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General Census of Population and Housing 1978
Document RGPH 3
Manual instruction for Census Agent

Central Census Office

[p. 2-4]

[Foreword for Census agents is not presented here.]

[p. 5]

[Chapter 1 containing general information about the Census is not presented here.]

[p. 6-7]

Chapter 2: Basic census concepts and definitions

The census agent must fully know the concepts and definitions below:

A: Administrative units

The popular Republic of Benin is divided into territorial or administrative divisions according to criteria established in the ordinance number 74-7 of February 13th 1974 concerning the reorganization of the territorial administration.

Province
This is the largest administrative division of the national territory. Its political and administrative authority is the Prefect.

District
This is the principle territorial division of a province, with a distinction between Urban Districts and Rural Districts. Its political and administrative authority is the Head of District.

Township
This is the principle territorial division of a District, the administrative authority of which is the Mayor. Similarly, there is a distinction between Urban Townships and Rural Townships.

Neighborhood
This is the smallest administrative unit of an Urban Township, having a well-known name and for which the administrative authority is the Delegate.

Village
This is the smallest administrative unit in rural areas and is placed under the responsibility of a Delegate. The village is a fraction of the Rural Township. A village can be, in most cases, constituted by several localities (see paragraph 19), the most important of which is the Chief-Locality, which gives its name to the whole.

City
In general, each major (main) locality of a District is a city.

B: Cartographic units

Locality
Every grouping of dwellings forming an entity, even if very small, is called a locality. It has a name or a status that is locally known; a hamlet with two houses could constitute a locality.
The terms village and locality will be used interchangeably when the village is constituted by only one entity.

[p. 8]

Census Zone
This is at the same time a grouping of population and a portion of territory. A census zone (CZ) must correspond, in principle, to a population of 500 to 1,000 persons; i.e. an average of 800 persons that a census agent must completely and correctly count during the census period.

Census Sector
4 to 5 census zones form a Census Sector (CS), which falls under the responsibility of a Team Leader (TL).

Census District
The census district corresponds to the administrative district. It contains several census sectors and falls under the responsibility of a District Controller (or Supervisor) (DC).

C: Demographic units

Building
The Building is an independent construction that contains one or several rooms and other areas. It is covered by a roof and is generally restricted by exterior walls or adjoining walls going from the foundation to the roof.
Dwelling Unit
A dwelling unit is a space or a collection of spaces used by a household for living purposes during the census period.

Note that dwelling units in the same building as other establishments such as a hospital, a hotel, etc., must be considered separately and counted as dwelling units.

For example, an independent and separate house situated within the enclosure of a hospital building or a school to be used by the director and his family must be considered a dwelling unit. Similarly, independent apartments in the same building as a hotel must be must considered dwelling units if they have a separate entrance.
The Household
The concept of the "Household" is dependent on the arrangements taken by persons, individually or collectively, to satisfy their alimentary and other survival needs.

There are two categories of households: the ordinary household and the collective household.
[p. 9]
Ordinary Household
This is a grouping of persons, related or not, that recognize the authority of the same individual called "Head of Household," living under the same roof and generally eating together.

The ordinary household is composed, in the large majority of cases, of the head of household, his only or several spouses, his single children, and potentially other relatives such as father, mother, brothers, lodgers, and servants living with them.

A person renting a room and who does not dine with the household should be considered as forming a separate ordinary household (case of renters).

A person living alone and who attends by him- or herself to his or her basic needs, alimentary and others (case of celibate persons, widows) also forms a household. Those are cases where the household is limited to one person.
Collective Household
A collective household is defined as a group of unrelated persons living together in the same establishment for disciplinary, study, travel, health, or professional purposes.

This is the case in the following:
(a) Military personnel, police officers, and policemen living in camps or barracks without their families.
(b) Persons detained in prisons and jails.
(c) Boarding students in high schools, middle schools, or other educational institutions.
(d) Persons living in a hotel or boarding with families or homes.
(e) Sick persons staying in hospitals or in sanitary establishments.
(f) Temporary site workers living on-site without their families.
(g) Members of religious communities living in convents, monasteries, etc.

[p. 10-11]

[Chapter 3 on documents for Census agents is not presented here.]

[p. 12-13]

[Chapter 4: General Instruction on Recognition is not presented here.]

