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Presidency of the Republic
Brazil
I.B.G.E. - National Census Service
Demographic Census of 1960
Enumerator's Instruction Manual

[Pages 1 - 10 were not translated into English.]

[p. 11]

V. Preliminary Observations

22. Dwelling - A structurally independent place or area which serves as housing for census household, comprised of a set of rooms or of a single room with an independent entrance which opens onto a thoroughfare or onto land for public use or onto a place of use common to more than one dwelling. Also considered a dwelling is a place that, although not complying with the above characteristics, serves as housing on the date of the census for persons or for a single person, such as buildings in construction, boats, vehicles, tents, caves, bridges, galleries, park benches, parking areas, marquises of buildings, etc.
According to the characterization of the groups of people who inhabit those, dwellings may be private or collective.

23. Census household - A group of persons who occupy a dwelling, either private or collective, constitutes a census household.
Depending on the nature of the bond of their living together [vínculo de convivência], a census household may be comprised of a family group, of a group living together, or both family groups and group living together.
Thus, for the purposes of the census, a couple and their children living in a private dwelling, as well as persons enumerated in a hotel, constitute households.

24. Family group - A Family group is a set of people who, by reason of kinship, adoption or mere dependence, live in the same dwelling under the direction or protection of a head, owner, or landlord of the entire housing or only a part of same, as well as a person who lives alone in an independent dwelling.
Employees who reside in the family group's dwelling will be included on the census forms destined for this group; employees who do not sleep in the dwelling of the family where they work will be enumerated in the dwellings where they actually live.
An individual who lives alone will constitute a family group. If this person occupies a dwelling where a Family group lives, he or she will be enumerated on the census form for this group as guest or agregado [permanent resident who is not a guest, relative or employee].
Boarders of a family group who live in the dwelling in the company of persons related to them by ties of kinship or domestic subordination constitute a distinct family group and will therefore be enumerated on a separate census form.

[p. 12]

25. Group living together - A set of persons without ties of kinship or of domestic subordination who live in the same dwelling and who are related by ties of discipline or common interest (religious in convents, guests in hotels and similar establishments, military facilities, students in boarding schools, persons living in asylums or similar charitable institutions, etc.) and each will be enumerated on a separate census form.
As an exception, a group living together comprised of no more than five persons will be considered family groups provided they do not reside in hotels, boarding houses, etc.

26. Multiple family households - When 2 or 3 family groups reside in a private dwelling without having ties of kinship with one another, they will be considered, for census purposes, as multiple family households and enumerated on separate census forms.

Example: two work colleagues, with their families, but with no ties of kinship between them, living in a single private dwelling for reasons of economy, lack of lodgings, etc.
However, if there are ties of kinship between the members of the two families (married siblings and their families, parents and married children and their descendants, etc.), they will be considered a single family group.

27. Private dwelling - All dwellings that serve as housing for one, two or three family groups.
For census purposes, when private dwellings are inhabited by four or more family groups, they will be considered collective dwellings.
For census purposes, commercial or industrial premises, etc. that serve as housing for one two or three family groups will be considered private dwellings.
Like apartment buildings, rooms in a tenement will be considered a set of private dwellings.

28. Collective dwelling - Any dwelling which serves as housing to a group living together or to family groups, where the dependence of the occupants on the head of the dwelling is limited to matters of interest to the discipline of the collectivity (shelters, convents, mental hospitals/asylums, penitentiaries, military posts or facilities, battleships, etc.), or to carrying out non-domestic purposes (hotels, boarding houses, asylums, orphanages, schools, commercial boats, etc.), even if they operate in more than one building, in which case there is usually a main building and other dependent buildings built on a common piece of land.

[p. 13]

Farms, ranches, plantations, estates, mills, agricultural plants and country houses, even though they may in certain aspects be similar to the situations mentioned above, are not considered collective dwellings.
What distinguishes the first group of collective dwellings from the second is the nature of the regime of discipline; whereas in shelters, mental hospitals/asylums, penitentiaries, military facilities, schools, etc., what basically characterizes life in common is the fact that the occupants live together. What is especially characteristic at ranches, plantations, estates, mills, farms, etc., is the work of those who live there.
It would be good to recall that individuals who are foreign to a farm, ranch or plantation are often hired to carry out extra work that requires large numbers of farmhands. These persons usually receive room and board, as well as wages in the form of money or products. In view of the special conditions of the situation of these workers, they are, as an exception, considered residents in collective dwellings because, whether or not they sleep in common lodgings, all their meals are provided by the employer.

29. Closed houses - Whenever a census taker comes across a house (or apartment, etc.) that is closed, he or she should try to ascertain whether it is unoccupied or if the family is absent. In either case, the census taker should make the respective entries on the permanent dwelling list form.
If the house (or apartment etc.) is unoccupied, the enumerator will make the entries referring to the building, indicating, in the column entitled "Type," that the same is "Unoccupied."

