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Enumerator's Manual, National Population and Housing Census 1992, Republic of Bolivia

[There are two different manuals in Spanish, one for rural and one for urban areas. Since the two documents are very similar except for a couple of comments, they are integrated into one instruction manual and the differences are indicated in square-brackets. The page numbers in this document correspond to those of the scanned Spanish Urban Manual.]

[Pages 1-4 are not translated into English.]

[p. 5]

II. Basic concepts

This part is meant for explaining the concepts and basic definitions that the enumerator will use in carrying out their job.

The units of investigation in the Census are the dwellings and the people. In the following, the definition of a dwelling for purposes of the Census will be given.

In some questions, the concept of Household is used. For this Census the household is the group of people, related or otherwise, who occupy the dwelling.

1. Dwelling

Dwelling is any physical place, constructed or adapted for housing people. The following are dwellings: a house, an apartment, a single room, a rustic cabin, a chujlla [hut made with branches lashed to a stick frame], a pahuichi [shack made of wood and branches, cane, or straw], barracks, a military base, a hospital, etc.

Also considered a dwelling is any type of provisional construction, like caves, tents, etc., if they are inhabited at the time of the census.

[p. 6]

Dwelling is a place that accommodates a collective household, that is, a group of people who share the dwelling in a non-familial system, for reasons of work, health, discipline, religion, punishment, etc. For example: convents, jails, barracks, hospitals, military base, etc.

[Pages 7-13 are not translated into English.]

[p. 14]

III. Control sheet, enumerator's preliminary count, and the census form

[Pages 15-19 are not translated into English.]

[p. 20]

II. Housing

Question 1. Type of dwelling

Dwellings have been classified as private and collective, based on the system in which the occupants live. Let's remember that if there is a family system, it is a private dwelling. On the other hand, if the occupants live together for non-family reasons, that is: work, study, imprisonment, health, etc., this is a collective dwelling.

Private dwelling

1. Independent house. Is a building which is accessed directly from the outside by one or various entrances.

[p. 21]

2. Apartment. Is a dwelling located inside a building, together with others of the same type, which is accessed from common use areas, hallways, corridors, etc.

In general, there is a water supply and toilet facilities for the private use of the household.

3. Single room(s) in a tenement house, apartment, or independent house. Is part of a house, apartment, or tenement house, occupied by a household; generally with a water supply and toilet facilities shared between various households.

The primary dwelling, frequently occupied by the owner of the house or apartment, should not be included in this category. This dwelling should be considered as an independent house or apartment, as appropriate.

[p. 22]

4. Rustic Cabin, hut (pahuichi). Rustically-constructed buildings made from materials of local origin, for example: walls made of mud, cane; roof made of straw, palms; with the floor generally being made of dirt.

5. Premises not constructed as a dwelling. Counted in this group are sheds, garages, barns, etc., that are inhabited at the time of the Census.

[p. 23]

6. Improvised Dwelling. Is any shelter or unstable construction that serves as a place of habitation for a household at the time of the Census, possibly being made out of waste or discarded materials; included in this group are canvasses, tents, railroad cars, etc. In this case, specify appropriately.

1.2. Collective dwelling

1. Hotel, Boarding House, or Lodging. Is any building used as a temporary accommodation for people. Included in this category will be those family houses that have six or more boarders, on the day of the Census.

2. Barracks, Military or Police Establishment. Corresponds to military and police premises in which people under an established disciplinary system reside.

3. Hospital, Clinic, or Nursing Home. Corresponds to those establishments that house people for health reasons.

4. Jail or Correctional Establishment. Corresponds to those establishments where people under a system of imprisonment live.

5. Convent or boarding school. Dwelling that houses religious communities or people accommodated for reasons of study.

6. Other. Those collective households not included in the previous categories should be recorded. For example, barracks. In this case, specify adequately.

[p. 24]

Note. If the dwelling is collective, after recording the type of dwelling, continue directly on to the questions on population in Chapter III, since the other dwelling data are requested only for private dwellings.

Question 2. Occupancy condition.

This question permits the classification of dwellings as occupied and unoccupied. If they are found occupied, one has two choices, which are:

With occupants present. If, at the time of the Census, one or more people are in the dwelling.

With occupants absent. If you observe that the dwelling is inhabited, but that its occupants are not present. In this case, you will verify the pertinent information to find out the time that you should return, leaving the interview pending and making a note under Observations on the "Enumerator's Control Sheet" (CPV 2).

Only when you have exhausted the possibilities for finding the occupants in the home (because of travel, etc.) will you mark code 2 [With Occupants Absent] and continue your route. It is the responsibility of the Enumerator to return up to three times if there is uncertainty.

