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Republic of Benin

Second General Census of the Population and Habitation

Instruction manual for census agents

Document RGPH 2, Number 3

[Table of contents is omitted here please see the original documentation]

Introduction
The Republic of Benin prepares its second General Census of the Population and Habitation. It was in March of 1979 that the first exhaustive population census revealed a population of 3,331,210 persons of both sexes within the borders of the country. Since then, the two-component National Demographic Survey took place, including the Repeated Visit Survey (EPR) and the Survey on Fertility in Benin (EFB).

The dissemination of the results of these different operations was the topic of a national seminar that took place in September 1996. During this seminar, planners and decision makers expressed the need for more recent, more detailed, and more reliable demographic data for a better consideration of demographic parameters in economic and social development plans and programs.

This manual contains six (6) chapters:

The first chapter presents general information, definitions, census objectives, relevant legal provisions, organizational structures, collection method, and statistical privacy [secret].

The second chapter specifies basic concepts:
Administrative units, cartographic units, and demographic units.

The third and fourth chapters present the material for the census agent, attitudes and recommendations for fulfilling the task.

Instructions for filling out the census form and the Buildings form are presented in detail in chapters 5 and 6.

Chapter 1: General information

Definition and objectives of the census
Definition
The Population and Habitation Census is a complete count, at a specified date, of the population of a given country or a city and an inventory of its habitation. It is about enumerating i.e. counting, without omission or repetition, the population of the Republic of Benin. The census is not only a population count but also a collection of demographic, social, economic, and cultural data of the population using an instrument called the 'questionnaire.'

Objectives
The data collection in which you will participate is the second General Census of the Population and Habitation of the Republic of Benin.

The principle objectives of the second census are:

To know the total number and distribution, by age and sex, of the population at the level of the nation and the administrative divisions;
To provide data on education, literacy, marital status, economic activities, migration, births, deaths, and residency.

This census, while updating the existing supply of demographic data, will enrich this supply and will help establish several demographic, social, and economic indicators, necessary to the elaboration of future developmental plans.

Legal provisions for the census
Through decree number 90-149 of July 4th, 1990, the Ministry for Planning and Statistics is responsible for the organization and execution of the General Census of the Population and Habitation (RGPH 2).

The National Institute for Statistics and Economic Analysis (INSAE) of this Ministry is responsible, with the Central Census Bureau (BCR), for the technical execution of the operation under the supervision of the National Census Committee.

Organizational structure of the census
The Technical Administration for the preparation and execution of the census is the Central Census Bureau (BCR). This bureau contains several sections, including the Methodology Section responsible for fieldwork.

For the fieldwork to take place, the following structure has been put in place in addition to the local census organs:
At the level of the departments, the Central Census Bureau shall be assisted by the Departmental Administration for Planning and Statistics, whose administrators are supervisors at the departmental level.
At the head of the Census District is the controller who is under the authority of the supervisor. The Census District corresponds to the old district.
Below the controller are the Team Leaders (CE) who are responsible for the Census Sectors.
Finally, the bottom of this pyramid is constituted by the Census Agents. The census agent's area of wok is the Census Zone (ZD), which is the smallest geographic unit determined cartographically to help the conduct the census. They fall under the authority of the Team Leader.

For the census, the work is attributed according to the following:

The Census Agent (AR) conducts the count in the Census Zone (ZD).
The Team Leader (CE) supervises, controls, and guides the work conducted in the census sector covered by the census agents.
Data collection method and statistical privacy
The data collection method used for the census is door to door direct interviewing. This method consists of visiting each household, asking questions to the head of household and all other household members capable of giving answers, and reporting the collected information on the form. The success of the operation depends mainly on the way in which the census agent conducts the interview with the inhabitants to obtain the information.

Professional confidentiality is required of the census agent.
The information obtained is confidential. Any communication or misappropriation of the information obtained from the population is prohibited and punishable according to ordinance 73-72 of October 16th, 1973.

Chapter II: Concepts and basic definitions

2.1Administrative units

The Republic of Benin is divided as follows:

Department : This is the largest administrative division of the national territory. Its political and administrative authority is the Prefect.

Sub-prefecture or urban district: This is the principle division of a department. Its administrative authority is the sub-prefect or the head of the district.

Township: This is the main territorial division of a sub-prefecture or of an urban district. Its political and administrative authority is the mayor. One must distinguish between an urban township and a rural township.

Neighborhood: This is the smallest administrative unit of an urban township having a well-known name and whose administrative authority is the head of neighborhood.

Village: This is the smallest administrative unit of a rural township and falls under the responsibility of the village leader. The village is a fraction of a rural township. A village can be, as in most cases, composed of several localities, the most important of which is the village's main locality which gives its name to the whole.

2.2 Cartographic units

Locality
Every grouping of dwellings forming an entity, even if very small, is called a locality. It has a name or a status that is locally known; a hamlet with two houses could constitute a locality.
The terms village and locality will be used interchangeably when the village is constituted by only one locality.

Census zone (zd)
This is a portion of the territory that typically contains 800 to 1500 inhabitants who must be counted by the census agent during the duration of the census.
In certain rural areas with a low population density (Zou, Gorgou, and Atacora), difficult access, and where the distance to travel is relatively long, the number to count may vary between 800 and 1200.
In dense territorial sectors (Departments of the Atlantic, Ouémé, Mono, and the cities of Zou, Atacora, and Borgou), the size of the census population could be between 1200 and 1500 inhabitants.

Census sector (sd)
The census sector contains on average five (5) census zones. It could also comprise 3 to 7 census zones. The sector is placed under the responsibility of the Team Leader (CE).