In the second case, of dwellings that are occupied but closed on the date of the census, the enumerator will ascertain whether the dwelling occasionally serves as a residence (summer home, country house, etc.) or if the family is temporarily absent (out of town on leisure or business, etc.). In the former case, only the entries related to the building will be made, indicating, in the column entitled "Type," that it is "Closed." In the latter case, that is, if the family is temporarily away, the Census taker will record the dwelling on the permanent dwelling list form and return later to gather the data referring to the family and the dwelling. If the family group remains absent until the end of data collection, the enumerator will inquire in the neighborhood and record at least the information for Questions A, B and C.

30. Family group living in two dwellings - Family groups which have two residences, living part of the year in one and part in another (as is frequent among ranchers who have minor children studying - the wife living at the home in the city during the school year [p. 14] with the children who go to school, and the rancher with the older children at the plantation) will be enumerated according to the following criteria:

a) All the members of this family group will be enumerated in the dwelling where the majority of the members are present on the date of the Census, enumerating each one in Question B as either present resident or absent resident;

b) At the dwelling where the minority of the family group is present, only the persons present on the date of the Census will be enumerated, indicating each in Question B as a present nonresident. In this case the enumerator should make the following annotation at the foot of the census form: "The complete family group was enumerated at ____ (Location, Municipality and District)."

31. Sample questions - Some questions on the questionnaire are only to be asked of persons chosen for sampling. These are referred to as Sample Questions.

The sampling method allows the census to gather data referring to a set by asking questions to only a part of this set, thus saving time and, consequently, lowering costs.

Sampling is a fact of everyday life and is often the only process possible.

When we want to buy some merchandise, we examine a small sample and come to conclusions about the qualities of the whole. A handful of grains of rice tells us about the quality of the whole bag of rice we want to buy. A few inches of cloth gives us a basis for buying a larger piece of material. No one would think of examining a bag of rice grain by grain because the product is homogeneous. A sample tells us about the quality of the whole, based on an examination of a small sample.

These applications of sampling are no different from what is done in statistical activities. But in statistics the right technique must be used in order to guarantee the best possible selection, as well some knowledge of the probable degree of error.

A number of countries now use sampling techniques in their censuses. This will be the first Census in Brazil that will use them, although they have been used in many limited statistical surveys.
Nine questions referring to the population were chosen (Questions Q to Z) for the study by the sampling method, all of them referring to the dwelling.

[Pages 15 - 23 were not translated into English.]

[p. 24]

Questions

IX. Population

All the instructions in this chapter apply to the General Census Form and to the Sample Form.
When the reference is to a family group, each person will be enumerated in a specific column by recording his or her characteristics, beginning with first name. The first column to be filled out is that entitled "First person," and the responses referring to the Head of the family group must be recorded there. In the following columns the data referring to the members of the family will be recorded, one by one, beginning with the spouse and continuing on to the descendants (children, grandchildren, step-children, etc.), forebears (parents, parents-in-law, grandparents, etc.), collateral relatives [colaterais] (siblings, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc.) and other relatives, agregados, guests, boarders, and employees.
For most of the questions the declarations will be recorded in pre-encoded responses. In these cases the enumerator should only mark the response with an X in the box corresponding to the declaration.
In Questions D, Q, R and S the responses obtained will be expressed in digits. In this case, the enumerator will just write down the number stated.
In Questions G, J, O, V and X, after hearing the respondent's declaration, the enumerator will confer with the list of CODES found on the left-hand side of the questionnaire. If there is a code that corresponds to the person's declaration, the enumerator will record the digits in the box located at the right in the "Persons" column, Codes. Otherwise, he or she will record the declaration by writing it out in full, taking care not to mark anything in the box reserved for the codes.

[p. 25]

Question A - First name

It will be sufficient to write the first, or baptismal name, such as João, Maria, Sérgio, Vera Maria, Cláudio Roberto, etc.

Question B - Condition of presence in the dwelling on the date of the Census, and Sex

The field corresponding to the following cases, by sex, should be marked with an X:

Present resident - For persons who are residents of the dwelling and were present in it on the date of the Census;

Absent resident - For persons who are residents of the dwelling and were temporarily absent from it on the date of the Census, such as:
a) Persons away on leisure or business;
b) Students at boarding schools or living in boarding houses, homes of relatives, etc.;
c) Those temporarily committed to sanatoriums, hospitals or other similar establishments;
d) Persons imprisoned but with legal proceedings still in progress, without final sentence;
e) Sailors at sea.
The persons specified above will be included as present nonresident where they are located on the date of the Census.
Members of the family group should not be included when they are in the places mentioned below, in which case they should be enumerated as present residents of the places where they are on the date of census.
a) Those permanently committed to sanatoriums, asylums or other similar establishments;
b) Those imprisoned and serving sentence;
c) Those who, due to their occupation, employment or other reason, must sleep away from home, such as soldiers at military bases, nurses living in hospitals, domestic employees living at employers' homes, etc.;
d) Workers, generally Northeasterners, who immigrate to the south in search of work on farms or in civil construction.
Present nonresident - For persons who are not residents of the dwelling but who are temporarily present in it on the date of the Census.
It should be noted that persons absent from their dwelling on the date of the Census will be enumerated twice: once at their usual dwelling, as Absent residents, and again as Non-residents present at [p. 26] the dwelling where they spent the night of August 31 to September 1. The National Census Service will eliminate the double enumeration when the calculations are processed. This information is essential, not only as an element of criticism and control, but also for special studies.
Two situations are exceptions to the criterion adopted: family groups that have two dwellings, one of which serves as occasional residence (summer home, country house, etc.), in which case the family group will be enumerated in only one of the dwellings, and those that own two residences, part of the family group living in one dwelling and part in another (as is frequent among ranchers who have younger children studying in the city), who will be enumerated pursuant to the following criteria:
a) All the members of this family group will be enumerated at the dwelling where the majority of the members are present on the date of the Census, and each one will be recorded in Question B as either a present resident or an absent resident;

b) At the dwelling where the minority of the family group are present, only the persons present on the date of the Census will be enumerated, recording each of them in Question B as present nonresident.