When it is found unoccupied we have the following alternatives:

For rent, sale, etc. In the case of finding uninhabited dwellings, that are for rent or sale.

Construction or repair being finished. If you observe that it is still not in a condition to be inhabited, but that its occupation is imminent (roofs and openings for doors and windows finished).

[p. 25]

Abandoned. If, at the time of the Census, the building is not inhabited, being in the process of deterioration though maintaining conditions of habitability. Don't include abandoned dwellings that are in ruins.

Predominant materials in the dwelling

The next three questions refer to three parts of the dwelling: the walls, roof, and floors.

In each case, mark the appropriate code for the predominant material in the dwelling.

Question 3. Walls

1. Plastered adobe. When the predominant material in the walls is adobe and, furthermore, it is covered with another material that protects it.

2. Unplastered adobe or mud-wall. Dwellings with walls of uncovered adobe are included in this category.

3. Brick, blocks of cement, concrete, etc.When walls made of these materials are covered or uncovered.

4. Stone. In this category we take into account walls that are made of stones.

5. Wood.Included in this category are planks and boards. If the wood is only used as a covering for the wall, don't take it into account. Rather, instead record the material out of which the wall is actually made.

6. Cane, palm leaves, tree trunks.Whether they are covered or not.

7. Other. Those things not included in the previous categories, such as cardboard, tin, waste or other materials, in which case you should specify.

[p. 26]

Question 4. Roof

1. Corrugated iron or sheets [of metal].When the majority of the roof is made of corrugated or flat metallic sheets.

2. Tiles (cement, clay, fibro-cement, etc.).Covering of flat or wavy plates made of cement, clay, or some similar material.

3. Reinforced concrete slab. When the building covering is made of cement and iron, generally in the form of a horizontal, inclined, or terraced sheet and which integrates the structure of the building.

4. Straw, cane, or palm leaves.Roof made with this type of vegetation. It is usually found in rural areas.

5. Others. Roof made with planks, boards, waste materials or other things. In this case, specify.

Question 5. Floors

1. Wood Be it in the form of parquet, planks (machimbre), or some other similar type.

2. Mosaic or floor tiles

3. Brick

4. Cement

5. Dirt

6. Others For example: cane, stone, etc. In this case, specify.

Availability of utilities

Question 6. Water supply system for drinking and cooking

1. Through pipes within the dwelling. When the water service is available within the dwelling by means of piping.

[p. 27]

2. Through pipes outside of the dwelling but within the building, lot, or grounds. When the water service facilities are located outside the dwelling, ,but within the limits of the lot or grounds where the dwelling is.

3. Through pipes outside of the lot or grounds. If the household provides itself with water from facilities watering place for farm animals, public fountains located in streets, paths, plazas, or other buildings.

4. Doesn't receive piped water. When the household doesn't have this service.

Question 7. Source of water (for drinking and cooking).

1. Public or Private System. If the water service comes from the public supply, or from a private distribution network.

2. Well or water wheel

3. River, lake, spring, or irrigation ditch

4. Delivery truck

5. Other. For example: tanks, small ponds, rainwater, etc. In this case, you should specify.

Toilet facilities

Question 8. Does it have a toilet, water closet, latrine, or lavatory?

1. Does have: with instantaneous flushing of the water. By using a button, chain, etc.

2. Does have: without flush. This is the case with latrines or lavatories or so-called pit toilets in which there is not instant flushing of water available. This box will also be marked if a water closet is available, but it is not supplied with water by pipes.

[p. 28]

3. Doesn't have. That is, the people in the household make use of public toilet facilities, yards, or the open air. In this case, continue on to question 9.

Only for those households that have toilet services.

If they have such services, the following should be asked:

8.1 If it is for the private use of the household occupants or if they share with other households, mark the appropriate box.

8.2 It will also be necessary to ask about the runoff of toilet services. Mark whether it is through:

1. Public sewer. When the elimination is carried out through an exterior piping system, commonly known as canalization or sewer.

2. Septic chamber. This is a waterproofed reservoir for waste waters, generally made out of reinforced cement.

3. Others. When these waters go to a pit toilet, hole in the ground, to the surface, etc.

Question 9. Does it have electric energy?

You will ask if the household has electric energy or not, and mark the appropriate box.

Note. If the dwelling only has the facilities already enumerated, pipes for supplying water, pipes for sewage, toilet facilities, and an electrical system, but they don't work, the dwelling is considered not to have them. For example, if the dwelling has pipes, but not water; if it has electric facilities but no energy, etc.

[p. 29]

Number of rooms or bedrooms

Room or bedroom is any environment that has the capacity to hold a bed or cot for an adult, even if it is used for other purposes.

Question 10. How many rooms or bedrooms does your household occupy?

