 Examples of Goods Produced: bread, traditional beer, biltong, textiles, tinned meat, glass, bricks, tiles, metal tools, shoes, leather bags, rope, books, baskets, clothing, fat cakes, brooms, newspapers, plastic pipes, kgotla chairs, boilers, mats, pots, wooden spoons, plastic pipes, vaccines, maize flour, milk, soap

2. Examples of Services Provided: repairing cars, repairing shoes, repairing watches, cleaning houses, guarding houses, taking care of children, typing, hawking goods, driving a taxi, cutting and styling hair, treating illnesses, teaching, selling property, selling airline tickets, renting videos, dry-cleaning clothes, selling beer, running a restaurant, running a shop

3. Examples of Types of Businesses or Economic Activities: building houses, building roads, wholesale trade, general retailer, hotel, restaurant, butchery, petrol station, airline, railway, selling cars, transporting goods, bank, insurance, real estate, prospecting,
[p.33]
architectural services, church, school, hospital, clinic, local government, brigades, traditional farming, fishing, hunting, blacksmith, traditional healing, performing at nightclubs, travel agency, employers' organisation, labour union, co-operative, electrical construction, law firm, accounting firm, market stall, dairy fanning, commercial farming.

In the sample questionnaire on page 26, James works for DeBeers. Since the name of the business is known, it is written in the unshaded area of column A15. Anne works on the lands· since she is engaged in the economic activity of fanning on the lands (as opposed to making baskets, for example), this information is included in the unshaded area. The question does not apply to Mimi or Molelo because they under 12 years old, nor to Anthony, because he is a student. Dashes are entered for these three. David drives his own taxi, so his industry can be recorded as "taxi driving". Thembe is retired, so a dash is entered in column A15 for her.

If the person is female, go to column A16 after completing column A15. If the person is male, put dashes m columns A16 - A21 and continue on to the next person listed in column A1.

[p.34]

Specific examples of how to probe for better industry information:

[Column headings:]
(A) Response
(B) Suggested probing questions

(A) Factory
(B) What is the name of the factory? What kinds of goods does the factory make?

(A) Manufacturing
(B) What is the name of the company? What kinds of goods does the company manufacture?

(A) Construction
(B) What is the name of the company? What does the company build? (houses, roads, buildings, electrical plant, dams, etc.)

(A) Government
(B) Does [the respondent] work for Central Government or Local Government? In which department or ministry?

(A) Transport
(B) Does [the respondent] work for a transport company? If so, what is the name of the company? What kind of transport does the company provide? (rail, air, truck, combi, taxi) If [the respondent] does not work for a company, what kind of transport does [the respondent] provide? (driving a taxi, truck, tractor, etc.)

(A) Education
(B) Is [the respondent] a teacher? If so, at what level does [the respondent] teach? If not, what does [the respondent] do in the school?

(A) Business
(B) What is the name of the business? What kinds of goods does the business provide? What kinds of services does the business provide? (see page 32 for examples)

(A) Mining
(B) In which mine does [the respondent] work? What kind of mine is it? (diamonds, copper/nickel, coal, soda ash/salt)

(A) Farming
(B) What is produced on the farm? Are the crops or livestock sold for profit or used mostly for consumption by the family?

(A) Domestic, private Mrs. or Mr. family
(B) What is [the respondent] doing for the private household or individual? (gardening, minding children, cleaning house, cooking, working as a night watchman) If none of the above, what is the main activity of the household or individual for which [the respondent] works? (building a house, making baskets, brewing beer, selling beer, collecting wood, cutting poles, sewing, driving a taxi, threshing, stamping mealie, etc.) What is [the respondent] doing to help the household or individual in this activity?

(A) Cattle post, lands, farm
(B) What is [the respondent] doing at the cattle/post/lands/farm? Do not assume that the activity is farming - if the person is making baskets, for example, the economic activity may be "making baskets".

(A) Self
(B) Does [the respondent] have a company or shop? What is the name of the company or shop? What kind of shop? What kinds of goods does [the respondent] make/sell? What services does [the respondent] provide? (see page 32)

(A) Bread, fat cakes, beer, clothes
(B) Did [the respondent] make or sell this product? If [the respondent] sold the product, was it sold in a shop? If not, where did [the respondent] sell the product? If [the respondent] made the product, did [the respondent] also sell it? Whenever the respondent mentions a finished product such as food, clothing or manufactured goods as the industry, ask similar questions.

(A) Poles, wood, thatch, water, maize
(B) Did [the respondent] sell this item? Did [the respondent] gather/cut/collect/stamp this item? For whom did [the respondent] work? What was the item used for, and by whom was the item used? Did [the respondent] grow the item? Whenever the respondent mentions an agricultural product or other raw material (wood, thatch, water, etc.), find out whether the person was growing, gathering, cutting, or otherwise processing the item.

[p.35]

Industrial Classification 1991 Population and Housing Census

Agriculture, Fishing, Hunting and Forestry
Traditional Farming
Other Farming
Agricultural Services
Forestry
Fishing
Hunting

Mining and Quarrying
Diamonds
Copper/Nickel
Coal
Soda Ash and Salt
Quarrying and Other Mining

Manufacturing
Meat and Meat Products
Dairy and Other Agro-Based Products
Beverages
Bakery Products
Textiles
Tanning and Leather Products
Chemicals and Rubber Products
Wood and Wooden Products
Paper and Paper Products
Metal Products
Other Manufactured Products

Electricity, Gas and Water Supply
Water Supply
Electricity Generation and Supply
Gas

Construction
Construction of Houses and Buildings
Construction of Roads
Electrical Construction
Construction of Darns and Pipelines
Other Construction and Building Work

Wholesale and Retail Trade
Wholesale Trade
General Retailers
Hotels
Restaurants, Cafes and Butcheries
Petrol Stations
Motor Vehicle Dealers
Hawkers
Cattle Dealers and Speculators
Bottle Stores and Bars
Commission Agents

Transport, Storage and Communication
Road Transport
Railway Transport
Air Transport
Communication
Services Allied to Transport
Taxis

Finance, Insurance, Real Estate and Business Services
Financial Institutions
Insurance
Real Estate
Business Services
Engineering, Architectural and Technical Services
Ownership of Dwellings

Community, Social, Household and Personal Services
Recreational Services
Repair Services
Business, Professional and Labour Organisations
Laundry, Dry Cleaning, Hair-Dressing Services, etc.
Medical Services and Hospitals
Education Services
Religious Organisations
Domestic Services
Other Community, Social, Household and Personal
Services

Government and Foreign Missions
Central Government
Local Government
Foreign Missions and Donor Organisation

[p.36]

Columns A16-A21: Fertility

Questions A16 _ A19 must be answered for all females aged 12 years and over, regardless of their marital status and their relationship to the head of household. For males of any age and females under 12 years of age, enter a dash in these columns. For young girls (e.g.: 12-15 years old) who are still living at home with their parents, this question may he considered rather personal. Take care how you ask the question.