Question C - Kinship or relationship with the Head of the family

The relationship existing in the dwelling between the person enumerated and the Head of the family should be indicated.
The following should be considered in the response to this question:

Head - The person responsible for the household;
Spouse - The person who lives maritally with the Head of the family, whether or not there is a formal matrimonial bond;
Child or stepchild - including adopted children, except for non-officially adopted children.
Grandchild - including great-grandchild and great-great-grandchild;
Parents and parents-in-law - including stepmothers and stepfathers;
Other relatives - grandparents, great-grandparents, sisters-in-law and brothers-in law, siblings' spouses, sons-in-law and daughters-in-law, siblings, cousins, nephews and nieces, uncles and aunts, etc.;
Agregado - a person who has permanent residence in the household, without being a relative, boarder or employee;
Guest - a person, relative or not of the family, who, not having permanent residence in the household, is temporarily present there without paying for lodgings, or a person who, without being a relative, has permanent residence in the household and pays for lodgings;
[p. 27]
Employee - a person who provides remunerated services to the residents of the household and who sleeps there regularly, such as a cook, nanny, chambermaid, governess, gardener, butler, driver, etc.
In collective dwellings, the last box must always be marked for non-related persons [pessoas avulsas] (enumerated on individual census forms) (14 - Guest or employee).

Question D - Age

For persons age 1 or over, the age in years will be recorded in full (on the dotted line ____ years).
When the person being enumerated is under the age of 1, the enumerator will make two entries: an X in box 0 (zero) and the full age in months (on the dotted line ____ months); in the case of children who are not yet one month old, the box 0 (zero) marked and recorded 00 on the dotted line (____ months).
It should be noted that people's ages can always be obtained with relative precision. Thus, only in exceptional cases will the response unknown be acceptable.

Question E - Religion

The box corresponding to the religion professed by the respondent must be marked with an X.
In certain cases the enumerator should comply with the following orientation:

Roman Catholic - those who declare that they are Roman Catholic Apostolic, Christian Catholic, Roman Catholic, or merely Catholic;
Protestant - Those who declare they belong to an Evangelical or Protestant church (Baptist, Biblical, Calvinist, Lutheran Catholic, Protestant Catholic, Christian Congregation of Brazil, Congregational, Brazilian Baptist Convention, Evangelical Believer, Congregational Christian, Christian, Reformed Christian, Episcopal, Sunday School, Church of God, Lutheran, Methodist, Presbyterian, etc.)
Spiritist - those who state Spiritist, Christian Spiritualist, Spiritualist, Kardecist, Umbandist, Rational Spirit and Scientific Spiritist, etc.;
Jewish - those who state Israelite, Hebrew, Mosaic, Semitic, etc.;
Orthodox - those who state Orthodox, Greek Catholic, Orthodox Catholic, Schismatic, Greek Orthodox, etc;
[p. 28]
Mohammedan - those who state Mohammedan, Islamic, Muslim, etc.;
Other religion - those who say they belong to the Adventist, Brahmanist, Brazilian Catholic, Belief of Jehovah, Christianity, Dissident, Esoteric, Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints, Krishnaism, Mormon, New Jerusalem, Positivist, Rosa Cruz, Sabbatarianist, Unitarian, Yoga, etc.;
No religion - those who state No Religion, Agnostic, Atheist, Lay, Free Thinker, Rationalist, etc.
It should be noted that this question should be answered even by minors. In cases of doubt by the respondent in defining the religion of the minors, the religion of the parents should be indicated, provided that the parents profess the same credo.

Question F - Color

The box referring to the color of the person being enumerated should be marked with an X. The color Yellow applies only to persons of the yellow ethnic race (Japanese, Chinese, etc. and their descendants). It does not apply to persons who have yellowish skin, such as those who suffer from malaria, hookworm disease, etc.
Only those aborigines who live in native villages or reservations [posto indígena] should be indicated as "Indian." For aborigines who live outside native villages or reservations [postos indígenas], Box Number 27 (Brown) should be marked. Those who declare themselves mulattos, civilized Indians and mixed white-and-Indian] [cabloclos], mixed black and Indian [cafuzos], etc. should also be indicated for Box 27 (Brown).

Question G - State or foreign country of birth

When taking the respondent's declaration, the enumerator will consult the list of codes found on the left-hand side of the questionnaire; for native-born Brazilians, the enumerator will record the digits corresponding to the State declared, and for naturalized Brazilians and foreigners the code of one of the foreign countries specified on the list. The enumerator will write the name of the country in full only when no corresponding code is listed.
Code 28 (Serra dos Aimorés) should be recorded for persons born in this area in litigation between the states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo.
When the declaration is the Federal District, the enumerator will ask the respondent if he or she is referring to the present Federal District (Brasilia) or to the former Federal District (the present State of Guanabara) and will enter the respective code.