[p. 14-17]

[p. 75]

Chapter 5: Detailed instructions for filling out RGPH 1
[RGPH = General census of the population and residency]

Household and dwelling unit

A. Generalities

The document RGPH I "Household -- Dwelling Unit" is the basic census form. It contains four sections distributed on four pages:

- The first page is the head page of the form. It comprises the first two sections: geographic location of the household (section A) and the question on the household dwelling unit (section B);

- The second and third pages both constitute section C: "Household" which contains the individual characteristics of the household's members;

- The fourth page contains the last section D reserved for important instructions to which the census agent must systematically refer to conduct the interviews.

This form is to be used for households of no more than ten persons. If a household comprises more than 10 persons, the census agent must use as many additional forms as necessary to account for all persons. The census agent must reproduce the information contained in section A: "Localization" on all forms, but not the information in section B: "Dwelling Unit." Additional forms must be put according to their order number inside the first file.

The census agent must always interview in priority the head of household whenever possible. When the latter is absent, the census agent should interview the person most qualified to provide correct answers, such as the eldest wife or an adult family member. In all cases, answers must not be given by children who are too young, neighbors, or servants. However, after a third visit and absent another option, the census agent may interview these latter persons as a last resort.

B. How to fill out the form "Household- Dwelling unit"

a) First page

Section A: Localization

The census agent must clearly report the household's geographic localization data:

- Province (point 1): Write down the name of the province in which the census agent is.

- District (point 2): Write down the name of the district and specify whether it is urban or rural by crossing out the incorrect term.

[p. 18]

- Township (point 3): Write down the name of the township to which the census agent's census zone belongs. Specify whether it is urban or rural.

- Village or neighborhood (point 4): Write down the name of the village, if the census agent is in a rural township, and the name of the neighborhood, if the agent is in an urban township. Cross out the incorrect term.

- Locality (point 5): Write down the name of the locality for villages.

- Census sector (point 6): Write down the two capital letters representing the sector. These letters are given to the census agent by the team leader. They are also on the label attached to the bag given to the census agent.

- Census zone (point 7): Write down the number of the census zone. The number will also be given by the team leader.

- Building number (point 8): Report the 3-digit number located on the main door of the building of the head of household and potentially the numbers of other building included in the dwelling unit.

- Household number (point 9): Write down the household number within the building.

Section B: Dwelling Unit
If a household occupies several buildings or several apartments, the physical characteristics to be reported are those of the apartment or building occupied by the head of household (type of roof, floor, and lighting). However, the number of rooms to be reported in column (g) is the total number of rooms used by the household.

Dwelling type

The census agent must inspect the building in which the head of household resides, define its type, and check the corresponding box.

The census agent shall choose the box Traditional for buildings made of one type of material typically found in the countryside (generally, clay, bamboo, straw, etc.) [Examples are not presented here.]

The Modern box is for contemporary buildings found in cities (generally constructed with bricks and tiles or sheet metal). This is the case of buildings seen in the neighborhoods of the city of Cotonou. Houses with several stories are not classified as "modern."

Villa or similar housing: Include in this category any building of high standing with a fence and generally having a green area in the enclosure. A villa can be an ordinary or a one-story building. A villa is generally occupied by one household. This is the case of houses that are found in residential areas [Cotonou, Parkou, etc].

[p. 19]

Apartment building: It includes buildings with several stories containing several apartments.

Building within institutions: Classify under this term buildings, with or without several stories, housing collective households.

Other: This includes all other types of buildings not defined above, in addition to other types of entities not originally destined for housing, such as stores, garages, caves, tents for tourists, etc.

Dwelling Characteristics
Column (a): Type of roof
The census agent must note the type of building or apartment in which the head of household resides and check the right box.

Column (b): Type of walls
Examine the type of the building's or apartment's walls in which the head of household lives and check the corresponding box. In the case of buildings made with various materials [Examples are not presented here], mention the main material used.

Column (c): State of the floor
Examine the state of the floor and check the right box.

Column (d): Mode of lighting
Check the box corresponding to the household's main lighting mode. Do not trust the mere presence of electric outlets as some do not receive electricity.

Column (e): Water provisioning
Ask household members and check the box corresponding to the main water provisioning method. Do not check 'running water' before verifying that there is running water in the faucets of the kitchen and bathrooms.