Census district (dd)
In most cases, it is the same as the sub-prefecture or the urban district. It contains several census sectors and it is placed under the responsibility of a supervisor. In large urban districts such as those of Cotonou and Porto-Novo, several census districts (DD) can be counted.

2.3. Demographic units

Building: A building is a single construction covered with a roof (of any type) and generally limited by outside walls (of any type).
A building can be:

An isolated house.
A house in a strip (often rectangular and compartmentalized).
A building (with several stories).

Several buildings can be situated, or not, in a closed [gated] space.
A concession is constituted of buildings grouped together, giving access or not, to a central courtyard.
Note that a building could be used to house one or several households, or none.

Dwelling Unit: A dwelling unit is an area or a collection of areas used for housing purposes by a household at the time of the census.
Note that dwelling units in the same building as other establishments such as a hospital, a hotel, etc., must be considered separately and counted as dwelling units. For example, an independent and separate house situated within the enclosure of a hospital building or a school to be used by the director and his family must be considered a dwelling unit. Similarly, independent apartments in the same building as a hospital or a school must be considered dwelling units if they have a separate entrance.

The household:
The concept of the "Household" is founded on the arrangements taken by persons, individually or collectively, to satisfy their vital needs.

There are two categories of households: the ordinary household and the collective household.

Ordinary household: This is a grouping of persons, related or not, who recognize the authority of the same individual called "Head of Household," and whose resources and spending are communal. More than often, these persons live under the same roof, in the same courtyard, or the same concession.
Examples of ordinary households:

A man and his wife or wives, with or without children;
A man and his wife or wives, with their unmarried children, and his parents;
A man and his wife or wives, living with their married children, and associating together to satisfy certain essential needs (the group accepts the authority of one person);
A single man or a single woman with or without children and providing alone to his/her essential needs, alimentary and other;
A widowed or divorced man or woman with or without children;
A person renting a room and who does not take his/her meals with the household shall be considered to form an independent ordinary household. This is the case of single persons.
A group of single individuals sharing the same accommodation constitute an ordinary household if these individuals recognize the authority of the same person as head of household. Otherwise, they constitute separate households.

Collective Household: A collective household is defined as a group of persons, generally unrelated, who live together in an establishment for discipline, travel, health, education, or professional purposes.
Establishments in which collective households are found are: barracks, boarding schools, prisons, monasteries, convents and religious communities, orphanages, mental health institutions, hotels, temporary work sites' barracks.
If an ordinary household lives in one of the above-mentioned establishments (household of a prison director, hospital director), it shall be counted as an ordinary household. Such persons occupy accommodations relating to their function.

2.4 Other definitions
Residency situation:The residency situation of an individual is defined in relation to the household in which he habitually lives. Thus, household members can be either residents or visitors.

Resident: Is considered "resident" each person having lived in the household for at least 6 months. However, a person having lived in the household for less than 6 months and who intends to stay for more than 6 months must be counted as "resident."
We distinguish two types of residents: present residents (RP) and absent residents (RA).

Present resident (RP): is a present resident every individual who habitually resides in the household and who has spent the night preceding the census agent's visit in the household or is present in the household during the interview even if this person spent the night preceding the census agent's visit outside of the household.

Note: A present resident may or may not attend the interview. This is the case of a peasant who, while a present resident (having spent the previous night), left very early to the field before the arrival of the census agent.

Absent resident (RA): is an absent resident every individual residing in the household who did not spend the night preceding the census agent's visit and who did not return before the census agent's visit.
Thus, the wife who left to go to the market the night before, did not spend the night preceding the household count, and did not return before the census agent's visit shall be counted as "absent resident" (RA).

Note: If the duration of absence of a household member is longer or equal to six (6) months, such person shall not be considered an absent resident. He/she shall not be included on the household's form.

Visitor (vis): shall be counted as "visitor" (VIS) every person who does not habitually reside with the household, who stayed over the night preceding he interview, and who has not left the household prior to the census agent's visit.

Note: every person who has just arrived at the household (at the moment when the census agent is counting the household) shall not be counted.

Chapter III: Material for the census agent

The work material of the census agent (AR) consists of the documents needed for the fulfillment of his tasks in addition to other material.

I. Work material _ _

Household form: the first work document is the form "household" document RGPH Number 1. It is a document on which the census agent (AR) must note the information given by the counted persons. The census agent must fill out one or more forms for each ordinary or collective household in his census zone.

2.Building and household form: this document is used as the census agent's visit notebook. This particularly important document will allow organizing the work, the order of visits, and the ranking order of the forms.

3. Instructions manual: this is the document you currently have in hand, document RGPH 2 Number 3. It is an indispensable guide that must be mastered and consulted each time there is a problem. It contains useful information regarding filling out the questionnaire and conducting the fieldwork.

4. Census agent's identification card: this card with the agent's name allows him to prove to the interviewees that the census agent is officially designated to complete the census work. The document gives him the right to visit all the households in his census zone and to ask for the information indicated on the document RGPH 2 Number 1.

5. Census zone map: it allows recognizing the limits of the zone for which the census agent is responsible. The map must help him cover the zone fully during the census.
This map could be:
Either a detailed topographic map of the census zone
Or a map of the census zone in the case of a city.
Each of these maps shall carry, in the margin, specific indications on the census zone, notably the list of all localities and collective households.

6.The historical calendar: this is a list of events that have marked the history of life in the region or the country. This document allows the determination of the age or birth date of a counted person by referring to different events. Its usage is not recommended unless the counted person does not know his/her age or his/her date of birth and does not present any documents indicating this information.