[p. 29]

It should be noted that the term Rio de Janeiro is frequently declared. In this case, the enumerator should ascertain whether the respondent is referring to the state of Rio de Janeiro (Code 9) or the City of Rio de Janeiro (in the state of Guanabara - Code 12) and record as such.

Question H - Nationality

The field corresponding to the response should be marked with an X in the following cases:

Native-born Brazilian - For those who were born in Brazil or for those who, having been born in a foreign country, were registered as Brazilians pursuant to Brazilian law;
Naturalized Brazilian - for those who, having been born in a foreign country, obtained Brazilian citizenship by means of a naturalization process or otherwise pursuant to Brazilian law;
Foreigner - for those who were born outside Brazil and are not naturalized Brazilians.

Questions I and J

These questions will only be asked of persons who were not born in the municipality where they are residing on the date of the Census. For those born in the municipality of residence and for present nonresidents (response to Question B) the enumerator should not record anything.
It would be good to note that:

a) These questions will not be asked of persons who live in the same territory where they were born, even if this territory has since become a new municipality;
b) The questions will not be asked of persons who were born outside the municipality where their parents were living (maternity hospital, houses of relatives, etc.) and still reside in the same municipality.
c) Nor will the question be asked of persons who moved out and have since returned to live in the municipality where they were born.

Question I - Number of years living in the municipality

The number of full years that the person has lived in this municipality should be recorded. This length of time of residence will be as of the last date on which the respondent established residence in the municipality.
For those who previously resided in a rural area (village, ranch, farm, etc.), besides indicating the length of time of residence, the enumerator will record an X in Box 0 (zero). For all [p. 30] others (living previously in an urban or suburban area), the enumerator will only indicate the length of time of residence.

Question J - State or foreign country where resided before moving to this municipality

The recording of the responses to this question must comply with the same criterion used for answering Question G.

The following questions will be asked only of persons age 5 and over
[Applies to questions L - N]

Question L - Attendance at school and literacy

a) Attendance at school
Only persons attending regular schools during the year of the Census should be considered as attending school. The term Regular schools refers to those schools which follow a progressive curriculum or course based on successive years - 1st year, 2nd year, 3rd year, etc. - and whose type of education is regulated by law. This includes Regular ecclesiastical courses are included in this category.
Persons who are on vacation or for any other reason are temporarily unable to attend classes on the date of the Census should nevertheless be enumerated as attending school. Likewise, persons who are attending adult courses, junior high-school preparation [admissão] courses or primary courses given at home will be recorded as attending school.
Persons who receive individual classes or who attend short professional specialization courses, cultural extension courses (sewing, dancing, foreign languages, typing, mechanics, art, cooking, etc.) will be recorded as Not attending school. Students in Kindergarten will also be recorded as Not attending school.

b) Literacy
Persons able to read and write at least a simple note, even if in a foreign language, should be considered as Knows how to read. Persons able to write only their name will be marked as does not know how to read.
Persons who learned how to read and write and who for any reason forgot will be recorded as does not know how to read.

Question M - Last year of school concluded with approval

Persons who are attending or who attended a regular school should inform the last year which they passed.

[p. 31]

Thus, 1st grade should be marked for a person who is attending 2nd year [or grade] of primary school; the 2nd year of junior high school [ginasial - 6th to 9th year] should be marked for a person who dropped out of the course in the 3rd year of junior high school [ginasial - 6th to 9th year] without terminating it or without passing; and the last year of the course should be marked for a person who concluded that course (example: the enumerator should mark 5th year for those who concluded a 5-year law course).
Attending first year should be marked only for persons who are attending the 1st year of primary school.
For persons who are not attending school or who never attended school, the last Box (51 - Does not attend and never attended) should be marked.

Question N - Level or year concluded passed

This question should only be answered by persons for whom the enumerator marked one of the series in the preceding question. Nothing will be recorded in this question for persons who answered that they do not attend and never attended, in the preceding question.
The enumerator will mark an X in the field corresponding to one of the following responses:
Elementary - For those who have concluded one year of Primary school or its equivalent [first four years of schooling], such as elementary-level professional courses;

Junior high school [Médio 1º Ciclo, 5th or 6th, to 8th year] - For persons who have concluded one year of the Middle School, 1st Cycle [5th or 6th, to 8th year - Curso Ginasial or some other course on an equivalent level;
Senior high school [Médio - 2º ciclo] - For those who have concluded one year in the Classical or the Scientific course [college prep - 9th to 12th year] or some other course on an equivalent level;
Higher education - For persons who have concluded a year in Higher Education, such as Law, Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, Engineering, Economics, Architecture, Agronomy, Military school, Denominational Seminary, Philosophy, etc.