Water pumps are found in the streets of city neighborhoods.

Column (f): Type of ownership
Every person living in an apartment without owing it is considered a renter even if such person is housed free of charge by the state or another institution.

A person housed free of charge by a family member or friend shall fall under the case "Free of Charge".

Column (g): Number of rooms
Are considered rooms, the bedroom, the living room, or the dining room regardless of size, as well the kitchen and store if their surface is higher than 5 squared meters allowing one person to use them to sleep. Hallways, balconies, bathrooms, and other areas of a surface smaller than 5 squared meters are not considered rooms.

[p. 20]

If one room is used by two or more households, only attribute it to one household.

Report in both boxes the number of rooms each household has.

Table at the bottom of the page

The census agent shall, on the line "census agent" write his first and last name in the first column and the visit date in the second column (that is the date on which the interview was concluded). In the third column, he shall mark 'X' or 'O' depending on whether the information received was given by a qualified household member or by a third party (see paragraph 64).

b) Second and third pages or the inside page
Section C: Household
The general census of the population of 1978 shall take place on all of the territory of the Popular Republic of Benin on April 28th, 1978. This date will be referred to as "Census Date" in this manual.

This general census constitutes what is technically called a de facto census, which means that all persons physically present on the national territory regardless of their nationality (at the exception of members of diplomatic missions and their affiliates i.e. persons covered by diplomatic immunity) must be counted at the location in which they are on the day of the census.

Household type
Two household types are to be considered: ordinary households and collective households.

In the case of an ordinary household, the census agent must ask the head of household whether "the household cultivates a field," and then check the "Yes" or "No" box on whether the household is agricultural or not.
In the case of a collective household, the census agent must first write the name of the establishment [Examples are not presented here], then check the box corresponding to the type of establishment.

Individual characteristics of household members
In the case of an ordinary household, the census agent must first precisely determine the exact number of persons that are members of the household and whom he must count. He shall then immediately register their last and first names, their family relationships, and sex in columns (2), (3), and (4).

Once their last and first names, their family relationships, and sex are determined, the census agent must ask, of each person, the additional information starting with the first person on the list [head of household], followed by the second, and so on, in the following manner:

Fill out columns (5) to (10) for all household members;
Fill out columns (11) to (12) for household members who are 6 years or more of age;
Fill out columns (13) to (16) for household members who are 10 years or more of age;

In the case of a collective household, the census agent should not fill out column (3) on "Family Relations" nor the last four columns, (13) to (16), on economic characteristics.

[p. 21]

Demographic Characteristics (for each household member)

Column (1): Numbering order
Attribute to each household member a number according to the following:

- The head of household must necessarily be attributed the number 1, following whom:

- The head of household's children whose mothers are no longer part of the household (due to death, divorce or separation). They shall be numbered, in an ascending order, from the youngest to the eldest;

- Current wives of the head of household from the first to the last, each followed by her children (from the youngest to the eldest), if any, who currently live in the household;

- The head of household's relatives (uncle, cousins, brothers, grandparents, in-laws, etc.);

- Others (renters, servants, friends, visitors, etc.).

Column (2): Last and first names
The census agent must begin with registering the last and first name of the head of household (HH). The head of household is the person recognized as such by other household members. It is the person who, by virtue of age, family support, or respect is considered to be the leader by household members. The head of household is generally responsible for the household's revenues and makes decisions in the name of household members. He is generally a man, but, in some cases, can be a woman.

If a member of the household is absent on the night of the census due to travel or work, the census agent must count him with the other members of the household. This is the case of a person on a domestic or foreign mission, a night guard, a nurse, etc. Such persons must be counted with the members of their household.

Write in the last and first names. The last names must be written using capital letters and first names using lower case letters.
[Examples are not presented here]

If the name of an individual is too long to fit in the designated case, use the middle name initial instead of the full middle name.
[Examples are not presented here]

For women married, widowed, or divorced, note their maiden names.
Do not include in this column any titles or honorifics.
[Examples are not presented here]

[p. 22]

Column (3): Family relations
Indicate, in this column, the relationship between each member of the household to the head of household. However, if establishing such relationship is difficult to do, define the relationship in relation to another most directly related family member.