Don't include in the Number of Rooms the kitchen, the bathroom, the laundry room, vestibules, hallways, or storage areas.

Question 11. Of these, how many do you use for sleeping?

Of the total number of rooms reported in the previous question, you will record those that are used for sleeping, even if they also serve other purposes.

Question 12. Does it have a special room for the kitchen?

When the dwelling has a separate area for the preparation of food and sanitizing of kitchen utensils, you should mark the corresponding box.

Question 13. Principal fuel used for cooking

Stress that what is wanted is the principal fuel that the household usually uses to cook. Only one of the fuels mentioned should be marked.

1. Firewood Split firewood, trunks, Thola bushes, Yareta (cushion plant)

2. Guano, dung, or manure Dry excrement from llamas, sheep, goats, cows, etc.

3. Coal

4. Kerosene

5. Liquid gas in a cylinder

6. Electricity

7. Doesn't cook When the household for reasons of work or other causes, doesn't prepare food in their dwelling.

[p. 30]

8. Other Those not included in the previous categories, and which should be specified.

Question 14. Ownership of the dwelling

With this question you will discover the form of ownership of the dwelling that the household occupies and you will mark one of the following choices, taking into account the following concepts.

1. Owned. If it belongs to the people who occupy it. It is also considered owned if it is in the process of being paid for.

2. Rented. When the occupant pays the owner of the house a certain amount of money every fifteen days, month, three months, in exchange for occupying the dwelling.

3. Loan-backed habitation contract. If the person inhabits the dwelling with debits made against an amount of money given to the owner as a loan (money without interest in return for a dwelling without rent).

4. Mixed contract. Combines the characteristics of loan-backed habitation and renting. In other words, the occupant, in addition to having loaned a certain sum of money to the owner (antichresis), periodically pays another sum as rent.

5. Use allowed in exchange for services. When the dwelling is occupied in exchange for some service that is performed for the owner.

6. Use allowed because of family relationship. When the dwelling has been given by a relative of the members of the household.

7. Other. If the dwelling is inhabited under circumstances other than the previous. In this case, specify.

[p. 31]

Household health care

Question 15. How many people in this household, including children and newborns, take care of their health at:

You should record the number of people in the household that take care of their health at the following:

Ministry of Health offices. When the medical attention is dependent on this Ministry, for example: General Hospitals, Medical Stations, Public Health Stations or others.

Offices of non-government organizations or the church. When one resorts to organizations that don't depend on the government or to health services that the Church provides.

Social security funds. If medical attention depends on insurance, for which the insured or the employer pays a monthly premium.

Private services. When one resorts to private services or to private institutions, paying the corresponding charges.

Pharmacies. When one goes to the pharmacist to take care of their health problems.

Jampiri, (medicine man) Yatiri (a special traditional healer), Folk Healer, Kallawaya (herbalist healer), Naturopath. When the person resorts to traditional medicine to take care of their health.

Other. In this case, specify.

Don't take care of their health. This possibility will be recorded in the case that the person has had no health care.

Note: If some person is seen by more than one service, record the service that they use more frequently when they get sick.

The Total Number of People recorded here should coincide with the Total Number of Persons in the Household.

[p. 32]


Question 16. How many people in this household:

The number of people belonging to the household will be recorded according to their religion, according to the following classification:

Don't belong to any religion? Record the number of people that don't have any religion.

Are Catholics? Record the number of people who belong to the Catholic religion.

Are Evangelicals? The number of people enumerated who belong to some evangelical religion.

Have other religions? Taken into account are the religions that have not been previously mentioned. In this case, it is necessary to specify the reported religion.

Note: Here, too, you will verify that the Total Number of Persons recorded coincides with the Total Number of Persons in the Household.


Question 17. Last year (January - December 1991), did anyone who was living in this household die, including children and newborns?

You should emphasize that only the passing of people, relatives or otherwise, who were usually living in the dwelling should be taken into account. The passing can have occurred in the home or outside of it, for example in a hospital or other assistance establishment, etc.

If they report No, continue on to question 18, without asking the next two questions.

17.1 How many were men, and at what age did they pass away?

You should record the number of men in the household who died, recording their age when they passed away, clarifying that [p. 33] this concerns deaths that may have occurred from January to December of 1991.

17.2 How many were women and at what age did they pass away?

You should record the number of women in the household who died, recording their age upon passing away, clarifying that this concerns deaths that may have occurred from January to December of 1991.

Note: Ages will be recorded in increasing order, that is, beginning with the youngest person. If there are more than four deaths, complete the information in Observations.

If the deceased was younger than one year of age, record 00, if they were 98 or older, record 98.

Population summary

Question 18. How many people--including children and newborns--spent the night prior to the day of the census in this household?

