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Republic of Bolivia
Ministry of Planning and Coordination
National Institute of Statistics
Enumerator's Manual
National Dwelling and Population Census
July 1976

[There are two different manuals in Spanish, one for rural and one for urban areas. Since the two documents are very similar except for a couple of comments, they are integrated into one instruction manual and the differences are indicated in square-brackets. The page numbers in this document correspond to those of the scanned Spanish Urban Manual.]
[Pages 1- 10 are not translated into English.]

[p. 11]
Basic concepts

The basic concepts that you should use when doing the interviews are:

Household is a person or group of persons who occupy the dwelling.

Dwelling is the physical place of inhabitation.

Private dwelling is that which is constructed for one or more persons whether related or not, who live under the same roof, in a family schedule and who regularly share meals.

Collective dwelling is a group of persons who share a dwelling without family rules, for reasons of health, discipline, religion, punishment, etc.
[p. 12]
Characteristics of a dwelling:

A dwelling is any lodging that has been built or adapted for housing persons. Houses, barracks, hospitals, huts, are dwellings. [In the rural instructions, this paragraph reads as: "It is a building of lodging meant for inhabitation, it is occupied as a dwelling at the moment of enumeration of the census, even when it originally was not built for lodging."]

A dwelling must be:

Independent, so that persons arriving at their dwelling do not have to pass through rooms of other dwellings. It can have direct access from the street by passing through patios, corridors stairs, etc. of common use.

Separate, that is to say surrounded by walls, and covered by a roof. Also, any type of provisional construction like caves, tents etc. are considered dwellings if they are inhabited at the moment of the Census.

A dwelling is an apartment, house or hut. Take into account that each room in a tenement block can be a dwelling.

Dwellings are classified as private and collective.

Private dwellings are those that lodge one or more private households.

Collective dwellings are those that lodge collective households.

[p. 13]

[In the rural manual, private and collective dwellings are defined as follows:

Private dwelling is that which is occupied by a person or group that lives under family rules and regularly shares meals.

Collective dwelling when a group of persons inhabit it for reasons of health, accommodations, discipline, religion, etc.]

How to fill in the form

General instructions for filling in chapters I. Geographic locations, and II. Dwelling

When giving the interview, read the questions as they are written in the form.

Mark with an X the box that corresponds to the given response.

You should write numbers on dotted lines and words on continuous lines.

If you make a mistake when marking a box, do not cross it out, erase it.

Form Number

When beginning your work, write down number 1 for the first census household you enumerate in the upper right, in "form number" and continue in ascending form (2, 3, 4, etc.) for the other census households.

[p. 14]

I. Geographic location

In the rectangle meant for Geographic Location, copy the information from the notebook that will be given to you with the work material.

In number 9, write down the address of the dwelling or any element that identifies the place where the dwelling is found.

To the left of Geographic Location you should write down the number of the dwelling that you are investigating and the number of households that are in this dwelling.

In order to determine the number of households in a dwelling, you should ask if all persons regularly share their meals. If this is the case, there is only one household in this dwelling and you should write down 1 in the line for number of households, the same as in the line corresponding to the Household Number.

[p. 15]

Example:

If you are enumerating dwelling 2, write down as such:

If the persons of a dwelling do not share meals ask which groups eat separately. The number of groups responds to the number of households.

Example: If you are enumerating dwelling 4 where 3 households exist, use a form for each household and write down in the following manner:
[p. 16]

II. Dwelling

Question 1. Type of dwelling


Private dwelling

You must identify the type of dwelling and mark the box that corresponds with an X.

You will mark X in "Other", when it concerns dwellings such as: canopies, tents, railroad coaches, etc.

You will mark in "Places not meant for dwelling", those places that are inhabited and were not built for dwelling like: granaries and deposits, etc.

[In the rural manual, the following information is under the private dwelling heading:

You should identify the type of dwelling and mark the corresponding box with an X.

1. Independent house

Mark the box with an X if it is a construction of resistant materials and with the characteristics that are observed in the graphic.

2. Apartment

[To the right of the text is a drawing of an apartment building.]