Wives shall receive the letter 'E' following by the husband's order number on the form. For example, the head of household's wife shall receive the code E1, the wife of the man number 6 in the household shall receive the code E6.

For children, parents' order numbers are used. For example, a boy whose father is the head of household (order number 1) and whose mother has the order number 3 shall be registered as 'Son 1X3.' Thus, each child is designated by the number of the father and the mother.

However, a child whose father or mother is no longer part of the household shall receive Zero (0) to designate the absent parent.
[Examples are not presented here]

Note that the father's order number always comes before that of the mother when designating children.

For other household members, the census agent must specify the family relation or relations between them and the head of household or another household member. For example, the aunt of the head of household's wife with the number 6 shall be designated as "Aunt of 6".

In the case of servants, friends, and visitors, use such words following by the appropriate numbers. For example, the census agent shall write: friend of 1, Vis. (abbreviation of visitor) or Dom. (abbreviation of servant) of 1.

Column (4): Sex
Use M for males and F for females. If the sex is easy to determine for adults, clothing and physical appearance may induce errors in determining the sex of babies. Therefore, do not hesitate to ask parents for the sex of their child.

[p. 23]

[Illustrative table is not presented here]

[p. 24]

Column (5): Age
This is the characteristic that is the most difficult to determine. For this reason, great efforts must be taken to obtain the most accurate determination. The census agent must do the following:

- Ask the person for his/her date of birth or age. If the person does not know either information, ask if he/she has a birth certificate or any other document that could indicate his/her age. If he/she does not have any such document, the census agent must help him/her estimate his/her age either by using the historical calendar (see annex) or by comparison with other persons for whom the age is known.

- To do so, the agent shall ask him/her if he/she remembers given events and his/her age when the event occurred.

- He could also ask him/her to bring or name another person of the same age range with the hope that the latter possesses official documents or could give better information.

- If the person declares an age, the census agent must use common sense to ascertain the veracity of the given age. He must be aware that:
The age of a father must be at least 15 years higher than that of his first child;
The age of a mother must be at least 12 years higher than that of her first child.

How to report in the age: age must be written as the number of elapsed years i.e. the number of full years lived by the person. For children under the age of 1 (i.e. less than 12 months) report 0.

Thus, a child of 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, or even 11 months of age, will be reported as having an age of 0 because he has not lived for one full year yet. For persons of 1 or more years of age, note the age from their latest birthday.

[Examples are not presented here]

[p. 25]

Column (6): Place of birth
Ask the following question: Where were you born? Then, in column (6), report the name of the province and district if the person is born in the Popular Republic of Benin and the name of the country if the person is born outside of the Popular Republic of Benin.

If a person does not know the name of the district in which he/she is born, the census agent must identify the district by having the person name a well-known center close to his/her village of birth.

Column (7): Duration of stay
Ask the interviewee, when he moved to the census location. Report the duration in days for those with less than a month-long stay, in elapsed months for those with less than a year-long stay, and in elapsed years for those with more than a one year-long stay.

Example:

- For a person who has lived in the location of the census for 3 days, report 3 days.
- For a person present here for 40 days, report 1 month; for a person present here for 1 year and 2 months or 1 year and 8 months, report 1 year.

Column (8): Previous domicile
Previous domicile is the location at which the individual resided prior to settling in the current census location. The census agent must ask the following question: Where did you live before here?

Report the full name of the province and corresponding district for persons domiciled in the Popular Republic of Benin.
Simply indicate the name of the country for persons domiciled outside of the Popular Republic of Benin.

Column (9): Marital Status
Ask the interviewee if he/she is single, married, widowed, or divorced.

- If single, write down the letter C [first letter of the word single in French]
- If it is a married woman, write down M;
- If it is a married man with one wife (monogamous), write down M1;
- If it is a married man with 2 wives, write down M2;
- If it is a married man with more than 5 wives, always write down M5;
- If the person was married and later lost his/her partner due to death (widow, widower) and has not yet remarried at the time of the census, write down the letter V [first letter of the words widower, widow in French];
- If the person was married and the marriage ended through divorce or separation of the couple (divorce), write down the letter D;
- For each person living with another of the opposite sex and who declares to be living in concubinage or a free union (unmarried), write down M before the name of the person was not widowed or divorced.