Questions A20-A21 are asked only of females between age 12 aged 50. For others, enter a dash in these columns.

The relevant portion of the sample questionnaire on page 15 is shown below for easy reference:

[Diagram on page 36 omitted]

[p.37]

Column A16: Children Born Alive

How many children have been borne alive by [the respondent]?

In column A16 you must record (as a two-digit code) the total number of children ever born alive to the woman/girl. Children born alive are those children who cried at least once after birth. All other births are still-births. Remember to include all children who have died, but do not include still-births.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 116, this question only applies to Anne and to Thembe, since they are the only females who' are over 12 years old. Anne has had 4 children so 04 is recorded in column A16 for her, while Thembe has had 2 children (code 02). Dashes are entered for everyone else.

Column A17: Children Living with Mother

How many of these children are living with the mother?

In column A17 enter the number of children born to the woman who live with her at her usual place of residence. For visiting mothers, this means those children who live with her in her own household and not at the household where she is now being enumerated.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 116, only one of Anne's children (Mimi) is living with her. Although Anthony was there on the census night, he normally stays at boarding school and should not be recorded as living with Anne. Therefore, 01 appears in column A17. None of Thembe's children lives with her in her own household in South Africa, so a code of 00 is entered for her. Dashes are entered in this column for everyone else.

Column A18: Children Living Elsewhere

How many of these children are living elsewhere?

In column A18 enter the number of children born to the woman who are not living with her at her usual place of residence.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 116, Anthony usually lives away at boarding school, and Anne also has a daughter who is living in South Africa. Therefore, two of her children are living away from her, and code 02 is entered in column A18. Thembe's only surviving child is married and lives in Swaziland, so 01 appears in column A18 for Thembe. Dashes are entered in this column for everyone else.

Column A19: Children who have died

How many of these children have died?

In column A19 enter the number of children borne alive by the woman who have since died. Sometimes a woman may forget to mention children who died in infancy or may not want to be reminded of painful events; you must therefore put the question sympathetically and tactfully.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 116; since one of Anne's sons died in a car accident last January, 01 is entered in column A19. One of Thembe 's children also died several years ago, so 01 is entered in column A19 for her as well.

[p.38]

Check that the number of children entered in column A16 is the sum of the numbers entered in columns A17, A18, and A19. Reconcile any differences with the respondent before leaving the household.

Remember that the codes in columns A16 - A19 are all two-digit codes. In most cases you must therefore remember to put a zero in front, e.g. 2 children would be coded as 02.

If a woman has never had a live birth enter 00 in all the columns. Never leave any column blank. If a woman has children in only one or two categories, insert the figures in the appropriate columns and enter 00 in the remaining column(s).

If unknown, enter 99 and explain in the comments box.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 116, note that the sum of the entries in columns A17 -A19 in row 2 is 04, which is equal to the total number of children ever born to Anne (column
A16). The sum of entries in columns A11 - A19 for Thembe is 02, which corresponds to the number of children ever born to her. Dashes are entered in column A19 for everyone else listed in column A1.

Columns A20 and A21: Fertility for Females 12-50 years

How many children have been borne alive by [the respondent] since Independence day 1990?

These columns must be completed for females aged between 12 and 50 years. For a female aged 51 or more, enter a dash in each of columns A20 and A21.

If the woman has not had a live birth since Independence Day, 1990, enter 0 in these columns. Otherwise enter the number of male children born in column A20 and the number of female children born in column A21. These are single-digit codes.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 116, Mimi was born after Independence Day last year, and there were no other children born to Anne after that date, so the entries in columns A20 and A21 are 0 and 1 for Anne. Thembe is older than 50 years, so the question does not apply to her, nor does the question apply to any other person listed in column A1. Dashes are entered in columns A20 and A21 for everyone other than Anne.

[p.39]

Part B of the Questionnaire:

Columns B1 to B10: Member of the Household outside Botswana

These questions apply only to citizens of Botswana who were absent from the country on the census might, but who would usually live in the household if they were in Botswana such as citizens working or temporarily living with relatives in South Africa, studying abroad or away on private or government business. The relevant portion of the sample questionnaire on page 15 is shown below for easy reference.

If no member of the household was absent from Botswana on the census night, enter dashes in the spaces provided for answer codes in the first line only.

If you had to continue the listing of (Part A) household members on a second or third page, return to the first page for recording Part B information. If more than three persons have to he listed in Part B, go to the next page after writing "continued" in the comments box on the first page. Don't forget to copy the geographic identification codes (District, Village, etc.) onto the continuation questionnaire. Remember that when you complete Part B you should return lo the first page for the household to answer Parts C and D. Only Part E will be answered on the last page for the household.

[Diagram on page 39 omitted]

Column B1: Name

Ask for the names of all citizen members of the household who were outside the country on the census night. The first name (or the name by which the person is usually known) is sufficient.

It is important that the respondent understands that you are not asking for members of the household who are non-citizens or who did not spend the census night with the household but are inside the country. It should also be understood that if a household member spent the census night m the lolwapa, but left to travel to another country before your visit, then he/she would be listed in Part A, even if at the time of your enumeration he/she is already in another country. No person can be listed in both Part A and in Part B.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 123, James has a daughter, Lorato, who is living in South Africa. Her name is listed in the first line of Part B.

[p.40]

Column B2: Serial Number

Like A2, this is also a two-digit number - the first digit of which (9) is already pre-printed onto the questionnaire. You only have to add a 1 (to make 91) for the first person outside Botswana, a 2 (to make 92) for the second person, etc.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 123, Lorato is assigned serial number 91. Only the 1 was entered since the 9 was pre-printed.

Column B3: Relationship to Head of Household

This must be the relationship to the person listed in Part A with serial number 01 (the head or de facto head).

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 123, Lorato is the daughter of James, so her relationship code is 2.

Columns B4/B5/B6: Sex/Age/Marital Status

The same instructions apply here as for A4/A5/A11.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 123, Lorato is female, so B4 is 2. She is 18 years old, so B5 is 18. She has never been married, so B6 is 3.

Column B7: Country of Visit/Residence

In what country is [the respondent] now?