3. Free room(s) in a tenement building

Rooms with an entrance from the same corridor, patio, hall that is provided with common water and hygienic services.

4. Hut (pahuihci)

[To the right of the text is a drawing of a hut.]

5. Impoverished dwelling

[To the right of the text is a drawing of an impoverished dwelling.]

6. Place not meant to be a dwelling

Mark this box if they are places that are inhabited and that were not built for dwelling like: granaries, wine cellars, garages, etc.

7. Other

This category includes: canopies, tents, railroad coaches, etc. if they are being used as a dwelling at the moment of the Census.]

1.2 Collective dwelling

If it is a Collective Dwelling, mark the X in the corresponding box and go directly to Population questions. In these cases, the characteristics of the building are not important, but rather only the information about the persons who live in these dwellings.

Question 2. Occupation of the dwelling

Mark X in box 1, if the members of the household are found in the dwelling.

If there are only minors, return when an adult is present.

Mark X in box 2 if you observe that the dwelling is inhabited but its occupants are not present. If you find out that their absence is temporary, return to this dwelling to get the information.

[p. 17]

Mark box 3 for dwellings that because of being for rent, under repair or recently constructed, etc. are found to be uninhabited. In this case do not complete the rest of the questions on this form.

The enumerator can fill out the questions about Type of Dwelling and Occupation of the Dwelling by observation.

Question 3. Predominant materials in the dwelling

Write down with what materials are built:

The roof of the building (where the dwelling is found),
The exterior walls, and
The floor of the dwelling.

The following information is given in the rural manual:

3.1 Roof

1. Corrugated iron
2. Tiles
3. Concrete slabs
4. Straw, cane, palm
5. Others. Mark this box if the roof of a dwelling is built with planks of wood, or waste materials

Exterior Walls

1. Plastered adobe
2. Abode without plaster and mud-walls
3. Bricks, cement blocks, etc.
4. Stone
5. Wood
6. Cane, palm, logs
7. Others. Mark an X in this box if the exterior walls of a dwelling are built with cardboard, tin cans and other waste materials.

Floors

1. Wood
2. Mosaic or floor tile
3. Bricks
4. Cement
5. Earth
6. Other

From this point onwards, the information refers to each household within a dwelling.

If there are two or more households in a dwelling, responses for the second household start with questions 4.

Question 4. Availability of water service

This question consists of two parts: the supply system and the origin of water.

Water supply system

This theme investigates if the household is supplied with water through water pipes or not.

[p. 18]

Mark one of the alternatives that correspond to the place where these pipes are found.

4.2 Origin of water

Write down if the water comes from a public system, a private system, well, waterwheel, etc.

Question 5. Availability of hygienic services (toilet, latrine)

It is of private use only if persons in the household being investigated use it.

It is of common or shared use if two or more households use it.

Question 6. System of elimination of residual waters

1. Public sewage system: when the elimination is carried out through a system of exterior pipes, commonly known as canalization or sewer system.

2. Septic tank: is a waterproof tank for residual water generally built from concrete.

3. Latrine or pit toilet: is a hole in the ground for the elimination of residual water.

Question 7. Shower or bathtub

Mark box 1, if the shower or bathtub is only for the use of persons who make up the household that is being investigated.

Mark box 2, if the shower or bathtub is used by two or more households.

Question 8. Electric energy

If the household is supplied electricity coming from a public system or a private plant, mark box 1.
[p. 19]
Question 9. Number of rooms or bedrooms in the household

Any environment that has the capacity for an adult bed is considered a room.

How many rooms or bedrooms do you have in your household?

Write down the number of rooms or bedrooms in the household, without counting the kitchen or bathroom. Also do not include corridors, halls or storage rooms.

Of these, how many are used only for sleeping? (bedrooms)

On the corresponding line, write down the number of rooms that are used exclusively as bedrooms.

Question 10. Kitchen

Do you have a special room for the kitchen?

Mark the box Yes, even if the kitchen is used as a dining room.

Question 11. Ownership

Ask if the dwelling being investigated is: owned, rented, etc.

Owned: if it belongs to the persons who inhabit it. Also it is considered owned if it is in the process of being paid for.