[p. 26]

Column (10): Nationality
For a Beninese, ask the question: "What is your nationality?" and write down the following answer: Ditanmari, Yoruba, Dendi, Bariba, Mahi, Fon, etc.

For a non-Beninese, ask "What is your country of origin?" and write down according the answer: Togo, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, France, Romania, China, Canada, etc.

Educational characteristics

Questions (11) and (12) in the rubric are for persons of 6 years and more of age.

Column (11): Last grade completed
Ask if the person attends or has attended school.

- If "Yes," ask the last grade attended and report the school grade; if the interviewee still attends school, report the school grade attended during the previous school year preceding the time of the census.
[Examples are not presented here]

- If "no," ask if he/she can read and write in a national language and indicate: Literate in ... [fon, goun, mina, ditanari, etc...]

- A hyphen (-), if he/she can neither read nor write in a national language.

[p. 27]

Column (12): Degree obtained
This question only applies to persons who answered in the affirmative to the previous question. Ask about the highest degree that the interviewee has obtained.
[Examples are not presented here]

Economic characteristics

The information classified under this broad rubric relates to the last 4 questions of the census.
The first set of information, column (13) "Type of activity" shall be asked to all persons of 10 or more years of age, without exception. This will allow classifying such persons either in the economically active population or the economically inactive population.

While the last 3 sets of information, columns (14), (15), and (16) shall only be asked to persons classified under the 2 types of activity: employed and unemployed. These sets of information provide more details on the population

Column (13): Type of activity
Ask the following question to each person of 10 or more years of age: What did you do during the month preceding the census?

Then report:

- OCC (employed) for each person with a job even if seasonal;

- CHO (unemployed) for each person having previously worked for at least once and who is unemployed and seeking employment during the census;

- CT (seeking employment) for each person seeking employment for the first time;

- MEN (household) for women who only take care of their household and children.

- ETU (student) for schoolchildren, high school students, and students in higher education.

- RET (retirement) for retired persons and rentiers. Is considered retired, every person who regularly receives income as a result of previous employment. A rentier is a person who possesses a personal fortune allowing him to live without having to work. However, a retired person or a rentier helping a relative with his work or who also holds a job that provides him with income shall be classified as OCC i.e. employed. This is the case of retired persons who work in commerce or agriculture;

- DP (disabled) for each person suffering from a mental or physical disability that precludes him/her from working. Certain disabilities do not however preclude all activities and a partially disabled individual who works should be naturally considered as employed.

- AUT (other) for other. This category comprises all persons who are not engaged in any economic activity or all other persons who are not included in the categories below such as children in school.

[p. 28]

Column (14): Profession
For "employed" persons, ask the following question: "What type of job have you had since the past month?" For the unemployed, ask what type of job he worked before becoming unemployed.

If need be, ask the person to describe his/her job. The census agent shall aim to obtain the maximum specificity (hierarchy etc.) because there exist many professions and thus vague responses would not be useful.

For persons with two or more professions, the census agent must only indicate the one that generates the most income.

[Example is not presented here]

[p. 29]

Column (15): Branch of economic activity
This column, just like the previous one, exclusively concerns the employed and the effectively unemployed from column (13). Ask what the employer, establishment, or company of the interviewed person does and report the main activity of the establishment or company for which the interviewee works.

[Examples are not presented here]

For every person working in an establishment with a clearly defined main activity, report such activity regardless of the interviewee's position.

[Examples are not presented here]

Notes:
Do not confuse industry with commerce. A person working at the Bata factory [show manufacturing company] shall be classified under: shoe factory, while a salesman in a Bata store shall be classified under: commerce.

It is possible to encounter establishments with several activities. In this case, ask the interviewee what he does or to which type of activity he contributes.

[Examples are not presented here]

Report the names of establishments whose main production activity cannot be specified by the interviewee. This is the case of certain administrative services, for example City Hall.

