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Republic of Bolivia
National Population and Housing Census
Enumerator's Manual
Bolivia 2001

[Pages 1-6 are not translated into English.]

[p. 7]
Who will be enumerated?

All persons who spent the night before the census day in the enumerated dwelling [will be enumerated]. Also, those persons who live in the street or who are in transit will be enumerated.

[a graphic illustration with the following conversation is found on page 7:]

Boy - Yesterday my sister arrived from Oruro at 10 PM. Will she be enumerated here?

Girl - Yes, because she spent the night here.

Reminder: The 2001 Census is like a photograph of all of the dwellings, households, and persons that are in the territory of our country. All should appear in the photo!

[p. 8]

[A graphic illustration with the following conversation is found on page 8:]

Girl - The day before yesterday my father traveled to Tarija for work and he will arrive here one day after the census. Where will he be enumerated?
Boy - In Tarija because he spent the night before the census day there.

Information:

The 2001 Census is the tenth National Population Census and the fourth National Housing Census.
The last census carried out in the country [Bolivia] was on June 3, 1992 and it registered 6,420,792 persons and 1,701,142 dwellings.

[p. 9]

The following should be considered:

The 2001 Census will cover all of the national territory.

All persons will be enumerated at the same time and in the place where they spent the night before the census day.

Each person's characteristics will be recorded separately. This means that, during the census, each person will be interviewed.

The 2001 Census will only take into account the characteristics of the dwellings, the households, and the persons.
[Pages 10-19 are not translated into English.]

[p. 20]
When and why the census areas are covered?

It should be remembered that the assigned area should be covered at two opportunities:

Before the census
The day of the census
Before the census:

It is very important that inspection of the assigned area be performed so that there are no doubts about the area to be enumerated. The area supervisor can be asked about any particular situation at this time.

Completing inspection of the assigned area will allow the enumerator to:

Recognize the borders of the physical area.

Identify the first dwelling where the enumeration will begin and the last dwelling where the work will end.

Observe the possible differences between the area map and the physical terrain and to
consult with the area supervisor.
[p. 21]
Observe that in rural areas, the map coincides with borders defined by hills, rivers, paths, highways, etc. Also, the enumerator can verify that the name and location of the community coincide with the area map.

Coordinate the work with the other enumerators of the sector.
Important:

Area inspection attendance is essential so that the work can be completed successfully and without problems or delays that might affect the results on the day of the census.

On the day of the census:

During enumeration, the area will be covered according to the instructions received, taking into account that absolutely all dwellings and persons who spent the night before the census day and who are in the assigned area should be enumerated. The enumerator should not forget that:

Neighbors should be asked about a dwelling if no one answers the door. If this is the case, the following procedure should be followed:
If the inhabitants of the dwelling are absent but will return the same day, return visits should be made until the interview takes place.

If the inhabitants of the dwelling are absent, the corresponding oval of the form is filled in and the next dwelling is enumerated.
The enumerator should inquire in shopping malls, offices, buildings, garages, galpones [large buildings, usually former slave's quarters], granaries, schools, churches, etc. about the following:
If anyone had spent the night before the census day there; if so, they should be enumerated.

If nobody spent the night before the census day, the type of establishment (e.g. church, school, etc.) is recorded in column 7 of the Enumerator's Control Form and the next dwelling is enumerated.
In the case of rejection or other special situation, the area supervisor is informed.

[Page 22 is not translated into English.]

[p. 23]
Unit Four

The interview for the 2001 Census

What is the 2001 Census interview?

It is a conversation that should take place with the persons or informants in order to request the census information.

In order to complete the interview, the Census Form is used as a guiding instrument for asking questions, obtaining the necessary information, and recording the answers.

Who should provide the information for the 2001 Census interview?

In private households, the information in the dwelling chapter should be requested from the head of household or from another responsible person from the dwelling that is familiar with the information.

The head of household is the person recognized as such by the other members of the household, irrespective of age, sex, or marital status.

The questions about the population should be presented to each person 7 years of age or older who does not have limitations in understanding or being understood.

Information from persons younger than 7 years of age should be provided, in the presence of the person, by the father, mother, or another person older than 15 years of age who is familiar with the information.

In collective dwellings such as jails, asylums, orphanages, hospitals, hotels, etc. the information is requested from each person in the dwelling, unless they have a disability.

Important:

Newborns, those younger than 7 years of age, and the elderly are also to be enumerated. The enumerator should enquire about these people in each dwelling.
The presence of all persons should be requested for the interview.

[p. 24]

How to complete the interview?

The census interview has three very important moments for collecting the information requested on the census form. These are: introduction, development, and completion.
[Pages 24 - 43 are not translated into English. The omitted pages contain instructions, introductions, and tutorials in filling out the census form.]

[p. 44]
Chapter A. Identification of the census form

What is a dwelling?

A dwelling is a construction that has one or more floors covered by a roof. A dwelling was constructed or adapted for the habitation of one or more persons, either permanently or temporarily. A dwelling should have direct and independent access from the street or through a common-use area such as a hallway, patio, or stairway.

Question 1.1

All of the information necessary for the geographical identification of the enumerated dwelling is presented in this box. This information should be carefully copied from the title page of the plastic envelope that corresponds to the assigned area.

For example, when the area is comprised of a block, the following annotations are made:

In areas with blocks [amanzanada], an area can contain more than one block. Because of this, it is important that each Census Form contain the block codes recorded on the plastic envelope.