You should obtain the information on the number of people who spent the night in the dwelling that is being enumerated, without omitting children or the elderly, differentiating by sex.

This information, after carrying out the interview and doing the corresponding check, should be transferred to the column Summary of People in the Household on the "Enumerator's Control Sheet" (CPV 2).

In the case of Collective Dwellings, Jails, Hospitals, etc. the question would not be appropriate, although you should record the total number of occupants by sex once you've completed the part on population.


In this space, the Enumerator will record any question or additional data they consider pertinent with respect to one or more of the questions on the Form. The clarification of special situations or those unforeseen by this Manual will be very useful in the information processing stage.

[p. 34]

Once the Form is filled out, you should sign and record the date on which you carried out the enumeration. In the same way, after carrying out the corresponding supervision, the Sector Head will also sign and record the date.

III. Population

The questions in this section are meant for the people who spent the night before the day of the Census in the dwelling, regardless of whether they live there permanently or are just there temporarily.


In private dwellings: everyone who spent the night prior to the day of the Census in the dwelling, including people in domestic service.

In collective dwellings: all the institutionalized or resident boarders, or security personnel, who spent the night prior to the day of the Census there. This is the case with the sick who are hospitalized or on-duty police officers.

All children, even those younger than one, including children who were born before 0:00 hours on the Day of the Census.

All people who passed away after 0:00 hours on the Day of the Census.

Everyone without a dwelling (transients) who the Enumerator encounters in their Segment and who have not been enumerated.
Don't Enumerate:
Those born after 0:00 hours on the Day of the Census.

Those who died before 0:00 hours on the Day of the Census.

A. For all people - General characteristics

[p. 35]

Question 1. What are the first and last names of all of the people, including children and newborns, who spent the night prior to the day of the census in this household?

On the first line, record the first and last names of the people who spent the night prior to the Day of the Census in the household.

It is important to keep in mind that even in rural areas, where the Enumeration can take up to three days, one should enumerate the people who spent the night prior to the "Day of the Census" (May 13, 1992) in the dwelling.

Record the First and Last Names in a horizontal direction beginning with the head of household. Every private household should have a head, then try to follow the following order: spouse of the head, children, sons- and daughters-in-law, parents and parents-in-law, other relatives, [female] domestic employee and other non-relatives.

If the Head of Household is temporarily absent, not having spent the night in the dwelling, record in the first column the person who, in their [the Head's] absence would be recognized as such; for example: their wife, mother, or eldest child. In these cases, the family relationship will be with respect to the person occupying the place of the Head.

Each private household should have a head, therefore you should never leave the first column blank, except in the case of private dwellings that have additional Forms.

In collective households the order is not important since a Head is not identified, all of the occupants will be considered Members of the Collective Household.

For newborns who don't yet have a name, write "NN."

[p. 36]

The Form is designed to obtain data from up to 9 people who are members of a household. If a household is made up of more than 9 people, extra Forms will be used for the rest of the members. When extra Forms are used it will be necessary to follow the following instructions:

a) Repeat all of the data about Geographic Location that appears on the first Form and, in Observations, write the word "continuation."

b) If it is a Private Household, cross out the first column, meant for the Head, on the additional Form. In collective households this is not necessary. In the following columns you will cross out the original person number, putting in its place the number 10, 11,..., until you finish with the last person in the Household.

For example:

Suppose that in the private household there are 12 people. On the first Form the names of the first 9 people will be written.

On the additional Form the following changes will be made:

Column 1, for the Head of Household, will be crossed out and for persons No. 10, 11, and 12 columns 2, 3, and 4, respectively, will be used, one column for each person.

Next, the following questions from the questionnaire should be asked of each one of the people vertically (questions 2 to 23); you will begin with the Head of Household, then you will continue with the second person, and so on.

[p. 37]

Do you have an identification card, I.C.?

When asking the first and last names of each of the people, it should be clarified whether or not they have an Identification Card, by marking the appropriate box.

Note: It is very important that question 1 be completed for all people in the household in a horizontal direction before continuing to question 2. Conversely, questions 2 and after should be asked of each person in a vertical direction.

Question 2. What family or other relationship do you have with the head of household?

The male Head (or female Head) of Household is the person recognized as such by all of the members of the Household, regardless of the income they receive or their age.

Once the Head of Household has been identified, the enumerator should establish the family or other relationship of the person they are enumerating with respect to the Male or Female Head.

For example: if he person being interviewed is a brother-in-law of the head, you should mark the box "Other relative."

In the case of Collective Households you will mark code 8 for all of the people, that is, Member of a Collective Household.

Question 3. Are you a man or a woman?

You will mark with an X the circle that corresponds to the sex of the person that is being enumerated.

Question 4. How old are you in completed years?