7.Household card: this is a document that the census agent must deliver to the counted household. It is a stamp proving that the household was counted. This card must remain with the household.

II. Other material
A bag [backpack]
An ordinary folder containing empty forms.
Two blue ink pens.
A work notebook to report encountered difficulties and next day appointments.
Scratch paper.
White chalk.

Chapter IV: Attitude and recommendations for the task
General principles

The census agent is tasked with the heavy responsibility of directly counting the population. He will be confronted with various problems which only his attitude would allow him to surmount.

As a census agent, you must know the concepts and definitions included in this manual and must follow, to the letter, the various directions.

Role of the census agent: during this operation, the role of the census agent consists of:

Getting to know the census zone;
Numbering and listing the buildings used for housing;
Collecting information from all visited households and reporting them on the questionnaire form, following given instructions.
Contact with the population:
The success of the census agent's task depends on how he is received by the population, his availability to answer questions, and the sincerity of his declarations.

During the first contact, certain persons might manifest some distrust or reservations to providing the requested information. The census agent shall, first, seek to gain the trust of the population. He must reassure them that the information containing their names will remain confidential. Only the aggregate quantitative results is to be made public.

Conduct of the census agent:
The census agent is asked to have an irreproachable conduct. He must:
Be properly dressed and have a respectful attitude toward everyone;
Clearly explain the goal of his visit, present his census agent card and if need be, his personal identification card.
Respect the habits, language, religion of everyone etc.
Only concern himself with the census and not engage in endless discussions.

In the course of conducting the work, the census agent must:

Avoid crowding people, which could inconvenience interviewees;
Always remain polite, even if a resident insults you or refuses to answer questions. In the latter case, seek the help of the head of the locality or his representative, or, as a last resort, the team leader;
Answer all questions asked by the residents on the census without engaging in useless conversation;
Formulate questions in a language register that is simple and comprehensible to the interviewee; if necessary, repeat the questions and corresponding explanations several times;
Not forget to thank each counted person at the end of the interview and warn of the possibility of another potential visit to collect additional information.

Obligations and prohibitions
The census agent must:
Thoroughly study the "Household" form (RGPH 2 number 1) and the other documents in order to be familiar with these documents;
Expect to work irregular hours according to the work habits of the residents in his census zone; the census agent might be requested to work very early in the morning or very late in the evening;
Politely refuse any drinks offered and dinner invitations;
Complete the census operation in the predetermined time limit.

The census agent is strictly prohibited from:
Communicating the information collected during the census or commenting them;
Showing the census documents to any person outside of the census supervision and control structure, except for cases with special authorization from the authorities of the general census (RGPH);
Delegating the census agent functions to another person;
Being accompanied or aided by other persons without special authorization from the authorities of the general census;
Asking the population for information not requested by the questionnaire;
Engaging in extra-professional activities
Abandoning the census agent work before having completed the task, under the penalty of legal prosecution.

Census agent's relationship to his hierarchical superior
The efficacy of the work of the census agent depends on his collaboration with his team leader. The latter observes, controls, and guides the work conducted. He helps the census agent in his task. He frequently and constantly supervises the evolution and quality of his [the census agent's] work.
In case of difficulty during the operation, the census agent shall solicit the team leader for council. He must respect him as well as his hierarchical superiors.
The census agent must return the completed forms to the team leader on a daily basis and indicate to him his needs in terms of work material.


General principles for filling out the questionnaire

The questionnaire must be filled out with the utmost care without losing sight of the following principles:
Avoid double counts and omissions. Count newborns and the elderly and the ill in the household.
Write down the answer or circle the appropriate code for each counted person. Do not write anything in the sections that do not apply to the person. For persons younger than 3 years of age or 10 years of age, sections for those older than 3 or 10 do not apply.

Example: questions on professions, situation in the profession, the branch of activity do not apply for retired individuals.

Do not accept answers that are silly or illogical, unbelievable or vague.

Example: A 14-year old child cannot be attending university. A 7-year old girl cannot have children.

Use a blue-ink pen. Never use a red-ink pen.
Write all answers clearly even they are identical for all household members.

Example: if all household members are of the same nationality, never write "same" or "similar," rather, write the nationality again.

Write legibly.
To correct any information, single cross the wrong answer and write the new information above or next to it depending on available space.
Ask questions in the given order on the form, except for specific instructions.
Do not ask a question if the answer is known or obvious.

Example: in the case of a woman, do not ask for gender.

Do not waste forms, their number is limited, be careful not to damage them (rain, oil, etc.).

Beginning of the work
The census agent must verify that his work material (list in chapter III) is complete in his bag before the beginning of the work. Once he arrives in his census zone, he must:
Report to the local authorities who are aware of his arrival. However, he must explain his task to them.
Solicit their collaboration.
Thoroughly study his zone map in order to familiarize himself with the limits of his work domain, communication methods, residency dispersion.
By referring to his map of the census zone, the census agent shall number all buildings used for housing from 001 to 999 following the itinerary he took, always starting with the buildings of the head of locality in his census zone.

He must mark the numbers using white chalk (the chalk shall be given by the team leader). A number shall be marked on the outside of the main door if possible, sheltered from rain and out of scope of children. This number shall be preceded by the initials 'RP' (initials of the second general census of the population and residency) to distinguish it from other potentially existent numbers. The census agent must erase the old number 'RG' given to the building during the 1979 census if such number is still marked on the building. This is very important and must be done before marking the building with the new number in order to avoid any potential confusion.

Any building used as a loft, educational establishment, church, and garages shall be marked with "RPX" but shall not be reported on the "Buildings and Households Form."