For example, if an area is comprised of two [city] blocks, the information of the first block is recorded in the forms corresponding to that block and the same procedure is followed for the forms corresponding to the other block.
[p. 45]

In rural areas, the codes are copied from the title page of the envelope.

When a dwelling of a census agent is encountered, the form that was filled out about the dwelling and persons living therein is collected. The information for questions 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, and 2.2 from Chapter A. is recorded.

Question 1.2 Address of the dwelling

The name of the "Canton" (corner/intersection) where enumeration is taking place is recorded.
The name of the "City/Community Organization" is recorded.
The name of the "Zone/Locality" indicated by the interviewed person is recorded.
The name of the corresponding "Street/Road/Highway" is recorded.
The dwelling's "Door number" is recorded; if there is none "S/N" is written.
If the dwelling is in a building, the "Floor" and "Apartment number" are recorded.
If the dwelling is in a house with various floors, the dwelling's floor number is recorded.

Question 2.1 Dwelling order number

This is a number given to each dwelling enumerated. This allows the census forms to be numbered following the order correlating to the route of the area. Therefore, the number 1 corresponds to the first dwelling, 2 to the second dwelling, and 10 to the tenth dwelling and so on successively.

[p. 46]

This same number is copied in column 3, dwelling order number on the Enumerator's Control Form (Form - 1).
If enumerating transients or persons who live on the street, these boxes are left blank.

Question 2.2 Dwelling form number

The census forms used for each dwelling enumerated are correlatively numbered in these boxes.

If the household is comprised of fewer than 10 persons, the geographical identification information from the title page is copied, the dwelling order number is recorded, and the number "1" is recorded in the boxes of the dwelling form number since only one form will be used.

What is a household?

For the census, a household is made up of one or more persons, related or unrelated, who live in the same dwelling and who at least share a common budget for meals to which each person contributes in money or in kind. One person can also constitute a household.

Question 3. How many persons slept in this dwelling the night prior to the census day, including newborns?

The number of persons who spent the night prior to census day in the dwelling is determined.
The Total number of persons, including Males and Females, is recorded.
When a household has more than 9 persons, or a dwelling has more than one household, or if enumerating a collective dwelling the following procedure should be followed:
[p. 47]

[The table on page 47 has been adapted to the following text:]

Household/Collective Dwelling

Household with more than 9 persons in one dwelling:

The first dwelling belongs to the Cordero family. Mrs. Cordero lives with her husband, her son, her daughter-in-law, and her 5 grandchildren (3 females and 2 males). They have a live-in household employee who has a three-month-old daughter.

They all share a common food budget; therefore they are one household with 11 persons.

1.1 Census Form Identification

Two forms are used and the corresponding information is repeated in both.

2.1 Order Number of the Dwelling

The number 1 is recorded in the boxes because it is the first dwelling enumerated.

2.2 Dwelling Form Number

The number 1 is recorded in the box on the first form and the number 2 is recorded in the second form.

Question 3

The total number of persons: 11, Males: 4 and Females 7; is recorded in the first form only.

Household/Collective Dwelling

One dwelling with two or more households:

Flora, Silvia, and Lucía live in the second dwelling. They are students and have rented an apartment with three bedrooms. They do not share a common food budget. Therefore, they constitute three households.

1.1 Census Form Identification

Three forms are used and the corresponding information is repeated in each.

2.1 Order Number Of The Dwelling

The number 2 is recorded in the boxes of each form because it is the second dwelling enumerated.

2.2 Dwelling Form Number

The number 1 is recorded in the box on the first form, the number 2 in the second, and the number 3 in the third form.

Question 3

Recorded in the first form: total number of persons: 1, Male: empty boxes, Female: 1. Recorded in the second form: total number of persons: 1, Male: empty boxes, Female: 1. Recorded in the third form: total number of persons: 1, Male: empty boxes, Female: 1.

Household/Collective Dwelling
Collective dwellings:

The third dwelling corresponds to the "El Pasajero" inn where 70 persons are present: 34 male and 36 female.

1.1 Census Form Identification

Eight census forms are used and the corresponding information is copied in each.

2.1 Order Number Of The Dwelling

The number 3 is recorded in the corresponding boxes of each of the eight forms because it is the third dwelling enumerated.

2.2 Dwelling Form Number

The number 1 is recorded in the box on the first form, the number 2 in the second, the number 3 in the third form, and so on successively until the eighth form.

Question 3

Recorded in the first form only: total number of persons: 70, Male: 34, Female: 36.

[p. 48]

It should not be forgotten that, in collective dwellings, after the interview is concluded with the ninth person, new census forms are used. On these forms the following should be done:

Only the information from questions 1.1 and 2.1 from the first form is copied [onto subsequent forms].
In question 2.2 (dwelling form number) the number 2 or 3 or . . . . corresponding to the form used, is recorded.
The information for question 3 is recorded in the first form only and the boxes are left blank on the subsequent forms.
The enumerator should skip to Chapter B and the option corresponding to collective dwelling is filled in.
The enumerator should skip to Chapter D and:
The name and surname are recorded and the Person Number on the second form should start with 10, the number on the third form will start with 19 and so on, successively according to the number of persons.
The option corresponding to collective dwelling member is filled in for question 31: what is the relationship to the head of household?
Reminder:

The number of persons who spent the night prior to the census day in each dwelling is requested in order to enumerate all, excluding no one.
A census form is completed in each dwelling. If there are households with more than 9 persons, dwellings with more than one household, or collective dwellings, additional forms are used.
The Enumerator's Control Form (Form - 1) is used before and after each interview.