The following questions will be asked only of persons age 5 and over
[Applies to questions O - U]

Question O - Type of course passed

The response should indicate the type of the most advanced course actually concluded by the person being enumerated according to the degree or diploma attained.
Examples: Primary, Junior High school [Ginasial], Classical [Senior high School], Scientific [also Senior High School], Accounting, Bookkeeping, Accounting Technician, Normal School, Law, Medicine, [p. 32] Agronomy, Veterinary Medicine, Pharmacy, Dentistry, Engineering, Military School, Denominational Pre-seminary, Denominational Seminary, Nursing, Physical Education, Instructor of ____, Technician in ____, Sergeant's Course, etc.
Short professional specialization courses or cultural extension courses should not be mentioned because they do not indicate the true level of instruction. They can usually be taken at any level of instruction. So, only if the person being enumerated has no other instruction should a course of this nature be mentioned, but with its exact specification.
Upon obtaining the respondent's declaration, the enumerator will consult the list of codes found on the left-hand side of the questionnaire (Code 2 for Question O) and will record the code corresponding to the declaration. The enumerator will write the information in full only when no code is listed as corresponding to the declaration.

Question P - (1st part) If the [person] lives in the company of wife, husband, common-law spouse, consort, etc. - indicate the nature of the union

Question P is divided into two distinct parts; each person age 10 or over will answer only one of the parts.
The first part will be answered only by those who live in the company of a wife or husband and refers to the nature of the union with the spouse with whom the person currently lives (on the Date of the Census).
One of the following answers should be marked:

Civil and religious marriage - for persons who are married civilly and religiously;
Only civil marriage - For those who are married civilly without there having been a religious ceremony;
Only religious marriage - For those who are married only religiously;
Other - For those who are not married either civilly or religiously.

It should be noted that a ceremony held in any religion or sect should be considered a religious wedding.

Question P - (2nd Part) If [the respondent] does not live in the company of wife, husband, common-law spouse, consort, etc. - indicate whether he or she is:
In the 2nd part of Question P (which will be answered only by those who do not live in the company of spouse), the enumerator should indicate one of the following:

[p. 33]

Single - for those who have not contracted a civil or religious matrimony and do not live in the company of spouse;
Separated - for married persons (married civilly, civilly and religiously, or only religiously) who have separated without a legal separation or a ratified divorce and do not live in the company of another spouse;
Legally separated [desquitado] - for those who have ratified this marital status and do not live in the company of another spouse;
Divorced - for those who, having married pursuant to foreign law, have obtained a divorce and do not live in the company of another spouse;
Widow or widower - for any person whose spouse has died, when they were united by a civil, a civil and religious, or only a religious marriage and do not live in the company of another spouse.

The following questions are shown only on questionnaire C.d. 2. The questions will be asked only to persons age 10 or over

Question Q - If living in the company of spouse, indicate the year of the marriage or union.

This question should only be answered by persons who are living in the company of spouse, that is, those who answered the first part of Question P.
The response should be the year in which the respondent married the spouse with whom he or she currently lives. For those who live in a consensual union, the year in which they began living together should be recorded.
For those who answered the second part of Question P, that is, who do not live in the company of a spouse, an X should be marked in the box entitled does not live.

Question R - If had children, how many, including stillborn?

The person's response (including both men and women) should include all children born alive or stillborn, of the current and of previous spouses; illegitimate children must be included in the response.
Fetuses of less than 7 months should not be considered stillborn.
For those who have never had children, an X should be marked in the box entitled does not have.

[p. 34]

Question S - How many of the children the person has had are living on the date of the Census?

The answer should include all the living children of each respondent (whether a man or a woman), even if from more than one union. Therefore, all legitimate and illegitimate living children should be enumerated, not only those living in the household but also those who no longer live there on the date of the Census.
For those who have not had children or who do not have any living children, the box entitled None should be marked with an X.

Question T - Average monthly income (in Cr$)

This question will be answered by all persons age 10 or over, whether or not they are exercising an occupation. For those who have no earnings, the enumerator will mark the box entitled does not have.
For those who earn only fixed income (salaries and wages under contract, including those of military personnel, etc.), the income of the last month will be considered.
For those who receive variable income (liberal professionals' fees, sale and brokerage commissions, payment for services rendered, etc.), the average income of the last twelve months should be considered.
The sum of permanent wages plus the monthly average of variable income should be considered for respondents who, besides permanent wages, have some of form variable income.
All amounts received in money, including those deriving from salaries and wages under contract, those of military personnel, liberal professionals' fees, sums received by businessmen, bonuses, commissions, payment for services rendered, tips, pensions, regularly received donations, lifelong incomes consequent to dowries or similar types of income, amounts received from use, income from rentals, etc. are considered income.
The following should not be computed as income:

a) earnings resulting from the sale of property (real estate, livestock or furniture), but computing the difference between the purchase price and the operational sale price - the profit - in the case of persons who live on such undertakings (real estate brokers and salespersons, automobiles, used objects, etc.);
b) loans obtained from banks or other financial institutions, or from private parties;
c) inheritances received (not including amounts earned from the use of same);
[p. 35]
d) income from the redemption of insurance policies (life, accident, etc.) and from capitalization, but also calculating amounts received periodically from lifelong insurance policies;
e) earnings from lotteries and other games of chance (except by professional players).