Age is one of the most important pieces of data in the Census because of its relationship to other characteristics contained in the Form, for example, when people's age is related to their level of instruction, or when one takes into account the number of children that women have had in relation to their age.

[p. 38]

Therefore, it is necessary to make the greatest effort possible to get good quality information. Age should be recorded in number of years completed and not in those that are going to be completed.

For those younger than one year you should record 00. For people who are 98 or older, 98 will be recorded.

Question 5. What is your current marital or conjugal status?

With this question we want to know what the current marital or conjugal status of the person being enumerated is, that is, on the date of the Census. After asking the question, read the alternatives as they are presented on the Form, wait for the response and mark the corresponding box, keeping in mind the following concepts.

1. Married or Consensual Union: Married person, is a person who has entered into matrimony, whether civil, religious, or both and currently lives in that state.

Person in a consensual union, is a person who currently is joined to their partner in a stable way, without having celebrated a legal wedding.

2. Widower (Widow): Is a person who, having been married or in a union, has lost their partner through death and who at the time of the Census has not remarried nor lives in a consensual union.

3. Separated or Divorced: Separated person, is one who, having entered into legal matrimony or having been in a union, doesn't currently live in that state due to having a de facto separation.

Divorced person, is one who, having entered into legal matrimony, doesn't currently live in that state, due to having legally separated, that is, through a judicial pronouncement.

4. Single: Is a person who has never entered into matrimony, either civil or religious, nor been in a union with another person.

[p. 39]

Important: the marital status of the head and of their spouse should coincide, as should that of the other couples who live in the household.

Question 6. Where do you usually live?

A person's place of usual residence is the one that the person considers as such. The circle for "Here" will be marked with and X if the person usually lives in the place where the enumeration is being carried out.

Otherwise, you will record the names of the Department, Province, and Locality where the person usually lives.

If the person usually lives outside the country and is in Bolivia temporarily or in transit for a brief period (less than three months), record the name of the country of residence in the designated space. In this case it is not necessary to ask the following questions, so you should cross them out with a diagonal line, and continue with the next person.

Question 7. Where were you born?

You will mark the circle "Here" with an X when the person being enumerated was born in the place where they are being enumerated. Otherwise, the name of the Department, Province, and Locality where the person was born will be written on the corresponding lines.

If the person was born outside the country, record the year of arrival in Bolivia and the name of the country of birth in the corresponding space.

Question 8. Where were you usually living 5 years ago (1987)? (only for people who are 5 years of age and older)

The place where the person being enumerated was living exactly five years ago is asked for, that is, in the month of May in 1987; you should mark an X in the box "Here" if the person was living in the place where the enumeration is being carried out. Otherwise, record the name of the Department, Province, and Locality where said person was living. If the person was living outside of the country five years ago, [p. 40] record only the name of that country of residence

Note: This question is only asked of those people 5 and older.

B. Only for people 6 years of age or older. Educational characteristics.

The questions contained in part B of the Form should only be asked of people (men and women) who are 6 completed years or older, for which purpose you should look at the answer recorded in question 4 (Years completed) beforehand. When the person being enumerated is less than 6 years old, questions 9 to 23 will not be asked of them, and therefore a diagonal line should be drawn through this part of the questionnaire.

Question 9. What languages and/or dialects do you know how to speak?

With this question we seek to find out the languages and/or dialects that each of the people being enumerated knows. If they only speak one of the languages indicated, you will mark the corresponding circle with an X; if they report speaking two of the languages indicated, you will mark the two corresponding circles, and so on. If the person reports that they know a language or dialect of the country that is not among those listed, the circle for Other Native will be marked. In the case of foreign languages, you will mark the circle corresponding to Foreign with an X.

Note: In this question more than one alternative can be recorded.

Question 10. Do you know how to read and write?

The enumerator will ask this question of all people who are 6 or older, marking circle 7 with an X when they say YES, and circle 8 if they neither read nor write.

If the person being enumerated only knows how to sign their name, only recognizes or writes the letters of the alphabet and isn't able to read or write a letter or a basic document, mark No.

[p. 41]

Question 11. Do you or did you attend any regular instructional center?

This question refers to attendance of regular instructional establishments and not to quick courses like: beauty schools, special cooking courses, shorthand, typing, and languages.

Take into account that the attendance can be for Institutions within the country or outside of it (people who studied outside the country and are now in the country).

Note: If the person never attended school, it is not necessary to ask questions 12, 13, and 14.

Question 12. What is the highest cycle or level that you attend or attended in regular instruction?

With this question we want to find out the highest level of instruction reached by the person being investigated, within the Regular Instructional System in effect in the country. Consider the previous system (Primary and Secondary) as well as the current system (Basic, Intermediate and Middle).