Ask for the name of the country where the person is and record the name of the country and its code as for A6. See paragraph 104 for further instructions. For a country not listed on the questionnaire, refer to the Country List to obtain the country code.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 123, Lorato is living in South Africa, so "RSA" is written in the unshaded area of column B7 and 07 is written in the shaded area.

Columns B8/B9: Duration of Absence

How long ago did [the respondent] last visit?

Ask for the duration since the last visit and record the answer in years and months.

If a member has not visited since he/she departed, enter the duration of absence since departure (in years and months).

If a child born to a household member abroad has not been brought back to Botswana, enter the child's age in years and months. If the child has just been born and is less than one month old, enter 00 for both years and months; if the child is less than one year old, enter 00 for years and the appropriate two-digit code for the number of months.

If the duration of absence is given in months and is greater than 12 months, say 15 months, enter the period given as 1 year and 3 months (01 in column BS and 03 in column B9). Always check that the duration of absence is not greater than the age of the person concerned, particularly for children. If the duration of absence given is greater than the age given, probe the respondent and correct accordingly.

[p.41]

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 123, the enumerator learned that Lorato last visited 3 months ago, so 00 is entered into B8 and 03 is entered into B9.

Column B10: Reason for Absence

What is the main reason for [the respondent]'s absence?'

It is possible that a person may have more than one reason for absence. Ask for the main reason. Enter the appropriate code as follows:

[] 01 Working in mines
[] 02 Working in farms
[] 03 Working as domestic
[] 04 Other employment
[] 05 Student
[] 06 Visiting
[] 07 Official business
[] 08 Other business
[] 09 Accompanying
[] 10 Medical
[] Other (specify)

If you cannot decide which code is the right one to use, make sure you have described the reason in the unshaded area (or in the comments box) and leave the shaded area blank.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 123, Lorato is working as a maid in South Africa, so B10 is coded 03.

[p.42]

Part C of the Questionnaire:

Columns C1/C2/C3: Disability

11 Defect of seeing in 1 eye
12 Defect of seeing in 2 eyes
13 Blindness in 1 eye
14 Blindness in 2 eyes
21 Defect of hearing in 1 ear
22 Defect of hearing in 2 ears
23 Deafness in 1 ear
24 Deafness in 2 ears
31 Defect of speech
32 Inability to speak
41 Inability to use 1 leg
42 Inability to use 2 legs
51 Inability to use 1 arm
52 Inability to use 2 arms
61 Moderate Retardation
62 Severe Retardation

You should read out the list of disabilities to the respondent as a reminder to him or her of the types of disabilities to which we are referring. Be very tactful in asking these questions so as not to cause offence or embarrassment.

If anyone does have a disability, enter the person's first name in column C1, then enter in column C2 the same serial number that you assigned to this person in column A2 or B2. A person from Part A will have a serial number 01, 02 or 03, etc., whilst a person from Part B will have a serial number 91, 92 or 93, etc.

A disabled person has incapacities as a result of physical or mental deficiencies such as bodily abnormalities, defects and impairments. Impairments are defects of structure or functions of the body which give rise to personal inabilities to perform necessary activities. The defects and impairments might occur from birth, or may be brought about by disease, injury or just old age.

Defect of Seeing: A person wearing glasses will not usually be defined as having a defect of seeing. Only if, when wearing glasses, the person cannot count the fingers of a hand from a distance of 3 metres will you record him/her as having a seeing defect. If the defect is in one eye, code 11, and, if the defect is in both eyes, code 12. If there is complete blindness in one eye enter 13; if there is blindness in both eyes enter 14.

Defect of Hearing: If a person cannot hear a whisper at a distance of 2 metres, that person is said to have a defect of hearing. If the defect is in one ear enter code 21, if both ears are affected, enter code 22. If there is complete deafness in one ear enter 23; if the deafness is in both ears enter 24.

Defect of Speech: A person who makes unintelligible speech, stammers or speaks with an abnormal voice is said to have a defect of speech. If this defect applies, enter code 31.

Inability to Speak: For a person who cannot speak at all (i.e. is completely dumb or mute), enter 32.

Inability to Use One or Both Legs: For a person who has one leg lame or a leg or foot missing enter 41; if both legs are lame or both feet/legs are missing, enter 42.

[p.43]

Inability to Use One or Both Arms: For a person who has one arm lame or a hand or arm missing enter 51; if both arms are lame or both hands/arms are missing, code 52.

Mental Retardation: A person who is capable of taking care of himself/herself but who cannot adjust to a situation needing ordinary skills consistent with age is said to be moderately retarded, and the code should be 61.

A person who, despite good physical condition, is incapable of doing normal daily self-care activities consistent with age is said to be severely mentally retarded. For this condition enter 62.

If a person suffers from a combination of any of the listed disabilities, enter the applicable codes, e.g. if there is a defect of hearing in two ears and a defect of speech enter 2231. After you have recorded the disability code(s) for a particular person, fill the remaining boxes with dashes.

The relevant portion of the sample questionnaire on page 15 is shown below.

[Diagram on page 43 omitted]

Thembe is blind in one eye, so she is assigned serial number 07 (since that was her serial number in Pan A), and the disability code is 13.

[p.44]

Part D of the Questionnaire:

Columns D1, D2 and D3: Deaths in the Household

Since Independence Day 1990, has any member of this household died?

In general people are not happy to talk about deaths, especially recent ones, so be careful when asking this question. We are interested in recording information about any deaths since last Independence Day, September 30th, 1990, of anyone who had, up until their death, been a member of this household. The relevant portion of the sample questionnaire on page 15 is shown below:

[Diagram on page 44 omitted]

If there was any such death, enter the details under columns D1 to D3. Start with the serial number in D1. The first death should be given the serial number 01, the second death 02, etc. Record also the sex of the deceased in column D2 and his/her age at death in column D3.

If the person was under 1 year at death enter 00.

If there were more than· three deaths in the household, write "continued" in the comments box and enter the particulars of these other deaths in Part D of the next questionnaire form, starting with serial number 04. You will also have to fill in all the geographical identity codes on the next page (district, EA, locality, lolwapa/house and household numbers).

If there were no deaths, enter dashes in the spaces provided for answer codes in the first line only.

In the sample questionnaire, there was one death in the household since Independence Day last year. The son of James and Anne died in a car accident; his serial number is 01 (D1), his sex was 1 (D2) and his age at the time of death was 17 (D3).

[p.45]

Part E of the Questionnaire:

Columns E1-E5: Agriculture, Land Acquisition and Household Cash Activities

For these questions you may circle more than one code, if more than one response applies.