Chapter V: "Detailed instructions for filling out the household form"

Presentation of the form and general instructions
The document RGPH 2 Number 1 is the basic questionnaire of the census. It contains four (4) pages. The first page is the cover page of the questionnaire. This page comprises the geographic localization of the household, the summary table, the identification of the census agent and the team leader. The second and third pages contain the socio-cultural and economic characteristics of the interviewee persons. The fourth page has two parts:

Events having occurred in the household in the last 12 months;
Characteristics of the household's dwelling unit.

If a household is comprised of more persons than there are lines on the inside page of the form, the census agent must use as many additional forms as necessary in order to count them all. He must transcribe all information on "localization" from the first form. Then, he must order the forms, according to the order number, inside the first form.

The work of the census agent consists of asking questions to each member of the household and transcribing these answers onto the household form. The ideal would be to personally interview each household member; however, this is not always possible. The head of household shall answer at the stead of very young children who cannot answer or of persons with certain disabilities (deaf-mute), heavily ill, seniors, and absent residents.

The census agent shall require, from each person to be counted, an identification card (national identification card, birth certificate, passport, etc.) in order to quickly obtain answers to questions regarding first and last names, date of birth, etc.

However, if a person does not have any of these aforementioned documents, the census agent must nevertheless count him/her. And if he/she does not know his/her date of birth, he must use the historical calendar.

The census agent must follow the following instructions to fill out the form.

II. How to fill out the questionnaire (Document RGPH 2 Number 1).

First page:
Localization: The census agent shall write clearly, using block letters, the elements of the household's geographic localization.

Department: write down the name of the department in which the census agent is.

Urban district or sub-prefecture: write down the name of the urban district or the sub-prefecture. Cross out the inappropriate term.

Township: write down the name of the township to which the census agent's census zone belongs. Specify if it is a rural or urban district by crossing out the inappropriate term.

Census zone: write down, in the grid, the census zone's number. This three-digit number shall be given by the team leader.

Village or neighborhood: write down the name of the village if the census agent is in a rural township or the name of the neighborhood if it is an urban township. Cross out the inappropriate term.

Building number: report this three-digit number that was marked on the main door of the head of household's building, then potentially other building numbers of the dwelling unit. Only the number of the main building used by the head of household shall be reported in the grid.

Household number: write in the household number in the designated grids. The numbering must be continuous within the census zone.
Example: "1" must be reported as 001 and "12" as 012.

Type of household: there are two types of households: the ordinary household and the collective household. The census agent shall write down "ordinary" in the case of an ordinary household. He shall write down "collective" in the case of a collective household and specify the name of the establishment.
Example: jail house of Cotonou.

Important note: collective households are reported according to their directors. They can be a hotel director, a prison director, etc. The team leader will introduce the census agent to such establishments.

Locality (hamlet): at the end of the "localization" section, the census agent shall report the name of the locality for villages.

Visa table: the census agent and the team leader shall note each in their own sections, their last and first names, the date of household visit, and the control date.

"Agricultural exploitation" table
The census agent shall ask the following question to the head of household: "Is there at least one family member who independently runs an agricultural exploitation?"
If yes, circle 1; if not, circle 2. If yes, specify the department, the sub-prefecture/urban district, the township and the village/neighborhood where the exploitation is found.

Summary table
At the end of the work day, the census agent shall review each "household" form and shall report the total number of present residents, absent residents, and visitors by gender in the summary table. Do not write anything in the 3 grids of the section "size".

Inside page
All persons on the national territory regardless of nationality must be counted at the location in which they are on the day of the census. Members of diplomatic missions and their affiliates, i.e. those who are covered by diplomatic immunity shall not be counted.

For an ordinary household, the census agent shall, after estimating the total number of persons in the household, start with registering last and first names, family relations, and the sex of all household members (columns 2, 3, and 4) before asking for other information (starting column 5), proceeding one by one and starting with the head of household.

For a collective household, the census agent must not fill out column (3) "family relations," column (14) to (25) and the events... of the past 12 months. He must not fill out the section of the form on the characteristics of the dwelling unit and the agricultural exploitation.

Demographic characteristics
Column (1): Order number

Attribute to each household member an order number according to the following:
The head of household must always be counted first, he shall have the number 1. Following whom are:

The unmarried children of the head of household whose mothers are no longer part of the household due to death, divorce, or separation. They shall be numbered from the youngest to the oldest.
The wives of the head of household who are members of the household, starting with the first wife to the last wife, followed each by her unmarried children from the youngest to the oldest. (do not forget children from previous relationships, irrespective of age).
The married children of the head of household and potentially their husbands or wives and living children, and who depend on the head of household. The census agent must register them according to the procedure used for the head of household and his wives.
The parents of the head of household (father, mother) and potentially their spouses (followed by their children from the youngest to the oldest).
Other relatives of the head of household (uncle, cousin, brothers, grandparents, in-laws, etc.) and potentially their spouses and children, who habitually sleep in his dwelling unit and recognize his authority.
Servants who eat and sleep with the household, and potentially their spouses and children.
Visitors.

Column (2): Last and first names
Write down the last names (in capital letters) and first names (in lower case letters) of all household members in the previously indicated order (column 1), starting with the head of household.
Remember that the head of household is the person recognized as such by the other household members. It is the person responsible for the revenues of the household and who makes decisions in the name of the household. It can be a man or a woman. Example: Tomaplekonou Alexandre Apolinaire

If the name of an individual is too long for the designated space, write the common first name in its entirety and abbreviate the other names [middle names].
For married women, widowed or divorced, write down their maiden name.
Titles or honorary designations shall not be reported, such as:
"sir," "madam," "el-hadj" [religious or seniority title], "comrade," or leadership titles.
For newborns who have not yet received a name, the census agent shall mark down "X" in the "last and first name" column but will fill out the other corresponding columns.
The census agent shall ask the interviewee if he/she has a nickname i.e. a nickname by which he is well known in his locality. If "yes," the census agent shall ask for the nickname and write it down between brackets under the last and first names.