Question U - If the respondent did not work during the year preceding the date of the Census, what occupation or situation does he or she consider the most important?

Only persons who did not exercise any economic occupation during the year preceding the date of the Census, that is, during the period extending from September 1, 1959, to August 31, 1960, should answer this question.

Economic occupation is considered any work which is exercised for the purpose of receiving monetary remuneration (salaries, wages, bonuses, subsidies, profits, income from artistic or handicraft-related work, commissions, tips, etc.) or in kind (part of products received from farming, extractive or industrial operations). Even without remuneration, economic occupations exercised by family members (Question Z) and religious (priests, ministers, friars, nuns, etc.) should be considered.
One of the rectangles for this question should be marked with an X only for those who did not exercise any economic occupation during the year preceding the date of the Census, according to the following criteria:

Domestic chores - A person who exercises his or her occupation at home, without remuneration.
Student - a person who is attending school;
Retired - a person who receives income resulting from retirement from work which he or she exercised at an earlier date or who receives a pension from pension funds left by the death of a person upon whom he or she was dependent;
Lives on earnings - a person who earns income deriving from investment of his or her own capital;
Temporary illness - a person who did not work during the year preceding the date of the Census due to temporary illness, whether employed or not;
Permanent disability - a person who does not work due to permanent illness or disability, without being retired or living on revenue. Persons age 70 or over who do not exercise an occupation should be included in this case;
Prisoner - Serving sentence, even if he or she exercises an occupation in the prison;
[p. 36]
Unoccupied - a person who does not exercise an occupation, even though he or she is able to do so. Persons who are able to work but live on donations, help from others, etc. should be included in this case.

The following questions will only be asked of those persons who worked during the year preceding the date of the census
(September 1, 1959, to August 31, 1960)

[Applies to questions V - Z]

Question V - Occupation, profession, position, function, etc. which the respondent exercised for the longest time during the year preceding the date of the Census

This question has the objective of investigating the occupation that the respondent habitually exercises, habitual occupation being understood as that in which the respondent was occupied during most of the year.
In most cases, the habitual occupation coincides with that exercised on the date of the Census.
It may happen, however, that on the date of the Census the person is exercising an occupation different than his or her habitual occupation. In this case, the following will be recorded:

a) the habitual occupation, when carrying out temporary work, as is the case, for example, with farm workers who, on the date of the Census, were temporarily working at sugar mills, processing machinery, brick factories, etc., but who concluded this industrial work and, upon termination of same, will return to their habitual farming occupations which they exercise during most of the year;
b) the occupation exercised on the date of the Census, when such occupation is permanent in nature, such as farm workers who move to cities where they exercise industrial, commercial or other occupations of a permanent nature.

One should not confuse habitual occupation with professional specialization. For example, a bank manager or a high-school teacher who is a trained physician or lawyer will declare his or her habitual occupation, and not the profession in which he or she is licensed and/or trained (physician or lawyer). Vague and generic expressions should be avoided (farm worker, assistant, commercial worker, teacher, bank worker, government employee, factory worker, worker, domestic help, liberal professional, military man). Specific designations should rather be used, such as: foreman, field hand, cowboy, office assistant, statistical assistant, salesperson, cashier, traveling salesman, primary teacher, high-school teacher, college teacher, office boy, administrative official, scribe, accountant, chemist, economist, engineer, hackler (flax comber), welder, boilersmith, overseer, carpenter, hod carrier, cook, nanny, physician, lawyer, priest, captain, etc.

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If the person habitually exercises a remunerated activity, and on the date of the Census, is unemployed, on leave or vacation, or even in jail awaiting sentence, he or she should state his or her habitual occupation. A person who exercises two or more economic occupations concurrently should indicate that which occupies most of his or her time.
When obtaining the respondent's declaration, the enumerator will consult the list of codes found on the left-hand side of the questionnaire (Code 3 for Question V), and will record the code corresponding to the habitual occupation. The enumerator should write out the information in full only if the declaration and respective code are not shown on the list.

Question W - In the last week, were you exercising the occupation declared in the preceding question (including being on vacation or on leave), another occupation, or were you unemployed?

This question will be answered by persons who exercised an economic occupation during the year preceding the date of the Census
One of the following should be marked:

Occupation declared in the preceding question - if, during the week preceding the date of the Census, the respondent was exercising the occupation declared in Question V (even if on vacation or on leave).
Another occupation - if, during the week preceding the date of the Census, the respondent was exercising an economic occupation different from that declared in Question V.
Unemployed - if the respondent, having worked during the year preceding the date of the Census, was unemployed during the week preceding the date of the Census.

Question X - Class and place of activity where the occupation declared in Question V was exercised.