Chapter B. Dwelling type and occupancy

Question 4. Dwelling type (completed through observation)

Two types of dwellings will be observed as an enumerator: private dwellings and collective dwellings.

What is a private dwelling?

For the census, a private dwelling is meant to be inhabited by one or more households or a group of persons, related or unrelated, who live together as a family .

What is a collective dwelling?

For the census, a collective dwelling is inhabited by a group of persons, usually unrelated, who live together but not as a family.

Collective dwellings are classified by their use as: barracks, jails, hospitals, convents, asylums, shelters, or welfare institutions (asilos), encampments, etc.

[p. 49]

Important:

Other private dwellings, where one or more persons live, may exist within a collective dwelling. For example: a superintendent [superintendents - porteros often have an apartment in the building as part of their pay.] in a hospital, a hotel administrator, the families of officers in military bases, etc.

In this case, one form is used for the private dwelling and other forms are used for the persons living in the collective dwelling.

Reminder: a different number corresponds to each additional form and should be recorded in the dwelling form number box.

Private dwellings are classified, according to their structure, as the following:

[Illustrations of a pahuichi, an apartment building, and a tenement are provided]

House/Rustic Hut or Cabin/Pahuichi

[A Pahuichi is a hybrid construction; between a Spanish (peninsular) rustic cabin and indigenous (Bolivian) architecture]

A construction in which one or more private dwellings can be found and that has direct access from the street or from a common area.

Apartment:

An apartment is a dwelling that is found in a building or house and which generally is equipped with an indoor bathroom and kitchen.

Independent room or quarters:

An independent room is a room that, together with other rooms, forms part of a dwelling and has an exit to one or more common areas (hallways or patios). Bathrooms are generally shared with other persons from other dwellings. Independent rooms are usually found in tenements.

[p. 50]

[Illustrations of an improvised dwelling and a granary (not meant for human habitation) are provided]

Improvised dwelling:

An improvised dwelling is a space in which persons spent the night before the census day modified to function as a dwelling. These usually do not have bathrooms or kitchens. They can be constructed of waste materials such as cardboard, tinplate, boards, etc. Examples include: toldos [indigenous tents/improvised house], chujllas [huts made with branches lashed to a stick frame], anacas [a type of indigenous tent]

Mobile dwelling:

A place of abode made to be transported, such as: boats, railcars, tents, etc.

Building not meant for human habitation:

This includes stables, granaries, factories, garages, warehouses, offices, caves, natural shelters, guard houses, etc., where persons spent the night prior to census day.

Transients and persons who live on the street:

Transients are those who are passing through a place, having another place of usual residence. E.g.: persons who spent the night prior to census day at a market, airport, or tranca [a rest-stop or toll area where traffic on the highway system must stop in order to pay a toll].

Persons living on the street are those who do not have a dwelling; e.g.: beggars, alcoholics, drug addicts, etc.

If any of these cases are encountered, the following instructions should be followed when filling out the census form:

[p. 51]

The information for questions 1.1, 2.2, and 3 is recorded. Boxes for questions 1.2 and 2.1 are left blank. In Chapter B, the oval corresponding to transients and persons who live on the street is filled in. Finally, the enumerator should skip to Chapter D.

Question 5. Dwelling (completed after observation)

Occupied

With inhabitants who are present:

These are dwellings where, at the time of the census, one or more persons are present.

With inhabitants who are absent:

These are dwellings that are normally inhabited but whose inhabitants are not present at the time of the census.

Unoccupied

These dwellings are not inhabited on census day but they can be occupied at any time. Therefore, a dwelling can be considered to be unoccupied when it is:

For rent and/or for sale

Under construction or repair

Used seasonally: These dwellings are only used seasonally, e.g. for vacations, weekends, harvest and/or planting, etc.

Abandoned: These dwellings are deteriorating but are still inhabitable. This excludes dwellings that are in ruins.

[p. 52]

If, after knocking on a door, it is not answered:

Neighbors should be asked if anyone lives there and, if so, the time that they are present should be requested.

If informed that someone inhabits the dwelling, 3 return visits should be made at different times until someone is found or it can be verified that the persons will not return to the dwelling.

If, after finalizing enumeration, the inhabitants are not found, any of the options 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 is filled in for question 5 according to the case. All of the information for Chapters A and B is recorded and the rest of the census form is left blank.

On the Enumerator's Control Form, the information is recorded for the following columns: 1. Block; 2. dwelling address; 3. Dwelling order number; 4. Occupied, unoccupied: the number 2, which corresponds to unoccupied is recorded; and 5. Dwelling form number. After recording this information, the next dwelling is enumerated.

Chapter C. Characteristics of dwellings with inhabitants who are present

Question 6. What is the construction material most used in the walls of this dwelling?

For example:

Mrs. Pérez: My house is made of brick and adobe.

Enumerator: But which of the two is used most?

Mrs. Pérez: Well, the house is mostly made of brick.

The form is filled out in this way:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with appropriate ovals filled in.]

Question 7. Do the interior walls of this dwelling have plaster?

Plaster is understood to be the material with which the interior walls of a dwelling are covered.

If all of the walls are not plastered, the most important consideration in defining the answer is the situation of most of the walls.

[p. 53]

Question 8. What is the most-used material in the roof of this dwelling?