Column (3): Family relations
The answers to this question are pre-coded. After receiving the answer, circle the corresponding number.
Answers are coded as follows:

[] 0 Head of Household
[] 1 Wife of head of household
[] 2 Child of head of household
[] 3 Parent of head of household (father or mother)
[] 4 In-laws of head of household (father-in-law or mother-in-law)
[] 5 Other relative of head of household
[] 6 Grandchild (grandson or granddaughter) of head of household
[] 7 No family relation to the head of household

Example: if the counted person is a child of the head of household, circle code 2.

Column (4): Sex
Circle "1" for males and "2" for females. For children (babies and newborns), ask the parents for their sex. Do not base your choice on their appearance.

Column (5): Date of birth
Try to obtain as much specificity as possible. Identification cards are very helpful. If the interviewees have one, write down the date of birth figuring on the card in the appropriate grid.
The numbers corresponding to months are:

[] 01= January
[] 02 = February
[] 03 = March
[] 04 = April
[] 05 = May
[] 06 = June
[] 07 = July
[] 08 = August
[] 09 = September
[] 10 = October
[] 11 = November
[] 12 = December

Example: for March 1982, write down in the grid 0382. For a birth date of "around 1954," write down 1954 in the grid.
In the case where the interviewee presents no identification documents, politely ask the following question "what is your date of birth?" Write down the answer in the same manner in the designated grid.

Column (6): Age
For those who do not know their date of birth, ask the following question "How old are you?" The declared age shall be written down in lived years i.e. the number of years lived by the person. It must be reported in the designated grid.

Example: for children younger than 1 year of age (less than 12 months), write down 00. For 20 and a half years, write down 20. For 51years and 11 months, write down 51

If the person does not know his/her date of birth or age, and does not have any official document proving his/her age, the census agent must estimate the age by using the historical calendar or by comparison to other persons whose age is known.

Notes: the census agent must keep in mind that:
The age of a father must be at least 15 years higher than his first child.
The age of a mother must be at least 12 years higher than her first child.

[Example summary table omitted]

Column (7): Place of birth
Ask the following question: "Where were you born?" and ask for the urban district or sub-prefecture and department for persons born in the Republic of Benin.

Use the following abbreviations for the department:

[] ATA: Atacora
[] ATL: Atlantic
[] BOR: Borgou
[] Mon: Mono
[] OUE: Oueme
[] ZOU: Zou

Example: mark down ZE (ATL) for a person that claims to be born in the sub-prefecture of ZE in the Atlantic department.

For persons born outside of Benin, write own the name of the country: Togo, Belgium...

Column (8): Nationality
Ask the question "What is your nationality?" and write down the name of the country on top of the grid.

Example: Beninese for Benin
Nigerians for Nigeria
French for France,
Etc.

Column (6): Ethnicity
Ask the question "What is your ethnicity?" and write down the answer: Fon, Goun, Dendi, Ditamari, etc. for Beninese.
Note: Mark "Naturalized" for the Beninese who acquired the Beninese nationality.
For foreigners who declare an ethnicity, write it down or mark a dash if they do not.

Column (10): Religion
The census agent shall ask each household member what religion he/she practices. He shall circle the corresponding code according to the following:

[] 1 TRA: traditional religion
[] 2 CAT: Catholic religion
[] 3 PRO: Methodist protestant religion
[] 4 ISL: Islamic religion
[] 5 AC: other Christians
[] 6 AR: other religions
[] 7 AUC: no religion

Minors habitually have the same religion as their parents. However, it would be appropriate to ask this question to children.

Column (11): Residency status
After determining the residency situation of the household members, the census agent must circle the corresponding code:

[] 1 RP for present residents
[] 2 RA for absent residents
[] 3 VIS for visitors

Notes: A permanent state agent who was recently positioned in a locality shall be counted as "resident."
Night workers such as guards, doctors, etc. who spent the night preceding the census agent's visit at their work location shall be counted as "Present Residents" in their household. They shall not be counted at their work location.

Columns (12) and (13): Ask these questions only to residents.

Column (12): Duration of residency or stay
Ask the interviewee for the length of time he has spent in the urban district or sub-prefecture (where he is counted). Write down this duration in fully spent years in the appropriate grid.

For persons who never changed sub-prefectures or urban districts and who have been living in the area for at least 98 years, report 98

Example:

[] For less than a year, write down 00
[] For 3 years, write down 03
[] For 40 years, write down 40
[] For 1 year and 2 months, write down 01
[] For 1 year and 10 months, write down 01
This column is not to be used for "Visitors."

The census agent shall not mark anything down in the grid.

Column (13): Place of previous residency
Ask the following question: "where did you live before moving into this urban district or sub-prefecture?" only to the household's present members and absent members.

Report the urban district or sub-prefecture if the place residency was in Benin, or the country for persons who were living outside of Benin.

Column (14): Literacy
Literacy consists of the learning of reading and writing in a given language.
Ask the question "Can you read and write?"

[] French
[] National language
[] French and national language
[] Other foreign languages?

Circle the number corresponding to one of the following situations according to the answer provided by the interviewee.

[] NLE: cannot read or write
[] SEF: can read and write in French
[] ALN: literate in national language
[] SLN: can read in national language
[] AFLN: literate in French and national language
[] Other: literate in another foreign language

This question does not apply to children under 3 years of age.