The purpose of asking for class and place of activity is to ascertain the sector of economic activity in which the person exercised the occupation declared in Question V. Therefore, there should be a distinction between these items of information. For example, a bookkeeper may exercise his or her occupation at a cattle ranch, a coffee plantation, a stone quarry, a textile factory, a radio equipment store, a private school, a construction company, etc. Depending on the case, the class of activity to be recorded will be cattle breeding, coffee growing, rock extraction, textile manufacturing, electric equipment trade, private education, civil construction, etc. Likewise, a physician might practice medicine at a private clinic, a public hospital or a cookie factory. Depending on the [p. 38] case, the doctor will declare Private medical clinic, Public health care or food industry as his or her class of activity.
It should also be kept in mind that the intention is not to find out whether the respondent works at large company or a small establishment, or if he or she exercises a technical or administrative function, is a subordinate or in authority. Thus a waiter in a small cafe and the manager of a large restaurant work in the same class of activity: Work in hotels, bars, cafes, etc. Likewise, a stonemason, an accountant and a driver, all three working in a construction company, although having different functions, are occupied in the same sector of industry - civil construction - which is therefore the class of activity to be recorded for all of them.
After obtaining the respondent's answer, the enumerator will consult the list of codes found on the side left of the questionnaire (Code 4 for Question X), and will record the code corresponding to the class of activity. The enumerator should write out the information in full only if the declaration and respective code are not shown on the list.
The objective of asking where (the place) the respondent exercises the activity is to obtain information that will enable the correct specification of class of activity. For this reason, the responses should characterize the activity carried out by the establishment or other organization where the person exercised the occupation declared in Question V, and not the address of this establishment, institution or organization.

Examples: coffee plantation, livestock farm, floral nursery, small fruit farm, small sugar cane plant, coal mine, gold mine, lime pit, quarry, charcoal works, rubber plantation, fishing boat, foundry, brick factory, tannery, sawmill, copper works, furniture factory, baggage factory, gunpowder factory, match factory, pharmaceutical laboratory, textile factory, garment works, shoe factory, cracker factory, butter factory, sugar mill, brewery, alcohol plant, cigarette factory, building in construction, cardboard factory, pencil factory, tire factory, doll factory, gasworks, printing shop, newspaper editorial room, gasoline station, general store, butcher shop, bakery, cigar store, cloth store, shoe store, variety store, furniture store, tapestry shop, hardware store, china shop, drugstore, paint store, stationery store, radio store, street market, newspaper stand, sales office, bank, insurance company, lottery agency, bus company, taxi, garage, streetcar, railroad, merchant ship, docks, airline, post office, telegraph agency, telephone company, radio station, pier, hotel, restaurant, barber shop, tailor shop, fashion studio, watchmaker's shop, blacksmith's shop, convent, doctor's office, dentist's office, public hospital, private hospital, orphanage, private school, public school, notary's office, senate, [p. 39] vehicle inspection office, street cleaning department, cemetery, slaughterhouse, water department, income tax department, state tax collector's office, embassy, employer's home, domestic chores, etc.
The enumerator will record the place only when the class of activity has not been encoded.

Question Z - Position in the occupation declared in Question V.

The field with the response should be marked with an X, observing the following definitions:

Public employee - For those who receive remuneration from an organ of a federal, state or municipal government or of a government-owned company. Construction workers paid by the day will not be included in this group;
Private employee - For those who receive monetary payment or payment in kind (part of the production) for work which is rendered by the individual, company or institution. Persons such as Construction workers paid by the day by an organ of public administration will be included in this group;
Work by self-employed persons - For persons who exercise their activity individually or with the help of persons in the family (provided that these latter do not receive monetary payment);
Sharecropper - For those who work in a type of economic activity with a certain degree of autonomy (growing of crops, livestock raising, fishing, etc.) and who pay part of their production for the right to exercise this activity. In this case, sharecroppers who work individually or with the help of persons in the family (provided that these latter do not receive monetary payment) will be considered sharecroppers. Those who have employees should be classified as employers;
Employer - For those who are engaged, with their own resources, in a line of economic activity and who employ one or more employees. Persons who have only domestic help will not be included in this group;
Members of the family or institution - For those who help in the work of the head of the family or of other persons in the family and do not receive monetary payment and for those who are part of a religious, educational or charitable institution, etc. and do not receive direct remuneration.

XI. Dwelling

The characteristics of the dwellings will be treated only in the Long Form (C.D.2).
When dealing with a Supplementary Sheet or an Individual Census Form (non-related persons [pessoas avulsas] in a collective dwelling), the enumerator [p. 40] will not ask the questions related to the dwelling, and will mark an X covering the entire space reserved for Question A.
In all other cases (census forms referring to family groups), the following instructions should be observed:

Question A - The type of family group

The enumerator will mark an X in the following cases:

Single family group - when persons living in a private dwelling constitute a single family group;
Multiple family household [Grupo familiar convivente] - when 2 or 3 family groups live in a private dwelling. In this case, it would be well to note that:
a) Question A (Type of family group) will be filled out on the census forms of all family groups in multiple family households [grupo familiar convivente]
b) the enumerator will fill out the other questions on only one of the census forms referring to the multiple family households [Grupo familiar convivente]
c) this information placed on only one of the census forms will refer to the data of all the multiple family households [Grupos familiares conviventes]
Family group residing in collective dwelling - when filling out the census form of any family group enumerated in a collective dwelling; in this case the enumerator will not record anything for the other questions.