Rented: when the occupant pays a biweekly or monthly amount of money to the owner of the house.

Sharecropping (anticresis) contract [a contract to rent property whereby the renter pays the landlord a fixed sum at the start of the rental period in lieu of paying monthly rent.], if you inhabit the dwelling with a charge of interest for a quantity of money given to the owner as a loan.

Mixed contract, combines the characteristics of sharecropping and renting. In other words, the occupant, in addition to having loaned a certain sum of money to the owner , periodically pays another sum as rent.

Ceded for services, when the dwelling is occupied in exchange for any type of service that is loaned from the owner.
[p. 20]
Question 12. Language that is spoken most frequently in your family

This question is only asked to the Head of Household or the Principal Informant.

Population summary

Complete this box once you have finished the investigation of both the dwelling and population.

Write down the number of men, women and the sum of the two in the respective spaces (persons who spent the night before the Census day in the dwelling).

Observations

On these lines, write down anything strange that comes up in the interview, or any doubts that have arisen about the questions.
[p. 21]
III. Population

The questions in this chapter are meant for all persons who spent the night before the Census day in the investigated dwelling, it is not important if they live there permanently or only are there temporarily.

In each dwelling you should enumerate:

All persons who spent the night before the Census day in the dwelling, including persons of domestic service who spent the night in the dwelling.

Those persons who occasionally, or for reasons of work, were absent from this dwelling the night before the Census day. For example: doctors, night watchmen or women, police, telephone operators, military personnel on their shift etc.

All minors under one year of age, including children born before twelve o'clock at night.

You should not enumerate:

Persons who live in the investigated dwelling, but were lodged in another house, boarding house or hotel, the night before the day of the census.

Family members who were hospitalized, shut in or interned, because these persons are enumerated in the place where they slept the night before the Census day.

Those born after twelve o'clock at night.

Those who died before twelve o'clock at night.

[p. 22]
General instructions for filling out Chapter III. Population

Read the questions as they are written in the form.

Mark an X in the box that corresponds to the given answer.

On the dotted lines, you should write numbers and words on the continuous lines.

Leave the rectangular spaces in the columns blank, since they are for the use of the INE.

Use one form per household and one column for each person.

When more than 9 members exist in a household, use another form for the rest of the persons, repeat the information of "Geographic Location" and repeat the same form number.
[p. 23]
A. General information

The first 8 questions correspond to General Information, and you should ask them to all persons in the household.

The household should be only one person or a group of persons, related or not, who always share a dwelling and their meals.

Question 1. What is your name and surname?

Write down the name and surname of all persons who spent the night before the Census day in the investigated household on the first line of each column.

Write down all names, beginning with the Head of Household, since every private household should have a Head.

If the Head is not in the household, write down in the first column, the person who, in their absence, is recognized as such; for example, the mother of the family lacking the spouse or oldest child. In these cases, the relationship is related to the person who occupies the place of Head.

If there are more than 9 persons, continue writing them down in another Form from the second column.

Do not forget to write down in this form the same number of the first form that you used in this household, and the corresponding information of Geographic Location in all its corresponding questions.

Do not stop writing down newborns.
[p. 24]
Question 2. What relationship or relation do you have with the head of household?

The first column is for the Head of Household.

In the following columns, mark X in the box corresponding to the relation or relationship that each one of the persons has with the Head of Household.

If spouse or partner, put an X in box 2, if son, you will mark X in box 3, etc.

In the case of collective dwellings, cancel the first column corresponding to the Head of Household, with a vertical line, and do not fill out question 2 which refers to relationship.

Question 3. Are you a man or woman?

Mark with an X the corresponding box of the sex of the interviewed person.
[p. 25]
Question 4. How old are you in complete years?

Write down on the corresponding line the number of completed years at the last birthday, and not how old they will be.

For minors less than one year old, write down 00.

Question 5. Where were you born?

Mark "Here" if a person was born in the locality where they are enumerated.

In the contrary case, write the name of the locality, providence, and department where they were born.

If born abroad, write down only the name of the country.