The question is presented and the answer is recorded by filling in the corresponding oval.

Question 9. What is the most-used material in the floors of this dwelling?

The question is presented and the answer is recorded by filling in the corresponding oval.

Question 10. Where is drinking and cooking water principally obtained?

If the answer is that it comes from two sources, the person should be asked to describe the source of water that is used most. The corresponding answer is filled in and the next question is presented.

For example:

Mrs. Cruz: I have tap water but I also have a well in my patio.
Enumerator: But which of the two is used most for drinking and cooking?
Mrs. Cruz: From the tap.
The form is filled out in this way:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with appropriate ovals filled in.]

Question 11. Drinking and cooking water is distributed

This question is presented by reading each one of the options until the question mark is reached. When an answer is obtained, the oval is filled in and the next question is presented.

Below, the meaning of each alternative is found so that the answer can be recorded correctly:

Via plumbing inside the dwelling: The interior of the dwelling has a plumbed water supply that reaches to the kitchen and/or bathroom.

Via plumbing outside of the dwelling, but within the lot or plot of land: The plumbed water supply is not inside the dwelling but does reach within the lot or plot of land.

Not distributed via plumbing.

[p.54]

Question 12. [Does the dwelling] have a bathroom, toilet, or latrine?

A bathroom can be known by different names, such as those presented in the question. It is, therefore, important that all three names be mentioned. If it is known by a different name in the region, this name should also be mentioned.

The answer "no" implies that the persons use public services, outhouses [corrales], or the outdoors for their personal hygiene.

Question 13. The bathroom, toilet or latrine is?

The question should be presented by reading each option slowly and deliberately until reaching the question mark. When an answer is given, the oval is filled in and the next question is presented.

Question 14. The bathroom, toilet, or latrine drains?

The question should be presented by reading each option slowly and deliberately until reaching the question mark. When an answer is given, the oval is filled in and the next question is presented.

Important:
The difference between a septic tank and a pit toilet is that a septic tank is a structure while a pit toilet is a hole in the ground.

Question 15. Does this dwelling use electric energy for lighting?

One of the ovals is filled in and the next question is presented.

Question 16. What type of fuel or energy is principally used for cooking?

For example:

Mr. Villa: Gas and electricity are used for cooking in this house.
Enumerator: Which of the two is used most?
Mr. Villa: Gas, because it is more economical.
The form is filled out in this way:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with appropriate ovals filled in.]

[p. 55]

Important:
The option "does not use" means that the persons comprising this household do not cook their food in this dwelling.

Question 17. Does this dwelling have a room dedicated to cooking?

For example:

Elena: I live with my husband and my children in one room, we sleep here and my kitchen is in that corner.

The form is filled out in this way:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with appropriate ovals filled in.]

Question 18. How many rooms are occupied by this household, not counting bathrooms and kitchen?

The oval corresponding to the number of rooms that are used as bedrooms, living rooms, dining rooms, offices, etc. is marked. Bathrooms and kitchens are not counted.

Question 19. How many of these rooms are used for sleeping?

The oval corresponding to the number of rooms used only for sleeping by the household is filled in.

Question 20. Do you have?

[Appliances]
This is a question with multiple options in which one or more rectangles can be marked. The options are read one by one and the rectangles are filled in according to the answers received.

There are only two questions with multiple option answers: 20 and 32. They are marked by a double line in the box and the options have rectangles.

For example:

Mr. Flores claims that his household owns a radio, a television, a bicycle, an automobile, and a telephone.

The form is filled out in this way:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with appropriate ovals filled in.]

[p. 56]

Important:
If the devices are out-of-order because they are being repaired or for other reasons, they are still counted because it is understood that the household has them.

Question 21. The dwelling that you occupy is?

[Tenure]

The question should be presented by reading each option slowly and deliberately until reaching the question mark. When an answer is given, the oval is filled in and the next question is presented.

The meanings of some of the options are given below:

Mixed contract: A contract that combines the characteristics of a rental contract and a loan-backed habitation contract ( anticrético) [An anticrético is a contract to rent property whereby the renter pays the landlord a fixed sum at the start of the rental period in lieu of paying monthly rent].

Ceded for services: The dwelling is occupied in exchange for a service rendered to the owner or the dwelling, for example: a superintendent (portero) [porteros often have an apartment in the building as part of their pay.], administrator, superintendent, professor, etc.

Borrowed from relatives or friends: When the dwelling has been temporarily borrowed from relatives or friends.

Question 22. In this household, how many persons are [disabled]?

[Disabilities]

Each one of the alternatives is read and the corresponding oval is filled in. If no person in the household corresponds to these situations, the "none" oval is filled in for each alternative. The ovals should not be left blank because, if they are, it will be interpreted to mean that the question had not been presented.

For example:

Mrs. Martínez: The only one would be my oldest son who does not see very well. This is why we bought glasses for him. Nobody is deaf/mute or paralyzed.

Because the son is not completely blind, the form is filled out in this way:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with appropriate ovals filled in.]

Important:
A person is considered to be blind if they cannot see anything. Someone who is deaf/mute cannot hear or speak at all.

[p. 57]

Question 23. During the year 2000, did any person who lived with you pass away?

If the answer is "yes", the corresponding oval is filled in and question 24 is presented.
If the answer is "no", the corresponding oval is filled in and the enumerator will skip to Chapter D.

Question 24. Was this person a woman, 15 years of age or older?