These questions relate only to members of the household - i.e. those listed in Parts A and B but/ excluding any visitors listed in Part A. Note that questions in Part E of the questionnaire should relate only to activities within Botswana, i.e. if a household member who is not living in Botswana plants maize outside the country, that agricultural activity will not be recorded in column E2. If the same person owns cattle inside Botswana, then that ownership will he recorded in column E1.

The relevant portion of the questionnaire on page 15 is shown below:

[Diagram on page 45 omitted]

Column E1: Ownership of Livestock

Does any member of this household own:

1 Cattle
2 Goats
4 Sheep
8 Pigs
16 Poultry
32 Donkeys/Horses

Circle the appropriate answer code(s), if any member of the household owns any of the above listed livestock.

If none of the above applies, write 0 in the space below the response codes, but not in the shaded area. For example, if a household owns three goats and a few chickens you would put a ring around 2 (goats) and around 16 (poultry).

[p.46]

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 133, James owns some cattle, Thembe owns some goats and Lorato owns some poultry in Botswana. Since Thembe is only a visitor, the fact that she owns goats is not recorded in column E1. However, Lorato is a household member, and, since she owns poultry in Botswana, the code 16 is circled. Code 1 is also circled since James owns cattle.

Columns E2: Planting of Crops

During the last agricultural season, did any member of this household plant:

1 Maize
2 Millet
3 Sorghum
4 Beans

Circle the appropriate answer code(s), if during the past agricultural season any member of the household 'planted any of the above, Write down the name(s) of any other crop(s) planted but not listed (e.g. watermelon, sweet reeds), If they planted nothing at all, write 0 in the space below the codes, but not in the shaded area.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 133, Anne planted melons, the word "melons" is written beneath the category "Other (specify) ".

Column E3: Land Acquisition

How was the land for grazing and/or planting obtained?

If a member of the household (excluding visitors) owns any livestock or planted anything, then ask how the land for grazing and/or planting was obtained, Circle the appropriate answer code(s):

l Landboard
2 Tribal/Communal
4 Inheritance
8 Freehold (land held in absolute ownership)
16 Lease/TGLP (land held in ownership for a specified period of time)
32 Syndicate
64 Employer/Relatives etc.,
128 Self-Allocation

If none of the above applies enter 0, but not in the shaded area,

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 133, the household inherited the land used for planting and the land used for grazing was communal, therefore both 2 and 4 are circled.

Column E4: Cash Sales

Since August 1990, did any member of this household sell

1 Cattle
2 Goats/Sheep
4 Poultry
8 Maize
16 Sorghum/Millet
32 Wood
64 Thatch/Poles/Reeds
128 Phane
Other (specify)
[p.47]

Circle the appropriate answer code(s) if, since August, 1990, any member of the household (excluding visitors) earned money from selling any of the above.

Write down any other products of livestock, agriculture, forestry, fishing or gathering sold.

If nothing was sold, write 0 in the space below the codes, but not in the shaded area.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph133, the household did not sell anything, so 0 is written in the space below the codes.

Column E5: Cash Receipts

Since August 1990, did any member of this household receive:

1 Pension
2 Remittances (from· mines, Tirelo Sechaba, relatives, etc.)
4 Rent (from land/property)
8 Interest/Dividend/Bonus
16 Aid/Relief

In this section, we are interested in finding out whether the household received any cash payment as unearned income during the reference period. Unearned income refers to payments made to the household other than from employment, business profits or sale of one's own produce. Salaries and wages paid to members listed in part a above should not be included in answer to this question.

The most common types of unearned income are as follows:

1 Pension: This is a payment, usually on a regular basis, by a previous employer to a worker who has retired or is no longer working for other reasons. For example, certain Government employees are entitled to stop work and draw their pensions on attaining the age of 45 years.

2 Remittances: This includes cash gifts and transfers from relatives and friends working either abroad (e.g. South African mines, farms, etc.) or elsewhere in the country. It also includes family and child maintenance and payments to the household on account of the Tirelo Sechaba participants. It should be noted that cash remittances refer not only to cash which has been sent by post or mail but also to any cash transfers which have been delivered by hand or in some other way - as long as it is from a person in another household, other than the one being interviewed. Distance between households affected is immaterial. The transfer must be permanent. Cash loans to the household must not be included,

4 Rent: A household may receive payment for any property it lets out, such as a house or field, It should also include payments received for allowing its donkeys/mules/oxen to be used for ploughing.

8 Interest/Dividend/Bonus: Interest is money paid by a bank on a deposit account, while dividends/bonuses are payments from the profits of a business to shareholders or investors. For example, bonuses may be received from a co-operative society or BMC.

[p.48]

16 Aid/Relief: This refers to cash payments made directly by Government (o; any organisation) to alleviate the effects of drought or to assist the household to participate in agricultural activities.

Circle the appropriate answer code(s) if, since August 1990, any member of the household received money from these sources.

If none of the above applies, enter 0.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 133, the household received some remittances from their daughter Lorato in South Africa. Therefore 2 is circled.

Columns E6-E14: Housing Unit

These questions relate to the housing unit occupied by the household you are enumerating. A housing unit is defined as "the unit of accommodation for a household". The relevant portion of the questionnaire on page 15 is shown below:

[Diagram on page 48 omitted]

Column E6: Type of Housing Unit

This question refers to the housing unit in which the household you are enumerating lives. You will probably be able to answer this yourself simply from observation.

There are different types of housing units, identified and listed below. Circle the appropriate code for the household you are enumerating:

1 Detached House: This is a building that stands on its own, without sharing a wall with any other building. In many cases a detached house will also be fenced. A traditional hut standing on its own is to be classified as a lolwapa.

2 Lolwapa: A lolwapa is a residential place comprising one or more huts and/or other structures which are fenced together. Such malwapa are mostly found in rural areas.
[p.49]
3 Semi-Detached House: This is a building that shares a wall with just one other building, but which has its own separate entrance. It may be one or two stories high.

4 Town/Terraced House: This is a building, in a group of many others sharing walls on two sides; each building has its own entrance, and the building may be one, two or even three stories high. A "town house" does not mean a ''.house in town". Note that the last unit at-the end of a Town/Terraced House is not classified as Semi-Detached.

5 Flat: This is a unit of accommodation in a building. The building itself will usually have a main entrance and each flat will also have its own separate entrance; the building is usually 2 or more stories high, but each flat forms part of just one story or floor.

6 Servants' Quarter: This is a building that is specifically assigned for the use of domestic staff; the building may stand alone, it may be part of a garage or it may sometimes be connected to the main house by means of a covered corridor or common wall.