Columns (15) and (16)
These two columns are only for persons of 3 years of age and above i.e. born before February 1989.

For column 15, the census agent shall ask if the interviewee:

[] Currently attends [an educational institution]
[] Has attended
[] Never attended

The possible options are:

[] FA: currently attends
[] AF: has attended
[] JF: never attended

For those younger than 3 years of age, the question does not apply. The census agent shall leave this section empty.

In column (16), for those currently attending, indicate the current grade level, and for those having attended, report the last grade level completed.

Example: kindergarten: EM for kindergarten.

[] Primary education: Primary school 1st year (EP1) or (CP1) or CI.
[] Primary school 2nd year (EP2) or (CP2) or CP
[] Primary school 6th year (EP6) or (CM2)

E.C.: Koranic school for every person who does not attend or has never attended any school other than the Koranic or Islamic school.

General and Technical middle school education [in the French system, grade level number goes down as one advances]

[] 1st cycle: 1st year or 6th grade (6)
[] 2nd year or 5th grade (5)
[] 3rd year or 4th grade (4)
[] 4th year or 3rd grade (3)
[] 2nd cycle: 1st year or 2nd grade(SEC)
[] 2nd year or 1st grade (PREM)
[] 3rd year or Terminal grade (TERM)

Higher education

[] 1st year at University (ES1)
[] 2nd year at University (ES2)
[] 4th year at University (ES4)

For children younger than 3, the census agent shall leave this section empty.

Columns (17) to (21): These columns are only for persons older than 10 i.e. born before February 1982.

Column (17): Marital Status
Is considered married, each individual whose union was celebrated in a civil, religious, or customary rite. The census agent shall circle the codes according to the interviewee's answer.

[] 0 Single i.e. a man or a woman who was never been married.
[] 1 M1: monogamous marriage
[] 2 M2: polygamous marriage with 2 wives
[] 3 M3: polygamous marriage with 3 wives
[] 4 M4+: polygamous marriage with 4 or more wives
[] 5 D: divorced for each person whose marriage ended through divorce and has not remarried.
[] 6 V: widowed for each person who was married and has lost his or her partner through death and was not remarried at the time of the census.
[] 7 S: separated for each person previously married but declares to be separated at the time of the census.
[] 8 UL (free union) [unmarried couple] for each person living with a partner without an official celebration of a legal marriage, religious or customary.

Column (18): Occupation
For all questions related to occupation, the census agent shall refer to the 3-month period immediately preceding the interview.

Ask the following question to each person of 10 years or more of age: "Have you worked for at least one week in the last 3 months?"

The census agent shall then circle:

[] 1 The code 1. OCC (employed) for each person who has worked during this period.

Included in this category, are:
[] Persons working or having worked as independents,
[] Persons working or having worked for a compensation of any kind.
[] Persons working or having worked under the authority of the head of household with or without compensation.
Example: A child (of at least 10) guarding or having guarded cattle for his/her parents.
A woman who in addition to her household duties has worked independently or for her family (saleswoman, sewer, farmer, potter).
A woman or a man who does housekeeping for a salary. Example: houseboy, wet nurse.
[] 2 C: for persons seeking first employment.
[] 3 CHO: (unemployed) for every person without employment during the period of reference but who has worked before and is currently looking for a job.
Ask if this person has no activity allowing him/her to survive. If yes, he/she is employed.

[] 4 MEN (housewife): for women only working in the household and taking care of children without any monetary compensation.
[] 5 ETU: for elementary schoolchildren, middle and high school children, and students of higher education,
[] 6 RET: for retired persons,
[] 7 REN: for annuitants, i.e. persons possessing a personal fortune that allows them to live without having to work.

Note: a retired person or an annuitant who has helped a family member in his/her work or has performed another activity that generated him/her money shall be classified under the rubric of "OCC" i.e. employed. This is the case of retired persons who work in commerce or agriculture.

This question does not apply to those below 10 years of age during the census. The census agent must not note anything in this section for these persons.

Note: Apprentices are "employed"

Column (19): Profession
It is the primary occupation or the activity that most occupied the person during the reference period. Example: Tailor, farmer, mechanic, physician, etc.
Note: Actual profession is not necessarily the job performed. Someone formed as a carpenter could currently be working as a roofer.

For an unemployed person, it is the last profession exercised before the reference period.

For this column, the census agent shall ask the following question: "What type of job have you held for a least one week in the last three months?"
For an unemployed person, ask about his/her last job. Report then according to the answer

[] Loin cloth [female] seller, donut seller [female] ...
[] Police inspector, tax inspector...
[] Medical doctor, dentist...
[] Agronomic engineer, statistical engineer...
[] School professor, university professor...
Avoid vague answers such as merchant, civil servant, inspector, doctor, businessman, etc.

Column (20): Status within the profession

This is the status of an active person within his/her profession during the reference period. This question only applies to employed individuals.

Circle according to the situation:

[] 0 EMP (employer): for a person who have other workers whom he pays.
[] 1 IND (independent worker): for each person working independently, alone or with family help.
[] 2 SAP (permanent employee): for a permanent agent of the state or any private sector employee with a permanent status.
[] 3 SAT (temporary worker): for each individual working in the public or private sector without a permanent status.
[] 4 COOP for each person member of a production or sales cooperative.
[] 5 AF (unpaid family aid): for each individual working for a family member in a family business, in the field or elsewhere. He could however be housed, fed, and provided for in a way or another. This is the case of the son who helps his father in the field.
[] 6 APP (apprentice): this is an employed person who is learning a trade and receiving, or not, a compensation.
[] 7 AUT (other): for those who could not be classified in the groups above.