If the answer is "yes", the corresponding oval is filled in and question 25 is presented.
If the answer is "no", the corresponding oval is filled in and the enumerator will skip to Chapter D.

Question 25. Her death happened?

The question should be presented by reading each option slowly and deliberately until reaching the question mark. When an answer is given, the oval is filled in and the next question is presented.

For example:

Doña Elvira says that when her daughter, 20 years old, started having contractions, she called the midwife to assist her but there were complications with the delivery and the girl passed away.

The form is filled out in this way:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with appropriate ovals filled in.]

For example:

Don Pedro says that his daughter, Dionisia, age 16, had to return to work in the fields two weeks after giving birth because it was the harvest season. This effort caused a severe hemorrhage and she passed away a few days later.

The form is filled out in this way:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with appropriate ovals filled in.]

[p. 58]

Question 26. How old was she when she passed away?

The number corresponding to the age, as indicated by the informant, is recorded in the boxes.

Reminder:
A number is written in each box, following the example given in the upper part of the census form.
Chapter D. For all persons

From this question [question 27] onwards, each person who spent the night prior to the census day in this dwelling should be interviewed individually. The presence of all persons, including children, should be requested.

If the person is younger than 7 years of age or if he cannot make himself understood, his presence should be requested but the information should be provided by the father, mother, or another adult. This person should be present for the duration of the interview.

Name And Surname

Ask each person, including children, newborns, elderly persons, household employees, their families, etc. who spent the night before the census day in the dwelling is interviewed; their names and surnames are recorded. In the case of children and newborns that do not yet have a name, the letters "NN" are recorded.

It is very important that the order of the interviews be the following:

First: The first sheet should contain the information of the: Head of household

Second: Wife or partner

Third: The children, in order of age (oldest to youngest)

Fourth: Other household members

The following specifies who should be enumerated and who should not be enumerated:

Enumerate:

Those persons who spent the night prior to the census day
Those persons who were born before 0 hours [12 midnight] on the census day and are in the dwelling.
Those persons who died after 0 hours [12 midnight] on the census day.

Do not enumerate:

Those persons who did not spend the night prior to the census day; they will be enumerated in the dwelling where they spent the night before the census day.
Those persons who were born after 0 hours [12 midnight] the census day and are in the dwelling.
Those persons who died before 0 hours [12 midnight] the census day.

[p. 59]

Question 27. Person number

After the person's name is recorded, the number that corresponds, correlatively, to the order in which the person was interviewed is recorded.

Question 28. Male or female

The corresponding oval is filled in.

Question 29. What is your age in completed years?

The age should be recorded in years completed up to 0 hours [12 midnight] of the census day. If the person's birthday is the same day as the census, the age should be calculated to the day prior to the census.

For example:

Juan says that on the census day he turned 16.

15 years is recorded in this way:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with the age 15 being recorded in the boxes.]

If the person only remembers the year of birth, help the person by making the respective calculation. For example: Virginia says that she was born in 1932. Subtract:

2001 - 1932 = 69 . . . Therefore, she is 69 years old.

For those younger than one year of age, the number 0 is recorded in the boxes. The number 98 is recorded for those who are 98 years of age or older.

Question 30. Is your birth recorded in the national register?

The corresponding oval is filled in.

[p. 60]

Question 31. What is your relationship to the head of household? (for collective dwellings, the oval "Member of a collective dwelling" is filled in)

For example:

Mrs. María says that she is the mother of the head of household.

The form is filled out in this way:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with appropriate ovals filled in.]

If a private dwelling:

The presence of the head of household is requested and the corresponding oval filled in. The interview should begin with this person.

The same procedure should be followed for the rest of the household members.

If a collective dwelling:

The oval corresponding to "Member of a collective dwelling" is filled in and the interview should begin with the first person from the first page of Chapter D.

The same procedure should be followed for the rest of the household members.

Important:
The head of household is the person recognized as such by the other household members, irrespective of age or gender.

Question 32. What languages do you speak? (if this applies, more than one alternative is filled in)

There are only two questions with multiple option answers: 20 and 32. They are marked by a double line in the box and the options have rectangles.

[p. 61]

For example:

Juan speaks Spanish and an indigenous language: Chiquitano.

The form is filled out in this way:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with the rectangles corresponding to 3 (Spanish) and "Other indigenous" filled in with the word "Chiquitano" written in the boxes provided.]

Question 33. Where do you normally live?

1. The place of residence is whatever the person considers it to be. If the person normally lives in the place where the enumeration is taking place, the oval "here" is filled in and the enumerator will proceed with question 34.

2. If the person normally lives in "Another place in the country"; first, the corresponding oval is filled in and then the name of the "City or Locality", "Municipality (Section of the Province)", and "Province" is recorded in the boxes provided. The oval corresponding to the "Department" [State] is filled in and the enumerator will proceed with question 34.

3. If the person normally lives "abroad", the corresponding oval is filled in and the "name of the country" is recorded. The enumerator will proceed with question 34.

For example:

Mario is doing business in La Paz, was born in Cochabamba, and declares that his place of normal residence is Santa Cruz de la Sierra.

The form is filled out in this way:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with the above information filled in.]

Question 34. Where were you born?

For example:

Pedro is a priest who lives in Sucre. He was born in Argentina and arrived in Bolivia in 1987.

The form is filled out in this way:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with the above information filled in.]

[p. 62]

1. If the person was born in the place where the enumeration is taking place, the oval, "Here" is filled in and the enumerator will proceed to Chapter E.