Column (16): Professional situation
This is the situation or hierarchical position of a person [his/her status] in his/her current or previous employment. This question is obviously for the employed and the unemployed. Report:

- EMP (employer) for a person who, excluding himself, employs and pays other workers;

- IND (independent or isolated worker) for a person managing a commerce or other without any paid employees; such is the case of a cultivator who works his field with or without his children;

[p. 30]

- SAL (paid employee) for a person who is paid according to a set criteria (daily, weekly, monthly, or other);

- AF (unpaid related worker) for each person helping a family member in a family business and who is not paid for the work that he performs. He could however be housed, fed, taken care of in a way or another, without however being paid for the work provided. This person is also called: "familial aid," it's the case of a son or a peasant helping his father in the field;

- APP (apprentice) for a person who performs an unpaid job with the goal of acquiring specialization in a profession;

- AUT (other) for all persons who could not be classified in any of the categories above.

Preliminary count table

After finishing the interview process, the census agent shall count the total number of males M and females F from column (4), sex, and report them in the last column (6) of the table.

[p. 31]

Detailed instructions for filling out RGPH 2
[RGPH = General census of the population and residency]

Buildings and households form

Generalities
[General instruction for how to number buildings is not presented here]

[p. 32]

How to fill out the RGPH2 document

Cover page and first page: These 2 pages are identical and must be filled out in the same manner.

Geographic localization: The census agent shall clearly report the complete name of the province, district, and township (points 1, 2, and 3). He shall use two capital letters to identify the census sector (point 4) and one 2-digit number to identify the census zone (point 5). These letters and numbers are also on the label of the census agent's bag.

Administrative information: Fill out the empty spaces corresponding to the names of the census agent and the team leader.

Fourth page: This page shall be filled out by the team leader.

Fifth to twentieth page: These sixteen pages, all identical, are used to establish the list of households to be counted in the localities of the census zone. Each page contains a table of 11 columns and 24 lines. The census agent must complete one line per counted household.

Column (1): Building number

Report the number marked with chalk on the main door. If several households occupy the same building, use the number only on the line corresponding to the first household. If several buildings are occupied by one household, report the number of the building used by the head of household first, followed by the numbers of other buildings.

Column (2): Household number

The numbering of households shall be conducted inside the building. When the building houses one household, the household number shall always be 01. When the building houses several households, the first counted household shall have the number 01; the second counted household shall have the number 02 and so on.

When several buildings are occupied by one household, the census agent shall write in the number of this household, 01, on the first line of the first building and shall leave the rest of the lines empty.

Column (3): Name of the head of household or name and type of the establishment
In the case of a regular household, report the name of the head of household. In the case of a collective household, report the name and type of the establishment. For example: La Croix du Sud, Hotel.

[Examples are not presented here]

[p. 33]

Columns (4), (5), and (6): Visit dates
Report in column (4) the date (day and month in digits, for example 10/5 for May 10) of the first household visit. If all needed information was obtained during this visit, mark X in column (7). If the household could not be fully counted, use column (5) to note the date of the next visit. If during the second visit, the household could still not be fully counted, indicate the date of the third visit in column (6). If after this third and last visit, the household could still not be fully counted, the census agent shall seek help from a third party, who could be a neighbor. In such case, he shall mark (0) in column (7).

[p. 34]

Column (7): Results
Note that, in this column, the census agent shall mark (X) or (0) depending on the case, see previous paragraph.

Columns (8), (9), and (10): Counted persons
This is the number of men, women, and the total number of the persons counted in each household. These numbers shall be noted in the last column (6): Total of the preliminary count table (upper right side of page 3 of the form Household-Dwelling Unit).

Column (11): Number of forms used
Report, in this column, the number of Household-Dwelling Unit forms used for each counted household.

Total to report on page 21
The census agent is not responsible for this task. It shall be done at census bureau to establish the total number of buildings, column (1); the total number of households, column (2); the total number of men, column (8): the total number of women, column (9); the total number of counted persons, column (10); and the total number of Household-Dwelling Unit forms, column (11).

Twenty-first page: This page is reserved for the summary table for the census zone. The census agent is not responsible for completing this table. However, he must ensure that all buildings in the census zone have been visited and all households counted. He shall devote special attention to the households that he was not able to interview during his first visit.

Twenty-second page: Observations
This page is reserved for potential observations that the census agent might note during his census duties.

Twenty-fifth page: discharge certificate
This page contains the discharge certificate that the team leader must complete and submit to the supervisor at the end of the census operations. The team leader shall return it to the census agent who must keep it and present it to the proper authority on pay date.

[p. 35]
[Index table is not presented here]