This question does not apply to those younger than 10 years.

Column (21): Branch of economic activity
This column is for persons of 10 years or more of age who have worked during the reference period.
Write down legibly what the interviewee's firm or employer primarily does.

For example:

"Education" for a physician or a typist working in a school.
This column shall also be filled for the unemployed. In this case, determine the branch of activity of the last employment held before the reference period.
"Health" for a physician, typist, or driver working in a public or private health institution.
"Banking" for a typist working in the banking sector.
"Education" for teachers, supervisors, and professors.
"Public administration" for those working in the public sector.
"National defense" for the military or non-military personnel of the armed forces.
"Domestic services: for a boy [page], a maid, or a guard employed by a private individual.

Note: A person working at the "Béninoise" or its repositories [stores] shall have the mention "BREWERY," while a person engaged in sales in an independent store shall be classified under the rubric "Commerce."

It is possible to encounter establishments that engage in several activities. In such case, ask the interviewee about the activity in which he partakes.

Example: the personnel of SONICOG can be classified under "food insdustries" or "chemical industries" depending on the case. If he works in the oil mill, he is in the food industry branch and if he works at the soap factory, he is in the chemical industry branch.

Columns (22) to (25): these columns only apply to female residents of at least 12 years of age i.e. those born before February 1980.

For women younger than 12, and males, these columns do not apply. For these persons, the agent shall not report anything.

Columns (22) and (23): Total number of born alive children
The census agent shall ask the question: "How many children born alive have you had so far?"

A child born alive is a child who, at birth, manifested a sign of life (scream, breathing, heartbeat) even if the child later died.

Report the total number of boys in column (22) and the number of girls in column (23).

Columns (24) and (25): Total number of currently alive children
The census agent shall ask the question: "How many of your children are still alive?" He shall report the number in column (24) for males and in column (25) for females.

Events that occurred in the household during the last 12 months

Births:
This applies to children born alive to women residing in the household.
The census agent shall ask the following question to the head of household: "Were there any births in the household since January 1st,1991?"
If the head of household's answer is No, the census agent shall report "0" (zero) in the grid situated above the table "Births" and shall then proceed to the section "Deaths."
If the answer is Yes, the census agent shall ask, "how many?" i.e. how many births has there been in the household during the last 12 months. He shall report the number in the corresponding grid and fill out the columns in the table of births.

Column (1): this is the column for the number of births in the household in the last 12 months.

Column (2): the census agent shall mark in the column the last and first names of the child. If the child has not yet received a name, he shall mark X in this column.

Column (3): the census agent shall report the line number of the mother if she was counted on the inside page of the questionnaire. In the case where the mother has died or is no longer living with the household, leave this part empty.

Column (4): Sex of the child
Circle 1 for males and 2 for females.

Column (5): write down the child's date of birth, the digits corresponding to the months of birth. Complete the year in the grid designated to that effect. [Original sentence in French is very peculiar]

Column (6): in this column, the census agent shall circle:
"1" corresponding to a Yes answer, if the child born in the last 12 months is still alive.
"2" corresponding to a No answer, if the child is no longer alive.

Deaths:
This applies to the death of residing members of the household. The census agent shall ask the question "Has there been any deaths in the household since January 1st, 1991?" The census agent shall treat this question carefully because it can sometimes invoke painful memories for the respondent.

If there were no deaths during the period, the census agent shall report "0" (zero) in the grid situated above the table "Deaths."

If the answer is Yes, the census agent shall ask for how many deaths occurred in the household during the last 12 months. He shall report the number in the corresponding grid.

Column (1): this is the column for the number of deaths in the household.

Column (2): the census agent shall mark in the column the last and first names of the persons deceased in the last 12 months.

Column (3): Sex
Circle 1 for males and 2 for females.

Columns (4), (5), and (6)
Ask and report:
In the grids of column (4), the date of death (month, year)

In the grids of column (5), the date of birth (month, year)
In the grids of column (6), the age at death in days and months or passed years. If columns (4) and (5) cannot all be filled out, the census agent shall try to obtain information on the age at death. The census agent must at least obtain the year of death.

Report age in days if age is less than one month.
Example: 3 days, 28 days.

Note: report age in months if age is less than a year. Example: 1 month, 6 months, 11 months.
In past years if age is above 12 months.
Example: For 1 year and 3 months, report 1 year. For 30 years and 10 months, report 30 years.

If the age given is in days, write down the number in the grid preceded by code number 1. Example: if the age at death is 28 days, write down |1|2|8|.
If the age given is in months, write down the number in the grid preceded by code number 2. Example: if the age at death is 6 months, write down |2|0|6|.
If the age given is in past years, write down the number in the grid preceded by code number 3. Example: 30 years, write down 330.

Column (3): Death circumstances
For death circumstances, 3 reporting options are used given the objectives (mortality in maternity period)

[] 1 Death during pregnancy (DCG)
[] 2 Death following delivery (DSC)
[] 3 Other circumstances

In the case of painful events, the census agent shall proceed with prudence. He shall inquire about the circumstances in which death occurred and circle:

1 DCG for death during pregnancy
2: DSC for death following delivery
3: for other cases of death

Characteristics of the household's dwelling unit

Column (1): Dwelling unit's construction type

The census agent must examine the dwelling unit in which the household resides, determine its construction type, and circle the corresponding number.