2. If the person was born "In another place in the country", the same procedure as in question 33 is followed.

3. If the person was born "Abroad", the corresponding oval is filled in, the "Name of the country" is recorded, and the enumerator will proceed to Chapter E.

Chapter E. Only for persons 4 years of age and older

If the person is 4 years of age or older, the enumerator will proceed with question 35. If younger, the interview is ended and the next person is interviewed.

Question 35. What language did you learn to speak as a child?

This question's answer is limited to one option; therefore, only one oval is filled in depending on the answer given.

If the person is a small child who does not speak or has a speech impairment, the rectangle "Does not speak" is filled in.

Question 36. Do you know how to read and write?

[Literacy]

If the interviewed person claims to only know how to sign his name and cannot read or write a basic letter, the oval corresponding to "no" is filled in.

Question 37. Are you currently attending school?

If the answer is negative, the "Does not attend" oval is filled in and the enumerator will proceed to question 39.

If the answer is affirmative, the person should be asked whether they attend a public or private institution and the corresponding oval is filled in.

Question 38. What [educational] level are you currently studying?

Reminder: The terms used are: Previous System (basic, intermediate, and middle), which was in place from 1971 and 1993; the Current System (Primary and secondary) which has been in place since 1994. This will allow the enumerator to specify the answer irrespective of the way it is given.
Question 39. What was the highest [educational] level or class completed?

The levels or cycles are slowly and deliberately read and the corresponding oval is filled in as soon as an answer is obtained. The last class or grade completed is then requested and the corresponding oval is filled in.

Reminder: Two ovals in the same row should be filled in for this question: one for level or cycle and one for grade or class.

If the person's answer is from 11 to 17, question 41 is presented.

If the answer is from 18 to 23, the corresponding ovals are filled in and question 40 is presented.

The following is a guide for identifying the levels and classes in Bolivia's different educational systems:

Old (1950 to 1970)

1st Primary
2nd Primary
3rd Primary
4th Primary
5th Primary
6th Primary
1st Secondary
2nd Secondary
3rd Secondary
4th Secondary
5th Secondary
6th Secondary

Previous (1971 to 1993)

1st Basic
2nd Basic
3rd Basic
4th Basic
5th Basic
1st Intermediate
2nd Intermediate
3rd Intermediate
1st Middle
2nd Middle
3rd Middle
4th Middle

Current (as of 1994)

1st Primary
2nd Primary
3rd Primary
4th Primary
5th Primary
6th Primary
7th Primary
8th Primary
1st Secondary
2nd Secondary
3rd Secondary
4th Secondary

Class

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
Important:
If the answer is from the old system, the table should be consulted and the conversion to the current system made and the respective ovals are filled in.

[p. 64]

The following are examples:

Don Aurelio says that the highest grade that he completed was 6th of secondary in the old system.

The conversion is made to the current system and the form is filled in as follows:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with appropriate ovals filled in.]

Carola says that she is not currently studying but the highest grade that she completed was 3rd of middle.

The form is filled in as follows:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with appropriate ovals filled in.]

Cristian says that he is currently in 8th in primary, therefore the highest grade completed was 7th in primary.

The form is filled in as follows:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with appropriate ovals filled in.]

Dionisio says that he is currently in the second year of the Sergeant's Military School of "Maximiliano Paredes"; therefore, the highest class completed was the first year.

The form is filled in as follows:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with appropriate ovals filled in.]

[p. 65]

Question 40. To be admitted to this level, what was the educational level and grade completed?

This question is designed to investigate the educational level or cycle attended and the grade or class completed before entering the educational levels declared in question 39.

The criteria and recording procedures are the same as in question 39.

For example:

Dionisio says that to enter the Sergeant's Military School of "Maximiliano Paredes", he completed the fourth grade of secondary.

The form is filled out as follows:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with appropriate ovals filled in.]

Question 41. Where did you live 5 years ago (1996)?

1. If the person lived in the place where the enumeration is taking place, the oval, "Here" is filled in and the enumerator will proceed to Chapter F.

2. If the person lived in "Another place in the country"; first, the corresponding oval is filled in and then the name of the "City or Locality and "Province" is recorded in the boxes provided and the oval corresponding to the "Department" [State] is filled in.

3. If the person lived "Abroad", the corresponding oval is filled in, the "Name of the country" is recorded, and the enumerator will proceed to Chapter F.

4. If the person is younger than 5 years of age, the oval corresponding to "Had not been born" is filled in and the enumerator will proceed to Chapter F.

Chapter F. Only for persons 7 years of age and older

If the person is 7 year of age or older, question 42 is presented. If younger than 7 years of age, the interview is ended and the next person is interviewed.

Question 42. During the last week, did you work?

If the answer is "yes", the oval is filled in and the enumerator will skip to question 45.

[p. 66]

The following information will allow the enumerator to differentiate between what is considered to be work and the activities not considered to be work.

What is work?

  • Work is the activity completed during the last week in the production or commercialization of goods and/or the providing of services that have an economic value in the market.
  • A remuneration or income in money or in-kind is received in exchange for this work.
  • A person is considered to have worked if at least one hour of work was completed during the last week.

Some examples of work.

  • The activities carried out in an institution, company, or public or private office.
  • The sale of articles in the street; either in a stand or as a mobile peddler.
  • The lending of services to other persons, e.g. as a domestic worker, caring for children, cooking, cleaning, etc.
  • Activities carried out in family businesses as helpers or apprentices without pay.