7 Commercial Building: Sometimes part of a commercial building is used as residential quarters, particularly by small shopkeepers. Factory buildings may occasionally be used as housing units either by security personnel or staff of building contractors.

8 Shack: This is a temporary shelter built of remnants of packing materials, e.g. cardboard boxes, polythene sheets, etc. Shacks are mostly found in urban areas.

9 Movable: This is a housing unit which can be transported from place to place either as a unit or in component parts. Examples are tents, tin-huts, portacamps, caravans, etc.

10 Room(s): In urban areas, particularly on SHHA plots and on low-cost plots, rooms in a building are sublet to tenants. Sometimes additional rooms are built on the plot for letting purposes.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 139, the Mulemba household lives in a lolwapa. Code 2 is circled.

Columns E7: Method of Acquisition of Housing Unit/Plot

How was this housing unit/plot acquired by the household?

Enquire from the household what entitles them to live in this particular housing unit/plot.

01 Tribal Authority
02 Landboard
03 Purchase
04 Inheritance
05 SHHA
06 Rent: BHC
07 Rent: Government
08 Rent: Council
09 Rent: Individual
10 Rent: Company
11 Free
12 Self-Allocation
[p.50]
Some of the above codes need further explanation:

01 Tribal Authority: These are housing units on plots which were allocated by tribal authorities a long time ago before the formation of landboards.

04 Inheritance: These are housing units on plots acquired by inheritance regardless of means of previous acquisition.

05 SHHA: These are housing units on plots which were acquired through the Self Help Housing Agency Scheme. Only households who own the SHHA plot on which they live are to be coded 05. Those living in a rented SHHA house (or room in a SHHA house) are to be coded 09.

Rent:
06 Circle code 06 for households renting from BHC
07 Circle code 07 for households renting from Government
08 Circle code 08 for households renting from Council
09 Circle code 09 for households renting from private individuals
10 Circle code 10 for households renting from companies and institutions other than Government

11 Free: Circle code 11 for households who don't own their housing unit but who don't pay any rent either. They may be living in a housing unit provided by relatives or an employer. Members of the Police Force or BDF and some domestic servants are examples of persons who obtain housing free from their employers.

12 Self-Allocation: Circle code 12 for households occupying tribal/estate land or a freehold farm where no allocation was made by any authority or employers

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 139, the plot on which the household stays was inherited, so code 04 is circled.

Column E8: Duration of Occupancy

How long have you and your household lived in this housing unit?

Circle the appropriate answer code indicating how long the household has occupied this housing unit/plot:

1 under 1 year
2 1 to 3 years
3 4 to 6 years
4 7 years aud over

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 139, the household has only been living in the housing unit in which they were enumerated for 3 years, so 2 is circled.

Column E9: Number of Rooms in the Housing Unit

How many rooms are here in this housing unit (excluding kitchen, toilet, bathroom, garage and store)?

[p.51]

Enter, in the space provided in the questionnaire, the number of rooms used as sleeping accommodation, or as living rooms, in the housing unit where you are enumerating.

The following are excluded: kitchen(s), toilet(s), bathroom(s), garage(s) and store(s).

However, if one of these is also used for living or sleeping accommodation it should be included - for example, a room which is used both as kitchen and living room would be counted. You will find examples of these in some rented SHHA houses in the urban areas and in rondavels in the rural areas.

If more than one household shares one living room, count it only once for one of the households. You cannot count it more than once as this would give an overestimate of the availability of accommodation in the country.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 139, the lolwapa in which the household stays consists of three huts, so 03 is entered in the spaces provided.

Column E10: Principal Source of Water Supply

What is the principal source of water supply for this household?

Circle the appropriate answer code for the principal source of water supply. If the particular source of water supply is not listed, write down the source under "Other (specify)". In cattlepost areas, where people have to travel long distances to obtain water from a standpipe, indicate in the "Comments" column that it is a cattlepost situation if the response is "standpipe".

1 Piped indoors or in own yard
2 Standpipe
3 Borehole
4 Well
5 Flowing river
6 Sand river
7 Dam/Pan
Other (specify)

Column E11: Toilet Facility

Possible answers to this question are as follows:

Private:
1 Flush toilet
2 Pit latrine
3 Neighbour's Pit latrine

Communal:
4 Flush toilet
5 Pit latrine
6 Movable
7 None

A private toilet/latrine is one which has been built by a private household for its use. A toilet/latrine which is used by more than one household in the lolwapa is still private. They may
[p.52]
share it with neighbouring household(s) by private arrangement. If the toilet facility is private, circle 1, 2 or 3 as appropriate.

A communal toilet/latrine is one which has been built by the community or local authorities for use by members of the public. If the toilet facility is communal, circle 4 or 5 as appropriate. A movable toilet is a temporary and portable toilet facility often found on construction sites.

If none of the above applies, meaning that the household either uses river or bush, circle 7.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 139, the household gets its water from a well and they use a pit latrine. Code 4 is circled in column E10 and code 2 is circled in column E11.

Columns E12/E13/E14: Material of Construction of Main Housing Unit

These questions refer to the material of construction of the housing unit (the floor, the walls and the roof) where you are enumerating.

If it is a lolwapa having more than one "sleeping" hut or house, obtain information about the material of construction of the main unit - the "main house" - which will usually be the one used by the head of the household.

If the housing unit is a room, it is the material for the room that is required and this is usually the same as the material for the house.

If more than one type of material is used, e.g. zinc and thatch for the roof enter the one that has been used for the greater part of the roof.

You can probably record the answers to E12, E13 and E14 by observation. However, if in doubt, ask, then circle the appropriate answer code(s).

Column E12: Roof

Observe the material of construction for the roof and circle the appropriate code:

1 Concrete/Blocks/Tiles/Slate
2 Asbestos
3 Iron/Zinc/Tin
4 Thatch
Other (specify)

If none of the above applies, write the name of the material in the space below the codes.

Column E13: Walls

Observe the material of construction for the walls and circle the appropriate code:

1 Stones/Bricks/Blocks
2 Asbestos
3 Iron/Zinc/Tin
4 Mud
5 Mud and Poles
6 Mud and Reeds
7 Poles and Reeds
8 Mud, Poles and Reeds
Other (specify)

If none of the above applies write the name of the material in the space below the codes.

[p.53]

Column E14: Floor

Observe the material of construction for the floor and circle the appropriate code:

1 Stone/Tiles/Cement
2 Wood
3 Mud
Other (specify)

If none of the above applies, write the name of the material in the space below the codes.