Question 6. Where do you reside regularly?

Mark the box "Here" if they reside regularly in the enumerated locality.

In the contrary case, write down the name of the locality, providence and department where they live.

If they live abroad, write down only the country.

Question 7. Where did you live 5 years ago? (1971)

If they resided regularly in this locality, mark "Here."

[p. 26]

If they resided regularly in another place, write down the locality as concretely as possible, and then the providence and department.

If they resided regularly away from Bolivia, write down only the country.

Question 8. What Bolivian languages do you know how to speak?

Read the different alternatives in order and mark only one of the boxes.

If they do not speak any or only speak foreign languages, mark the box "0" (does not speak any or none)

B. Educational information

Educational information questions 9, 10 and 11 should be asked to all persons 5 years old or older.

Question 9. Do you know how to read and write?

If they know how to read and write, mark the box "Yes".

If they only read or only write, mark the box "No".

Question 10. Do you attend school or other educational centers?

Mark the box corresponding to the response the informant gives.

Do not take into account speed courses or those by correspondence.
[p. 27]
Question 11. What is the last course passed and in what cycle?

In the line corresponding to the level, write down the number of the highest course or year passed and not the one being taken.

The category "Other" refers to preschool, technical or vocational instruction.

Do not take into account speed courses or those by correspondence.

C. Economic information

Questions 12, 13, 14 and 15 of Economic Information should be asked to all persons 7 years old or older.

Question 12. What did you do the main part of your time last week (before census day)?

When asking the question, read the alternatives in the indicated order, "Did you work?", "You did not work but had a job?" and so on, until obtaining a response; then, mark the respective box.

If you mark box 1, 2 or 3, ask questions 13, 14 and 15. If you mark one of the other boxes (4 to 8), go directly to question 16.

Question 13. What is the principal occupation or job you worked last week or your last job if you were unemployed?

This question should only be asked to persons who answered 2 or 3 in question 12.

If the response that the informant gives is ambiguous or not very clear, request that they describe the job in detail and write down word for word what was said.

[p. 28]

Examples:

Incorrect annotation: Professor.
Correct annotation: High school professor, university professor, grade school professor, music professor.

Incorrect annotation: Craftsman.
Correct annotation: Carpenter, sawyer, blacksmith, potter.

Incorrect annotation: Mechanic.
Correct annotation: Automobile mechanic, precision mechanic, railroad mechanic, aviation mechanic, dental mechanic.

Incorrect annotation: Worker or day laborer.
Correct annotation: Bridge worker, construction worker, mine driller, car washer, vehicle washer.

Incorrect annotation: Vendor.
Correct annotation: Department store clerk, ticket vendor, life insurance agent, medical worker.

[p. 29]
Question 14. What does the place, establishment or business of your indicated occupation produce or do principally?

If the response is in vague or imprecise terms, insist that the informant give you more details. For example, do not accept factory, workshop; they should indicate exactly the type of activity that is done in this establishment.

Examples of annotation:

Tin mining operations
Footwear storage
Insurance company
Medical consulting
Furniture factory
Wool fabrics factory
Textile factory
Beauty shop
Livestock ranch
Ministry of finances
Bakery
Chicken farm
Automobile mechanic garage

Question 15. What was the category or position in the occupation that you indicate?

After asking the question, clearly read each one of the alternatives in the indicated order, and upon receiving a response, mark the corresponding box.
[p. 30]
E. Fertility information

Question 16 refers to Fertility Information. You should ask it only to women 12 years and older.

Question 16

a) In total, how many children born alive have you had?

It is indispensable to emphasize the question in the sense that it refers to all children born alive, without making a distinction whether they have died or are currently alive. Keep in mind that women have the tendency to omit those children who died a short time after being born.

If the response is None, go to question 17.

b) Of those, how many are currently alive?

In this question you will write down the number of live children that the woman has, including those who do not live in the household.

c) In what month and year was your last child born alive born?

Write down the month and the year in which the last child of the interviewed woman was born.

d. Civil state information This question is for men and women 12 years or older.

Question 17.What is your current civil state?

Mark the box corresponding to the given response.