Question B - Type

The responses to this question will be given regarding the structure (walls, roof and floor) or the nature of the place where the dwelling is located.
The enumerator will mark an X in the following cases:

Durable - For dwellings located in buildings where the construction has predominantly walls of brick, stone, adobe or finished wood; roof of shingles (clay, asbestos, wood, zinc, etc.) or of a concrete slab; floor of wood, cement, tile or mosaic.
Rustic - for those located in buildings where the construction is predominantly walls and roof of lathe-and-plaster, thatch, straw, unfinished wood, material made of used containers; and dirt floor.
If the material used in the three components of the structure of the building (wall, roof, and floor) are not described in the same group above (Durable or Rustic), the group that contains two of the three components should be marked. For example: a building with walls and roof of used containers and a wooden floor will be classified as Rustic.
When more than one type of material in one of the components is used, that used in greatest quantity will be considered.
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Improvised - For dwellings located in non-residential buildings (stores, factories, etc.), provided that these buildings do not have areas reserved exclusively for housing (bedroom and kitchen).
The following places which are serving as housing for persons, even if temporary in nature, will also be recorded as improvised:
a) buildings in construction serving as housing for the respective construction workers;
b) boat, cart, railroad car, etc.;
c) tent, cave, bridge, railroad yard, marquise of a building, etc., which are serving as shelter on the date of the Census.

Dwellings located in non-residential buildings but which have areas reserved exclusively for housing will be considered either Durable or Rustic, as described above.
The remaining questions will not be asked if the dwelling is recorded as improvised.

Question C - Condition of ownership

The response to this question should be:

Owned by resident - When the family group lives in a dwelling it owns, even if the land does not belong to the family group;
Rented - When the dwelling is rented;
Other - When a family lives in a dwelling which is neither its own nor rented.

The dwellings of farm workers living on farms where they exercise their occupations, if not rented, will be classified as Other condition, even if they have been built by the residents.

Question D - Monthly rent

This question refers only to rented dwellings.
For dwellings Owned by resident and in other condition, the box entitled "does not pay rent" should be marked.
For Rented dwellings, the amount of the rent paid should be indicated. The total amount paid monthly by the tenant to the owner of the property should be considered.
In the case of buildings where the tenant pays a single amount of rent for the dwelling and for a non-residential part (workshop, commercial shop, store, etc.) and those located in rented farming establishments, although having the condition of Rented (response to Question C), the box entitled "Does not pay rent" will be marked.

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Question E - Water source

This question asks about how water is supplied to the dwelling, based on the following classification:

General System

With indoor plumbing - when there is piped water inside the dwelling connected to a general system;
With outdoor plumbing - when the dwelling has piped water connected to a general system without internal distribution.

Well or Spring

With plumbing - when there is plumbing inside the dwelling connected to a well or spring;
Without plumbing - when the dwelling has its own well or spring without the water being piped inside;
Some other form of water supply - when the dwelling is supplied by a public water source, well or spigot located outside the dwelling.

Question F - Sewage disposal

This question identifies whether the dwelling has sewage disposal facilities or not, and asks those who do have such facilities what type of outlet system they are connected to, classified as:

Sewer system - when the dwelling's toilet is connected to a general sewage collecting system;
Septic tank - when the toilet is connected to a septic tank, even if it serves more than one dwelling;
Rudimentary latrine - when there is no toilet and the dwelling is served by a simple latrine;
Other sewage outlet - when sewage facilities (whether or not there is a toilet) are connected to a sewage outlet which is neither a sewer system, a cesspool, a septic tank or a latrine, such as a river, lake, etc.;
Does not have - when the dwelling does not have any kind of sewage disposal facilities or when its occupants use facilities common to more than one dwelling.

Question G - Stove

For dwellings that have a stove, indicate the predominant type of fuel or energy used in the kitchen.
When the fuel used is some product of vegetable origin but not including charcoal, indicate Firewood.

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Examples: sawdust, straw from rice or coffee, coconut shells, etc.
Dwellings which do not have any stove or those served by a portable stove with only one burner, usually referred to as a brazier [fogarareiros], will be marked as Does not have.

Question H - Electric lighting

Indicate if the dwelling does or does not have electric lighting, regardless of whether it is connected to a general system or not.

Question I - Radio

Indicate if the dwelling has a radio receiver. either connected to electric current or battery operated.

Question J - Refrigerator

Indicate the existence or not of a refrigerator. Iceboxes designed to merely hold ice for purposes of refrigeration, should not be considered.

Question L - Television

Indicate whether the dwelling has a television set or not.

Question M - Total number of rooms

The number recorded will be the total number of compartments separated by walls, not including corridors, porches or verandas, and including rooms located in areas outside the building, provided that such rooms are an integral part of the dwelling. However, rooms used for non-household purposes, such as workshops, doctors' offices, dentists' offices, laboratories, studios, garages, sheds, storehouses, warehouses, etc. will not be considered, even if directly connected to the dwelling.

Question N - Rooms which serve as bedrooms

Rooms which serve as sleeping quarters include not only bedrooms, but all other areas which permanently serve as sleeping accommodations, even if they are used as such due to lack of adequate accommodations for this purpose. It would be well to recall that rooms which are not used as sleeping quarters (offices, sewing rooms, etc.) should not be considered. However, rooms located in areas outside the building will be included, provided that persons (including employees) who are part of the dwelling live in them and, as such, are recorded on the respective Census Form.