In the sample questionnaire in paragraph 139, the roof is made of thatch (4 is circled in column E12), the walls are made of mud and reeds (code 6 is circled in E13) and the floor is mud (code 3 in E14).

Column E15: Principal Fuel for Cooking

What is the principal fuel used by this household for cooking?

Ask for the principal fuel used by the household for cooking and circle the appropriate answer code. It is possible that a household may use more than one fuel at any one time but it is the one that is used most often that should be recorded. Only one code should be circled. Possible codes are as follows:

1 Electricity
2 Gas
3 Paraffin
4 Wood
5 Coal
Other (specify)

If the particular fuel is not listed, write down the type of fuel used in the space below the codes.

Column E16: Principal Fuel for Lighting

What is the principal fuel used by this household for cooking?

Ask for the principal fuel used by the household for cooking and circle the appropriate answer code. It is possible that a household may use more than one fuel at any one time but it is the one that is used most often that should be recorded. Only one code should be circled. Possible codes are as follows:

1 Electricity
2 Gas
3 Paraffin
4 Wood
5 Coal
Other (specify)

If the particular fuel is not listed, write down the type of fuel used in the space below the codes.

[p.54]

Part 5: After each Household Enumeration

When you have completed the enumeration of a household, thank the household members for their co-operation and, if they constitute the only household in the lolwapa, stick a white label (see paragraph 171) to their door next to the metal plate and record the summary data for this lolwapa on the Control List.

If there were two or more households in the lolwapa and you have completely enumerated all of them, attach a white label and record the summary data for all the households together on the Control List.

If one of the households in the lolwapa hasn't been enumerated, use an orange label (see paragraph 172) and update your Enumerator Revisit Record following the instructions in paragraphs 164-170.

Paragraphs 152-154 describe, fairly briefly, the procedure you must follow after each household enumeration or lolwapa visit. The detailed procedure is now described, under three sub-headings:

the Control List, its use during revisits and after enumeration
the Enumerator Revisit Record
the white and orange labels

The Control List - It's use during Revisits and after Enumeration

Use of the Status Codes: After each visit (or revisit) to a lolwapa you must update the Control List by entering in the "Status" column (after any status codes recorded at previous visits) whichever of the following codes reflects the latest enumeration status of this lolwapa:

Status= 1: Enumerated - This is the code to use when enumeration has been completed for the only household or for all the households in the lolwapa. Having completed the enumeration of the household(s) in the lolwapa you must also record data for the entire lolwapa under the appropriately named columns of the Control List as follows:

the total number of household(s) enumerated in the lolwapa

the total number of persons present that have been enumerated m all the households in the lolwapa (from Part A of the questionnaire(s))

the total number of persons enumerated as being outside Botswana for all the households in the lolwapa (in Part B of the questionnaire(s))

the total number of male and female births since Independence Day, 1990 (from columns A20 and A21 of the questionnaire(s))

the total number of male and female deaths recorded (from Part D of the questionnaire(s))

any comments you may have with regards to the enumeration in the lolwapa
[p.55]

Status= 2: Revisit - Status should be set equal to 2 if a revisit is going to be necessary in order to conduct the enumeration of any household in the lolwapa. Enter the details of all the household(s) in the lolwapa on the Enumerator Revisit Record (one line per household) at the back of the Enumeration Area Book (see further details in paragraphs 164 - 170 and the example of a completed Enumerator Revisit Record after paragraph 170).

Status= 3: Empty - Use this code if you decide that the lolwapa was definitely unoccupied during the census night and that it is certain to remain unoccupied for the rest of the census enumeration period. For instance, neighbours may tell you that nobody lives there or that the people who usually live there are away and will not be back until after the census period. In isolated areas, look for signs of occupation. For example, fresh water marks, warm ashes, domestic animals, utensils, foot marks, etc. may suggest that the lolwapa is occupied. If a lolwapa is definitely unoccupied, and certain to stay that way for the rest of the census period, then

you will not be revisiting the lolwapa

you should fill in zeroes in all columns from "Number of Enumerated Households" to "Deaths"

write under the "Comments" column why you have coded the lolwapa with this status (e.g. "House demolished" or "Occupants away on holiday").

Status= 4: Other - Use this code if any situation apart from the above three applies. It will mostly be used when contact has been made with the only household or all households in the lolwapa, but enumeration cannot be started or completed for reasons such as refusal, or. because there has just been a death or birth in the household. Status =4 is very similar to status =2 in that a revisit is going to be necessary. So, when status =4, you must enter the details of all the households in the lolwapa on the Enumerator Revisit Record (one line per household) at the back of the Enumeration Area Book (see further details in paragraphs 164 - 170 and the example of a completed Enumerator Revisit Record after paragraph 170).

Assigning a status code of 1 or 3 means further visits to the lolwapa will not be necessary.

For status codes of 2 or 4, further visits will be necessary and at any one of these revisits you may succeed in completing the enumeration of all the households in the lolwapa (when the status code will become 1 and you proceed as indicated for status = 1) or, after a series of status =2 codes, you discover (possibly from neighbours) that the lolwapa is definitely empty and certain to remain so for the rest of the census period (in which case the status code becomes 3 and you proceed as indicated for status =3).

The only other possible situation is that, after your third (and possibly final) revisit, the status code remains at 2 or 4 - because at this third revisit you have still not been able to complete enumeration of all the households in the lolwapa. In such a situation your completion of the Control List will depend on whether it is a one-household or multi-household lolwapa.

If a one-household lolwapa: if status = 4 and you made some original contact with the household you may know how many people are usually present in this household. If your original contact didn't help (or if status =2) see if any neighbour can tell you. If you can estimate the number of persons in the household, enter "1" under number of households and the estimated number of persons under "Persons Present", enter dashes in the remaining columns and say how this estimate was obtained in the "Comments" column, e.g. "Information obtained from neighbours".
[p.56]
If you cannot estimate the number of persons, enter "O" in the various columns and, in the "Comments" column, write "Occupants absent".