Question 13. Did you finish that cycle or level?

Mark the appropriate circle with an X, based on whether the response is affirmative or negative.

Question 14. What is the last year or course passed in that cycle or level?

Once the person being enumerated indicates the highest level they reached, they will be asked for the last year or grade passed at the corresponding level. If they have not yet passed the first year of the indicated cycle, 0 (zero) will be recorded.

In the Technical Instruction group, only study of a minimum of one year will be considered. You should keep in mind that the grade or year being researched refers only to the one that was passed within the levels of regular instruction: primary schools, secondary schools, technical, teaching schools, universities; whether they be public or private, in the country or [p. 42] abroad. Other special study within regular instruction will be recorded under "Others."

C. Only for people 7 years of age and older. Economic characteristics.

This section is meant to capture information about the economic characteristics of the population.

Question 15. Of the following types of activity, which did you perform last week?

When asking the question, read the alternatives slowly and in the order that they appear on the Form until you get an affirmative response. When this happens, move on to the next question (16) or jump to question 19, depending on the alternative that you marked. The alternative should be marked in accordance with the following considerations:

0. Did you work last week?

This is a person who performed compensated work during the week in question, continuously or incidentally, accepting as work even activities performed for an hour or more during the week in question. Household domestic employees are included in this category. Furthermore, uncompensated family employees and apprentices are also included in this category.

1. Did you not work but had a job? (Leave, sickness, vacation, etc.)

When the person being enumerated has a job or business, but during the week in question did not work because they were on leave, on vacation, sick, temporarily absent, etc.

2. Did you perform tasks in the house and work?

When the person dedicates himself to the tasks of the home and also performed some activity, even if it was for an hour such as: selling food, handicrafts; washing, sewing or ironing for money, or helping with field work, [p. 43] planting, harvesting, or taking care or animals.

3. Did you look for work, having worked previously? (Unemployed)

This is a person who didn't work last week and actively looked for work. This person, currently unemployed, necessarily must have worked before in order to be considered within this category.

4. Did you look for work for the first time?

This is appropriate for the person who, without having worked previously, actively looked for work during the week previous to the Day of the Census.

5. Are you retired, a pensioner, or do you live off investments and did not work?

When the person receives a retirement pension, old-age benefits, or income and didn't perform any activity during the period in question.

6. Are you a student and didn't work?

When the person being enumerated devoted him/herself to study without performing any type of work.

7. Did you perform household chores and not work?

When the person devotes him/herself exclusively to household chores. People who work in compensated domestic service are not included in this category.

8. Others?

This includes those people who are not included in the previous classifications. Examples: in the case of disabled people or minors who neither work nor study.

Note: Questions 16, 17, and 18 should only be asked of those who answered within part a [responses 0 to 3] in question 15.

[p. 44]

People who responded to one of the questions in part b [responses 4 through 8] should go on to question 19.

Question 16. During the past week (or in your last job if the person is unemployed), what was your main occupation?

a. For purposes of the census, the main occupation is the one that generates the most income.

If the person worked during the week in question, or didn't work but had a job, you will record the occupation that the person being enumerated reports as the main one.

Clarification: You should record the main occupation and not the profession. Example: A doctor that is in charge of a hospital, you should record: Hospital Director.

b. If the person looked for work having worked previously, you will record the last main job that they had.

If the answer that the informant gives is unclear or questionable, ask them to describe in some detail the job that they currently perform. Examples of incorrect and correct ways of recording the occupations are given below.

Incorrect recording: Teacher
Correct recording: Pre-school teacher, teacher of girl technical school, primary or elementary school teacher, university professor

Incorrect recording: Farmer
Correct recording: Farmhand, shepherd, beekeeper, poultry farmer, unskilled farm or dairy worker

Incorrect recording: Miner
Correct recording: Miner of metal deposits, mine driller, mine smearer, gathers minerals extracted from a mine

[p. 45]

Incorrect recording: Administrator
Correct recording: Event administrator, leisure activities administrator, hospital administrator

Incorrect recording: Builder
Correct recording: Master builder, formwork builder, construction foreman, bricklayer, tile layer, stuccoer

Incorrect recording: Shoemaker
Correct recording: shoe sewer, shoe repairer, puts heels on shoes

Incorrect recording: Repairer
Correct recording: Sewing machine repairer, industrial machine repairer, telephone line repairer

Incorrect recording: Director
Correct recording: Artistic or orchestra director, director and manager in a wholesale business, director and manager in a service business, director of an educational establishment

Incorrect recording: Seller
Correct recording: Retail seller of groceries, wholesale seller of groceries, fare agent

Incorrect recording: Mechanic
Correct recording: Automotive mechanic, mechanic-repairer of industrial machinery, dental, optical, etc., technician, auto-body worker

Incorrect recording: Engineer
Correct recording: Civil engineer for clean-up projects, civil engineer for building construction, agricultural, industrial, chemical engineer, electrical systems engineer

Question 17. What does the place where you work (or worked if the person is unemployed) produce or what activity is it devoted to?