What activities are not considered to be work?

  • Household duties in the home, carried out by household members; with or without remuneration.
  • Un-paid volunteer work for the community.

Question 43. During the last week...

The question should be presented by reading each option slowly and deliberately until reaching the question mark. When an answer is given, the oval is filled in and the next question is presented.

If the answer is one of the options 1 to 4, the enumerator will skip to question 45.

For example:

Juana says that she helps her mother in the food stand.

The form is filled out as follows:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with appropriate ovals filled in.]

[p. 67]

If the person "did not work", the enumerator will proceed to question 44.

For example:

Juan, 19 years old, says that he studies to be an agricultural specialist and that he does not work.

The form is filled out as follows:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with appropriate ovals filled in.]

There are activities carried out by women and children that are only considered to be collaboration or help but [these activities] are actually work. Because of this, it is important that all of the alternatives for this question be read.

Question 44. During the last week...

The question should be presented by reading each option slowly and deliberately until reaching the question mark. When an answer is given, the oval is filled in and the next question is presented.

The reason for not working during the last week is investigated with this question.

The following clarifications will serve as a reference:

Did you look for work having worked previously?

Did you look for work for the first time?

Are you a student?

Did you carry out household duties? When the person carried out duties pertaining to the home, without participating in any economic activity.

This alternative does not include household employees.

Are you retired, a pensioner, or a rentier? For example: a retired teacher, benemérito [military veteran], a person who receives an income from renting out an apartment, etc.

Other: Any other reason for not working during the reference week that is not mentioned in the previous options; for example: disabled persons, elderly persons, etc.

If any of these options are filled in, the enumerator will skip to Chapter G.
[p. 68]
Question 45. During the last week, what was your principal occupation?

This question is an open question in which the principal occupation is written in the boxes with the most detail possible.

For example:

Small barley farmer.

If the person has two occupations to which the same amount of working time is dedicated, the occupation that the interviewed person considers to be principal is recorded. The most important characteristic is that the person recognizes it as his principal occupation.

The following is a list of some occupations in [Bolivia] and the correct manner to record them:

[The chart of occupations is not translated into English.]
[p. 69]

Question 46. What was your employment status in this occupation?

[Employment status]

The question should be presented by reading each option slowly and deliberately until reaching the question mark. When an answer is given, the oval is filled in and the next question is presented.

The following clarifications should be considered:

Worker or employee? This is a salaried person who works for a company, institution, business, or household, This person depends on an employer or boss and receives remuneration in money or in-kind for the work completed.

Own-account worker? This is a person who has his own company or business, has no remunerated employees and does not depend on an employer. This person sells and/or produces goods or services with the help of family workers or apprentices or without help. For example: fabric cutter, carpenter, peddler, plumber, etc.

Owner, partner, or employer? This is the owner and/or partner of a company or business of goods and/or services that, necessarily, contracts one or more paid workers; either permanently or temporarily. For example: Owners of factories, medium-sized to large workshops, construction contractors, and others.

Member of a production cooperative? This person is a partner who actively works in a cooperative enterprise. For example: cooperative miners, cooperative gold-miners, cooperative telephone workers, etc.

Family worker or un-paid apprentice? This is a person who carries out an activity without receiving payment in money or in-kind; may or may not be a relative of the owner of the workplace. For example: mechanical workshop worker, children of owners of retail sales stores, family members of rural farmers.

Question 47. What does the establishment where you worked produce or sell? Or, to what did it dedicate itself?

[industry]

This is a question with an open answer in which the interviewed person should be asked about the activity in which the establishment, company, institution, or place of work participates. The good produced or sold or the service provided is indicated.

[p. 70]

For example:

Retail sales in a neighborhood store.

The form is filled out as follows:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with the description of the industry written in the boxes.]

Some examples of industries and their correct annotation in the census form:

[The chart of industries is omitted.]

Chapter G. Only for those 15 years of age and older

If the person is 15 years of age or older, question 48 is presented. If younger, the interview is ended and the next person is interviewed.
[p.71]
Question 48. What is your current marital status?

The question is presented to the person and the corresponding oval is filled in.

Question 49. Do you consider yourself to have come from any of the following original or indigenous tribes [pueblos]?

The question should be presented by reading each option slowly and deliberately until reaching the question mark. When an answer is given, the oval is filled in and the next question is presented.

This question has a combination answer where there are ovals to fill in and boxes to write in.

In the case where the person claims to be from another original or indigenous tribe [pueblo] that has not been described in the previous options, option 6 is filled in and the name of the tribe [pueblo] is written in the boxes.

For example:

Tomasa claims to come from the Chipaya tribe [pueblo].

The form is filled out as follows:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with oval 6 filled in and the name of the indigenous tribe [pueblo] written in the boxes.]

If the person does not claim to come from any indigenous tribe [pueblo], the "None" oval is filled in and Chapter H is presented.

Chapter H. Only for women 15 years of age or older

If the person is a woman who is 15 years of age or older, question 50 is presented; if not, the interview is ended and the next person is interviewed.
[p. 72]

Question 50. In total, how many children born alive have you had, including those who have passed away and those who are absent?

A child born alive is every boy or girl who shows any sign of life at birth, e.g. breathing, crying, or moving. If the child later passed away, he or she is still considered to be a child born alive.

If fewer than 10, the number is recorded in the box, leaving the first box empty.

If the answer is that she has had no children born alive, the number "0" is recorded in the box and the interview is ended with this person.