If a multi-household lolwapa: obtain from the other occupants of the lolwapa the number of persons living in the household(s} you are unable to enumerate. Complete Columns 5 to 9 of the Control List as follows:

enter another 2 or 4 in the "Status" column

complete the remaining columns for the households that you were able to enumerate as instructed in paragraph 157 for status code 1

enter the number of households you are unable to enumerate in the "Comments" column, followed in brackets by the number of persons you are told are living in the household(s} you were unable to enumerate
[p.57]

[Diagram on page 57 omitted]

[p.58]

Enumerator Revisit Record

The Enumerator Revisit Record is designed for you to

keep a record of those households you must revisit

consolidate the summary data for all households in a lolwapa where at least one household wasn't enumerated at the first attempt before recording the totals for the lolwapa on the Control List

If there is more than one household and you haven't been able to enumerate all of them at your first visit you must:

for the household(s) you have been able to enumerate:

record Village Code, Locality Code, Locality Name, Lolwapa Number and Household Number under the appropriate columns

enter dashes in the "Date/Time of Appointment11 columns since there is no need for a revisit to this household

enter the number of enumerated persons present (from Part A of the questionnaire) and the number of enumerated persons outside Botswana (from part B of the questionnaire) under the appropriate columns

enter the number of reported male and female births (from questionnaire columns A20 and A21) in the "Reported Births" columns for males and females, respectively

enter the number of reported male and female deaths (from Part D of the questionnaire) in the "Reported Deaths" columns for males and females, respectively

for household(s) you have not been able to enumerate at your first visit:

record Village Code, Locality Code, Locality Name, Lolwapa Number and Household Number under the appropriate columns

enter the date of appointment for a revisit in the "First Date/Time of Appointment/Revisit columns and leave subsequent columns blank. You can, of course, only make a real "appointment" if you have met the household(s) and arranged a time convenient for them. But "Date/Time of Appointment" in this context is also to be used to mean the date/time when you will revisit the household and try again.

if at your first revisit you have not been able to enumerate the household(s):

make an appointment for a second revisit and enter the date/time of appointment/revisit in the "Second Date/Time of Appointment/Revisit" columns.

if at your second revisit you still have not been able to enumerate you will repeat the same procedure as described in (c).

if at your third revisit you still have not been able to enumerate you will enter dashes in the remaining columns and comment accordingly in the "Comments" column and complete the Control List.

if at one of the visits you are able to enumerate, you will complete the Enumerator Revisit Record as instructed in (a).

[p.59]

This may seem to be unnecessary additional work, but it is important that the information for all the households in a lolwapa be in one place and not scattered all over the EA Book(s). Remember that, since no blank pages are to be left in the EA book for households that cannot be enumerated first time round, information for a household enumerated at a revisit will be further on in the EA book or even in a different EA book from the other households in the same lolwapa that were enumerated at the first visit. If the data from all households within such a lolwapa are· su1nmarized together in the Enumerator Revisit Record, the totals for the lolwapa can be more easily determined and transferred to the Control List.

You will note that the Enumerator Revisit Record has been designed so that you can make up to four visits (or three revisits) to any one household.

This has been done because the census enumeration period is of only ten days duration and it may not be possible to make more than three revisits to any one household and completely enumerate the EA in the time available. However, if lime allows you may make as many visits as possible within the lime frame of the enumeration period.

If more than three revisits are possible use the "Comments" column for recording dates and times of further appointments.

It is important that revisits are scheduled so that you are able to contact the household(s). If the first visit was during the day time, schedule a revisit for an evening or early morning. The Census Act allows you to collect data at any time between the hours of 6:00 in the morning and 10:00 in the evening; but in practice you may find that respondents prefer that you avoid the extremes of early morning or late evening.
[p.60]

[Diagram on page 60 omitted]

[p.61]

The White and Orange Labels

A label is to be fixed to every lolwapa to ensure that no household is enumerated more than once and that none is missed. The white label should be fixed on a lolwapa when all the households living there have been completely enumerated. The label should be fixed where it will be easily visible to your supervisor and others checking your work. Where possible, it should be fixed next to the metal plate or, in urban areas, next to the plot number. The date of enumeration/visit and the time should be entered on the label. This will help your supervisor when trying to locate you during enumeration.

[Diagram on page 61 omitted]

The orange label is to be fixed on any lolwapa that has not been enumerated or where enumeration has not been completed. If this is because the occupants were temporarily absent, write 2 in the box provided on the label; if there is no evidence of recent occupancy, write 3 in the box; if any other reasons apply (e.g. refusal), write 4. You should also enter these codes on your Control List. The date and time of each visit to the lolwapa must be entered on the label. If you do not know the exact time of the visit, then estimate the time.

On a subsequent visit, if the lolwapa is completely enumerated, remove the orange label and replace it with a white one. Enter the date and time of enumeration on the label.

On no account should the white label be fixed to any lolwapa unless a questionnaire has been completed for each of the households occupying the lolwapa.

[Diagram on page 61 omitted]

[p.62]

Completing the EA Book Summary

On the front cover of each EA Book you will see an area entitled Enumeration Check Control. You must use this to summarize the number of enumerated households and persons that were listed in this particular EA Book.

The only other part of the front cover that need concern you is in the panel to the right of the Enumeration' Check Control where you will sign and record the date when you have completed your checking of the EA Book and completed the front cover summary. You may also use the "Comments" box in the bottom right hand comer if you have any additional points that you wish to bring to the attention of your supervisor, the DCO or Census Office.

The Enumeration Check Control area has been split into two halves, each of six columns and twenty-five rows (or lines). Beneath each group of 25 lines there is a row for the sub-totals of enumerated households, person(s) present, and person(s) outside Botswana; and immediately following the sub-totals for the last 25 lines is another row for the grand total. It is important that you complete this section immediately after you have finished enumerating all the households in the lolwapa, or at the end of the day's enumeration.

The lines numbered I - 50 correspond to the page numbers of the questionnaires in the EA Book. Your first entry on the Front Cover will be a summary of the data recorded on page 1 of the EA Book. From page 1, transfer the following information:

Village Code, Locality Code and Lolwapa/House Number (to be entered in columns 2,3 and 4, respectively)

Number of Enumerated Households (in column 5)

Number of Enumerated Person(s) Present (in column 6) (from Part A of the questionnaire)

Number of Enumerated Person(s) Outside Botswana (in column 7) (from Part B of the questionnaire)

Remember that a household may have more than the maximum of eight persons present that can be accommodated on a single page - and/or more than the maximum of three persons outside Botswana. But the summary data on the front cover must reflect the contents of each page of the questionnaire. If a household of 12 persons was enumerated with the first 8 persons listed on page 28 and the remaining 4 persons on page 29, then the number of persons present will be "8" for page 28 and "4" for page 29. Also note that in this case the number of households will be "1" for page 28 but "-" for page 29 because page 29 is simply a continuation of the household whose listing started on page 28.

To illustrate how to complete the Enumeration Check Control, a number of examples are shown in the following paragraphs. Please refer to the worked example on page 66 of this manual.