[] Private house: this is generally a building with several rooms and without enclosure.
[] Compartmentalized house: this is a compartmentalized building that can house several households.
[] Villa: include in this rubric any building of high standing, surrounded by an enclosure, and generally having a green space in the inner courtyard. A Villa can be an ordinary building with one floor. A villa generally houses one household. This is the case of houses that one encounters in residential zones (Cotonou, Parakou, etc.).
[] Building: this is a building of several stories with several apartments.
[] Isolated case: those are buildings made with one material that one generally encounters in the countryside (made of clay, bamboo, straw...). Example: Huts in the South, Tatas in the North.
[] Concession: a concession is composed of buildings grouped together and giving access or not to a central courtyard.
[] Other: classify under this rubric all buildings that could not be classified elsewhere.

Column (2): Usage type
Depending on the case, circle:
The number 1 for buildings used exclusively for housing;
The number 2 for buildings used for housing and other purposes.

Column (3): Occupation status
Each person occupying a housing unit that he/she does not own is a renter. The occupation status can also be familial. Circle the code according to the declared occupation status.

Column (4): Total number of occupied rooms
Rooms used for housing purposes must be counted: bedrooms, dining room, living room, servants' room.
Hallways, verandas, bathrooms, toilet room (W.C.), and other areas of a surface of less than 5 squared meters are not considered rooms.
If a room is common to several households, assign it only to one of the households. Report the total number of rooms occupied by the household in the grid reserved to that effect.

Column (5), (6), and (7): Type of roofs, walls, and floor
Observe the type of the roof, walls, and floor of the main building (head of household's building) of the dwelling unit and circle the numbers corresponding to the observed characteristics in the appropriate columns.

In all cases, mention the predominant material (i.e. the most used) in the case of buildings made with several materials.

Column (8): Lighting mode
Ask the household members about the lighting mode used and report the answer. Do not trust the mere existence of electric outlets; several do not receive electricity. The different lighting modes currently used are found in column 8. Circle, depending on the case, the corresponding number. Any other lighting method not previously mentioned shall be classified under the rubric "other."

Column (9): Water provisioning
Ask household members and circle, depending on the case, the number corresponding to the household's method for water provisioning. The different methods are shown in column (9).

Column (10): Toilet type
The census agent shall circle, depending on the case, the number corresponding to the type of toilet used and declared by the household members. The types are indicated in column (10).

Column (11): Evacuation of used water
The sewage network is the one seen in urban areas. It is a canalization system, generally underground, used for household and industrial water evacuation.

A septic tank or latrine cannot be reported as water evacuation methods.

Circle in column (12), the number corresponding to the declaration of the household members.

Column (13): Energy types used by the household for cooking
Cooking methods are indicated in column (12). Circle the number corresponding to the one indicated by the household members.

Chapter VI: Detailed instructions for filling out document RGPH number 2 "Buildings and households form"

Introduction
The document allows the census agent to list all the buildings used for housing by households found in his census zone. It also allows:
Controlling [census] coverage;
Summarizing at the end of the census the collected data per household, and per census zone and sector.

If, in a building, the census agent cannot count a household due to the absence of a person qualified to answer questions, he must assign to the household the same order number he would have, had he counted the household. The form shall be set aside and filled out later in future visits.

Cover page

Geographic localization
The census agent shall report the complete name of the department, urban district, sub-prefecture, and township (points 1, 2, and 3).

He shall mark the capital letter identifying the census sector and the 3-digit number identifying the census zone.

Note that the letter and number given to the census agent are determined cartographically and are noted on the zone map that he was given before the start of the operation.

VISAS
After filling out the form, the census agent, the team leader, and the supervisor shall write down their first and last names followed by their signature.

Inside pages
These pages, all identical, are used to establish an exhaustive list of households and buildings used for housing to be counted in the census zone.

Each page contains, in addition to the geographic localization of the census zone, a 15-column table. The page is identified with a number on top.

Column (1): Building number
Report the number marked with chalk on the main door. In the case where several households live in the same building, only report the number on the first household's line. In the case where several buildings are used by one household, report, in order, the numbers marked on each building and group them together with an accolade.

Column (2) and (3): Building usage
Mark a cross in the appropriate column to specify the building's type of usage.

Column (4): Household number
The numbering of households shall be done continuously in the census zone.
The first household shall have the number 001, the second 002 even if it is in another building. The numbering shall continue in this fashion until the zone is fully covered.

In the case where several buildings are used by one household, the census agent shall only write down the number of that household, while reporting the buildings occupied by the household using an accolade.

Column (5): Name of the head of household or name and type of the establishment
In the case of an ordinary household, write down the name of the head of household.
In the case of a collective household, write down the name and add the type of the establishment. For example:

Médji de Sékou High School: Educational establishment
INMES: Educational establishment
La Croix du Sud: Hotel; SHERATON Hotel: Hotel.

Example:The example below is used to illustrate what is explained in the four previous paragraphs.

[] The first building in the census zone receives the number 001, it houses for example the INA BABADA household and is also used as a shop. This household shall have the number 001.
[] The building 002 is occupied by three households.
[] The first household TATA RAMANOU shall have the number 002
[] The second household BOSSOU Hervé shall have the number 003
[] The third household ANANI shall have the number 004

The buildings 003, 004, and 005 are occupied by the collective household "Croix du Sud Hotel."
[Table is omitted here]

Columns (6) to (14): Number of persons counted in the household.
It is the number of present residents, absent residents, and visitors of both genders counted in each household. These numbers are reported in the summary table found on the first page of the form RGPH 2 (document number 1).

Column (15): number of forms used for each household.
Report in this column the number of forms used for each household.

Note: At the end of the census, the census agent shall return the completed form to his team leader without calculating the totals or filling out the summary table on the last page of the form.