Here you should record what the place where the person works, or last worked if the person is unemployed, is devoted to or what it principally produces. [p. 46] When the establishment does more than one thing, record the most important.

If the answer that the informant gives is imprecise, investigate in more detail.

Examples of incorrect and correct ways of recording the establishment's activity are given below.

Incorrect recording: Agriculture
Correct recording: Growing cereal grains, growing vegetables, growing fruit, growing potatoes

Incorrect recording: Raising animals
Correct recording: Cattle raising, dairy livestock raising, sheep raising, llama raising

Incorrect recording: Mineral and metal extraction
Correct recording: Extraction of iron minerals, extraction of tin minerals, extraction of minerals to manufacture fertilizer and chemical products

Incorrect recording: Food production
Correct recording: Producing and preserving fish, producing and preserving fruit, producing non-alcoholic beverages

Incorrect recording: Textile manufacturing
Correct recording: Preparation and spinning of textile fibers, textile product finishing, tapestry and rug factory, knitted and crocheted fabrics and articles factory

Incorrect recording: Leather articles factory
Correct recording: Suitcase manufacturing, shoe manufacturing, jacket manufacturing

Incorrect recording: Wood products factory
Correct recording: Manufacturing sheets of wood, manufacturing of carpentry parts and pieces, furniture manufacturing, door and window manufacturing

[p. 47]

Incorrect recording: Construction
Correct recording: Building construction, civil engineering work

Question 18. In this occupation you work (or used to work if unemployed) as?:

When asking this question read the options slowly and in the order indicated, and record the appropriate one in accordance with the following terms:

1. Manual Laborer (Unskilled laborer, day-laborer, foreman)

Is a person who performs a predominantly manual job, and who works for a public or private employer, receiving a salary or daily wage. The manual laborer generally performs tasks directly related to production, of a manual nature, and based on physical effort.

Examples: Driver of a truck for industry, driver in the construction sector, doorkeeper in a factory, builders, unskilled laborers, etc.

2. [Office] Employee

Is a person who performs a predominantly intellectual occupation and who works for a public or private employer, receiving a salary for their job. The employee generally performs administrative tasks not directly related to production nor based on physical effort.

Examples: Secretaries, doctors in a general hospital, primary or secondary school teachers, public employees, etc.

3. Own-account worker

Is a person who runs their own company or business, without having any compensated workers in their charge and without depending on an owner. The own-account worker runs their own [p. 48] economic unit, selling and/or producing goods and/or services, with or without the help of family workers or unpaid apprentices.

Example: Cutter, carpenter, street vendors, master builder, plumber, and others.

4. Owner, partner or employer

Is the owner and/or partner of an economic unit that produces goods and/or services, who necessarily contracts one or more paid workers, whether temporarily or permanently.

Example: Doctors with more than two employees, factory owners, owners of large or medium-sized workshops, construction contractors and others.

5. Member of a production cooperative

Is a person who works actively in a cooperative business, receiving income or assuming the losses in their role as a partner.

Example: members of mining cooperatives, members of gold cooperatives, members of transportation cooperatives (shuttles, taxis), etc.

6. Independent professional

A person who practices or performs tasks supported by their academic bachelors degree; they work, without depending on an owner, in activities that provide professional services, directed and carried out by them. The independent professional has a maximum of two employees.

Example: Lawyers who perform services in their firms, doctors with their own offices, architects who design plans privately, etc.

[p. 49]

7. Unpaid family worker or apprentice

A person who, whether a member of the household of the owner of the establishment where they work or not, performs an activity without receiving monetary compensation in exchange.

Example: Helper in a mechanic's workshop, children of store owners who help out with selling, family members of rural farmers, etc.

Question 19. During the past week; did you work in any other additional activity?

This question is asked of all people 7 years of age or older in order to detect the existence of other economic activities in addition to the one reported in question 15. Mark the appropriate box.

D. Only for women 12 years of age and older

Questions 20 to 23 should only be asked of women 12 years of age and older, including unmarried women. These questions are not asked when the person being enumerated is a man. Instead cross out part D of the Form with a diagonal line.

These questions are of great importance for the demographic analysis. Take special care to ask them verbatim without excluding unmarried women.

Question 20. In total, how many sons and daughters born alive have you had?

The total number of sons and daughters born alive that the mother has had is asked for, whether they are alive on the date of the Census or have died, live with her or in another domicile, place, or country.