Situation 1: On page 1 of the questionnaire is a household with 8 persons listed in Part A and 3 persons in Part B. On line I of the front cover enter:

the Village and Locality Codes and the Lolwapa/House Number

1 in the "Number of Enumerated Household(s)" column

8 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Present" column

3 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Outside Botswana" column
[p.63]

Situation 2: On page 2 of the questionnaire is a household with 7 persons present (Part A) and just 1 person outside Botswana (Part B). On line 2 of the front cover enter:

the usual identification codes, followed by:

1 in the "Number of Enumerated Household(s)" column

7 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Present" column

1 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Outside Botswana" column

Situation 3: There are 13 persons present in the next household (Part A) and 6 outside Botswana (Part B). The first 8 of the 13 persons present would be listed on page 3 and the remaining 5 on page 4; and the first 3 persons outside Botswana would be listed on page 3 and the remaining 3 on page 4. On line 3 of the front cover enter:

the usual identification codes, followed by:

1 in the "Number of Enumerated Household(s)" column

8 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Present" column

3 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Outside Botswana" column

On line 4 of the front cover enter:

the same identification codes as on line 3, followed by:

a dash in the "Number of Enumerated Household(s)" column

5 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Present" column

3 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Outside Botswana" column

Situation 4: A household has 5 persons present and 6 persons outside Botswana. The 5 persons present would all be listed on page 5, and the 6 persons outside would be listed on two pages of the questionnaire, pages 5 and 6. On line 5 of the front cover enter:

the usual identification codes, followed by:

1 in the "Number of Enumerated Household(s)" column

5 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Present" column

3 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Outside Botswana" column

on line 6 of the front cover enter:

the same identification codes as on line 5, followed by:

a dash in the "Number of Enumerated Household(s)" column

0 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Present" column

3 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Outside Botswana" column

Situation 5: A household has 7 persons present and 2 persons outside Botswana. This would be summarized on line 7 as follows:

1 in the "Number of Enumerated Household(s)" column

7 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Present" column

2 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Outside Botswana" column

The household has also had 4 bereavements since last Independence Day. Only the first three deaths can be accommodated on page 7 (in Part D). The last death has to be recorded in Part D of page 8. Thus the only information entered on page 8 relates to the fourth death in the household. The number of deaths are not to be summarized on the front cover, so line 8 of the front cover will show:

[p.64]

a dash in the "Number of Enumerated Household(s)" column

0 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Present" column

0 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) ·Outside Botswana" column

Situation 6: A household has 18 persons present - and therefore 3 pages of the EA Book were needed to list them all. They also had 5 persons outside Botswana. In line 9 enter:

1 in the "Number of Enumerated Household(s)" column

8 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Present" column

3 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Outside Botswana" column

In line 10, enter:

a dash in the "Number of Enumerated Household(s)" column

8 in the "Number of Enumerated· Person(s) Present" column

2 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Outside Botswana" column

In line 11, enter:

a dash in the "Number of Enumerated Household(s)" column

2 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Present" column

0 in the "Number of Enumerated Person(s) Outside Botswana" column

You will note that if the correct procedure has been followed:

For households with more than 8 persons in Part A or more than 3 persons in Part B of the Questionnaire, the Locality and Lolwapa/House Numbers will be repeated more than once on the front cover.

The Number of Enumerated Households will always be 1 or a dash many one line on the front cover.

Entries in the columns headed "Number of Enumerated Persons Present" will always be a number between 0 and 8 for any one line on the front cover.

Entries in the columns headed "Number of Enumerated Persons Outside Botswana" will always be some number between 0 and 3 for any one line on the front cover.

If for any reason you have cancelled a page of the questionnaire, say page 12, you will write "cancelled" on line 12 of the front cover.

If you have made a mistake on entering the front cover, cross out the wrong entry neatly and enter the correct one. Do not cross out the whole line because, if you do, the front cover entries will no longer correspond to the questionnaire pages. If you are doubtful that the entry is legible, comment accordingly in the "comments" column, giving the correct entry.

After filling all the 50 lines with entries, you must add up, for page numbers 1-25, the number of enumerated households, persons present and persons outside Botswana and enter the sub-total in the row labelled "sub-total". Repeat this procedure for page numbers 26-50.

Then add together the two sub-totals and enter the sum in the final row labelled "grand total".

It is important that you correctly transfer the information required from all the pages of the Questionnaire as this summarizes your work and these summaries will also be used for compiling preliminary counts of the population.

[p.65]

The totals calculated from all your EA Books should be the same as the totals. Calculated from all your Control Lists in the Enumeration Area.

[p.66]

[Diagram on page 66 omitted]

[p.67]

Part 7: Institutional Questionnaire

Persons living in institutions, such as patients in hospitals, soldiers in army barracks, etc. are to be enumerated on a separate questionnaire - the Institutional Questionnaire, or Form F for short. An example of this questionnaire is shown on page 68.

The Institutional Questionnaire is similar to the Household Questionnaire. The difference is that the question on relationship to the household head and questions from Parts B, D and E in the Household Questionnaire are not covered by the Institutional Questionnaire. The instructions for filling the Institutional Questionnaire are the same as those for filling the Household Questionnaire. However, for the Institutional Questionnaire the name of the institution should be filled in. The plot number, if any, on which the institution stands should also be filled in the boxes provided at the top of the questionnaire.

The Institutional Questionnaire will not be given to every enumerator, but only to those who will be working where there are institutions. However, the District Census Officers will have spare supplies in case some institutions were omitted in the planning stage of the census enumeration.

Guests in hotels, safari camps and hunting lodges will be enumerated on individual questionnaires. These questionnaires should be handed over to the Managers or Receptionists with a request that they be distributed to all the guests that will be in the hotel or lodges or safari camps on the day of the enumerator's visit. The enumerator should go back to collect the individual questionnaires, and, from the information in the questionnaires, the enumerator should complete the Institutional Questionnaire. An example of the individual questionnaire to be used for guests in such cases is shown on pages 69-70.

For patients in the hospitals who are seriously ill, it might not be possible to obtain all the required information; efforts should be made to obtain available information from hospital officials.

For army personnel in barracks, arrangements are being made for them to be enumerated by the army personnel.

It should be remembered that all persons living in houses and flats, such as doctors attached to hospitals, senior army personnel and senior hotel staff, should be enumerated on the Household Questionnaire.

You should also remember that those people who were working at the institution during the night should not be included on the Institutional Questionnaire. Instead, they will be included on the Household Questionnaire where they would have spent the night had they not been working.

p.68-70

[Diagram on page 68-70 omitted]