Question 51. Of your children born alive, how many are presently alive?

The number of children alive at the time of the census is recorded, including those who do not live in the household. The instructions from question 50 apply.

Question 52. Of your children born alive, how many have passed away?

The number of children who have passed away is recorded in the corresponding boxes. The instructions from question 50 apply.

Question 53. What was the month and year of birth of your last child born alive?

The question is presented and the month and year of birth of the last child born alive are recorded, irrespective of whether the child is alive or not at the time of the census.

For example:

Elena says that her last daughter was born the 16th of September of 2000.

The form is filled out as follows:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of the census form with month and year of birth written in the boxes.]

Question 54. Where did this last birth take place?

In a health care establishment: A private or public hospital, a rural medical clinic, a clinic, a medical office, etc.

In a domicile: In her home, in any type of private domicile, e.g. relative's house, midwife's house, etc.

In another place: Any other place not mentioned above.
[p. 73]


Question 55. Who assisted in the birth?

The question is presented and the answer is recorded by filling in the corresponding oval.

The interview is completed here with this person. The rest of the persons in the dwelling are then interviewed. In the case that there are more than 9 persons, another form is used and the instructions given previously are followed.

4. Summary of the steps taken and the instruments used in completing the interviews :

Certain steps need to be completed in order to complete the interviews. The enumerator needs to know what instruments to use and when to use them. The following is a summary of these steps and instruments:

Before the interviews:

First step: The information from the title page of the envelope is copied into Chapter A: Census Form Identification.

Second step:Complete the street/road/highway, dwelling number, floor and apartment number information.

Third step: The same information from "census form identification" is copied onto the upper part of the Enumerator's Control Form (Form - 1) only once because this information corresponds to the entire segment.

Fourth step: Question 2.1: "Dwelling order number" is filled in according to the corresponding number. The numbers of each dwelling should be recorded correlatively.

Fifth step: The information is filled in for columns: 1. Block, 2. Dwelling address, and 3. Dwelling order number in the Enumerator's Control Form (Form - 1).

At the beginning of the interviews:

First step: For question 2.2 "Dwelling Form Number", an annotation is made according to the number of persons living in the dwelling. If more than 9, additional forms are used and the numbers 2, 3, etc. are written in the respective boxes.

Second step: Question 3 is presented: "how many persons slept in this dwelling the night before the census day, including newborns?". The corresponding information is recorded.

[p. 74]

Third step: The enumerator will skip to Chapter B: Dwelling type and occupancy and the necessary information is filled in through observation only. The informants should not be questioned.

Fourth step: The enumerator will skip to question 5: Dwelling. If the answer corresponds to: occupied with inhabitants who are present, the census form is filled out and the persons are interviewed.

Fifth step: In column 4 of the Enumerator's Control Form the number 1 is recorded if the dwelling is occupied or the number 2 is recorded if the dwelling is unoccupied.

If it is verified that the answer is either occupied with inhabitants who are absent or unoccupied (for rent and/or sale, under construction or repair, used seasonally, or abandoned), the enumerator will skip to the next dwelling after confirming, with the neighbors, that there are no occupants.

Sixth step: After filling out all of the information in the Census Form, the population information from question 3 is copied into the Enumerator's Control Form (Form - 1).

After finishing all interviews in the area:

First step: It should be verified that all of the required information is correctly recorded in the Census Form and if there is any information missing, the informants should be consulted and the missing information completed.

Second step: The number of the last dwelling is recorded in the column Dwelling Order Number in the Enumerator's Control Form (Form - 1) and the numbers from the Population column are totaled: total persons, Men and Women.

Third step: The totals recorded in the Enumerator's Control Form (Form - 1) are copied into the corresponding columns of the Enumerator's Preliminary Inventory Form (Form - 2).

Fourth step: All materials are put into order and placed into the plastic envelope and turned into the Area Supervisor.

5. Special cases of enumeration

1. Persons living on the street: Those persons with no dwelling (transients) and who sleep in plazas, streets, parks, etc. will be enumerated in the census area to which the plaza, park, or place is found.

2. Persons located in truck stops and in markets: These persons will be enumerated by special teams or by the enumerator assigned to the area, e.g.: truck drivers, merchants, etc.

[p. 75]

3. Passengers or travelers in transit (international flights): Passengers in transit to other countries who spent the night prior to the census day in the country [Bolivia], and who were not enumerated in their hotels where they spent the night, will be enumerated by a special team of enumerators.

Those persons who arrived in the country [Bolivia] after zero hours [12 midnight] of the census day should not be enumerated.

4. On duty personnnel (Personnel de turno) [usually a graveyard shift] in hospitals, factories, institutions, or other: On duty personnel who spent the night prior to the census day in their place of work and who continue on duty, will be enumerated in their place of work.

On duty personnel who return home very early will be enumerated in their home.

On duty personnel who slept in their dwelling and [left] very early to go to work should be enumerated in their respective homes.

Military and Law Enforcement personnel who were on duty the night prior to the census day and who continue to be on duty in public places will be enumerated in their units before leaving in order to fulfill their service.

5. Enumerators and Area Supervisors: The Census Form should be left in their dwelling and completely filled out, complete with the information of the members of the household to which they belong.

6. Embassies and Consulates: Ambassadors and consuls, as well as the foreign personnel depending directly on the embassies or consulates, are not enumerated.

Honorary consuls and resident service personnel in the embassy, consulate, or residence, should be enumerated.