It's very important to keep in mind that if the answer is "none" you should record 00. If the box remains empty it will mean that the question was not asked, in other words, that there was an omission.

[p. 50]

Born alive is any child who, upon being born, manifests any sign of life such as breathing, crying, or moving. If the child later passes away, it should still be considered a child born alive.

As already indicated before, it's important that this question and the following ones be answered by the person being enumerated themselves.

Question 21. Of them, how many are currently alive?

In this question the number of living children that the woman has at the time of the census will be recorded, including those that don't live in the home. The answer should be written clearly in the corresponding boxes. If the person being enumerated doesn't know with certainty if all of her children are alive (for whatever reason), clarify this in observations.

Question 22. Of the children currently alive, how many live in another country?

The quantity of living sons and daughters who live outside of Bolivia will be asked for, recording them separately by sex.

Question 23. In what month and year was your last son (daughter) born alive born?

All women 12 years of age and older who have had any son (daughter) born alive will be asked for the date on which their last child was born, whether they are alive at the time of the Census or have passed away. Record the month in written form in the spaces provided for month, and for the year, the last two digits.

Example: April 89, March 90, January 92, etc.

Important: That this piece of information be obtained with the greatest possible precision, primarily in the case of children who were born in recent years, for example: in 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, or 1992.

There may be some cases where the mother doesn't remember either the month or year, or both of these pieces of information, in which case you should clarify in observations and estimate this data as closely as possible.

[p. 51]

Special Cases of Enumeration

1. People without a dwelling. People who do not have a dwelling (transients) and who sleep in plazas, streets, parks, etc. will be enumerated in the census segment to which the plaza, park, or place where they are belongs.

2. Passengers in transit (international flights). Passengers in transit to other countries, who spent the previous night in the country and who were not enumerated in the hotels where they spent the night, should be enumerated in the airport by a special group of enumerators.

Those who arrived in the country on the Day of the Census should not be enumerated.

3. Personnel on duty in hospitals, factories, institutions, and other places. The personnel on duty who spent the night prior to the Day of the Census in their work unit and continue on duty will be enumerated in the place of work.

Personnel on duty who returned to their domicile very early will be enumerated in their household.

Personnel on duty who slept in their dwelling and leave very early for work should be taken into account in their respective households.

Personnel (police officers and military) who were on watch the night prior to the Day of the Census and who, on that day, continue their watch in public places should be enumerated in their unit before leaving it to perform their duty.

4. Employees of the INE [National Institute of Statistics]. Employees of the INE should leave the census form in their dwelling properly filled out, including their data and that of the members of the household to which they belong.

5. Embassies and consulates. Ambassadors and Consuls from the countries represented, as well as foreign personnel who directly depend on Embassies or Consulates should not be enumerated (Ex. U.S. Marines).

Honorary Consuls and domestic service personnel inside the Embassy, Consulate, or Residence should be enumerated.

[p. 52]

6. Buildings and houses that make up a sector, or more than 2 segments. In this case the Sector Head should take great care to delimit the respective segments in the interior of the building or house, according to the established segmentation guidelines and at least fifteen days in advance.

This same procedure should be used in rural communities were the cartographic updating hasn't defined the census segments clearly.

In the case of doubts about the delimitation of the work areas you should consult with your immediate superior.

7. Penitentiaries and jails. For this type of collective household, census agents, selected from each correctional institution (administrative personnel) according to the size of the dwelling, should be assigned.

8. Psychiatric hospitals. In these mental hospitals, the census personnel will take the data from the administrative records of each unit, as completely as possible.

9. Leper colony (Potosi). In this case it is recommended that an enumerator be named from the Ministry of Welfare and Public Health who knows how to interview them without running any risks.

10. Brothels. In these cases a student should not be assigned as the enumerator. An enumerator able to carry out the job without problems, accounting for all of the people who spent the night prior to the Day of the Census, should be designated.

11. Populations on the border. It is recommended that the country's borders be closed on the Day of the Census starting at 0:00 hours in order to avoid people moving from one country to another.

12. Populations with border problems between departments. In this case it is recommended that a mixed group from both departments be formed in order to eliminate any tensions that might exist between residents with clearly marked regional interests.

13. Neighboring communities that have problems. In this case an enumerator who has a heritage from and a respect for the communities in conflict should be assigned.

[p. 53]

This case should be carefully analyzed in places inhabited by residents such as Laymes, Jucumanis, Cacachacas, and others.

14. Areas with conflictive activities. In this case a special directive will be given for the information collection in order to avoid refusals.

15. Nomadic populations. Given that people in each region have knowledge of the location of these groups, each Canton Head should assign one or more enumerators who know the language or dialect of the group.