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Burkina Faso

1985 General Population and Habitation Census

Enumerator's Instructions Manual

Table of Contents

Foreword -- p. 1

Chapter One: Introduction -- p. 2

1.1 - Definition -- p. 2
1.2 - Census objectives -- p. 2
1.3 - Legal foundation of census -- p. 3
1.4 - General organization of census -- p. 3
1.5 - Division of land -- p. 5
Chapter Two: General Guidelines -- p. 6
2.1 - Role and tasks of census agent -- p. 6
2.2 - Census agent's file -- p. 7
2.3 - Recording period -- p. 7
2.4 - Reference date -- p. 7
2.5 - Reference period -- p. 7
2.6 - Collection method -- p. 7
Chapter Three: Basic Definitions -- p. 9
3.1 - Concession -- p. 9
3.2 - Household -- p. 9
Chapter Four: Counting -- p. 12
4.1 - Preparatory work -- p. 12
4.2 - Filling out census notebook -- p. 14
Chapter Five: End of the Job -- Conclusion -- p. 37
5.1 - Checking your work and the end of the job -- p. 37
5.2 - Conclusion -- p. 38

[Page 1 is omitted from this translation of the original document]

[p. 2]
Chapter One: Introduction

The population census is the principal source of basic statistics about the population. It is essentially a national operation whose success depends upon the contribution of each Burkinabe.

1.1 - Definition

The general population census can be defined as "the ensemble of operations that aim to gather, group, analyze and publish demographic, economic and social information pertaining to the population of the country at a given period in time" (definition of the United Nations).

1.2 - Objectives of the general population census

Generally, the objectives of the general population census differ from those of administrative censuses, which are fiscal in nature and mainly serve to determine the number of people subject to tax.

The census results may be used for administrative purposes. In fact, the first goal of the census is to take inventory of our country's resources and to determine the population's size and structure by province and even by village, which can then serve as a base for the administrative organization of the country.

The census also allows us to obtain the information necessary for the elaboration of the five-year plan and other actions that favor social and economic development, such as:

- The establishment of new productive units
- The construction of health and education units
- The establishment of local budgets
- The elaboration of regional development programs, etc.
[p. 3]
Census information is equally useful for the research projects of economists, sociologists, historians, geographers, etc.

After this second census it will be possible to measure the natural and migratory movements of the population with higher precision.
1.3 - Legal foundation of the census

A general population census is an operation of national interest. Consequently, its organization is determined at the highest level.

The legislative foundations of the second census of Burkina Faso are:

1. Ordinance 84-076/CNR/PRES/MPDP of November 5, 1984, supporting the organization of the second general population census of Burkina Faso.

2. The decree 85/311/CNR/PRES/MPDP of June 3, 1985, supporting the definition of the structures of the coordination and execution of the second general population census of Burkina Faso.

Individuals' information is subject to professional confidentiality. All Burkinabe and foreigners residing in Burkina Faso are required to respond to the questions asked of them.

1.4 - General organization of census

The population census is a complex operation, and as such necessitates a rigorous and adequate organization.

Several organs of coordination and execution were created to carry out this operation. They are:

a) At the national level:

- The National Population Council (C.N.P.). It is the political organ responsible for the operation, in charge of political orientation questions involving the census.

- The Census Technical Committee (C.T.R.). It is in charge of studying all problems of a technical nature posed by the census.
[p. 4]
- The Central Census Bureau (B.C.R.). It is in charge of the forward planning and execution of the census; its role consists of the methodological conception, organization and execution of the census, and the management and publication of census information.
b) At the provincial level:

- The Provincial Census Commissions (C.P.R.). They are responsible for the census in the provinces and for taking initiative to ensure that the census runs smoothly.

- The Census Execution Committees. They are responsible for the smooth execution of the census in the departments.

For the execution of various activities, the Central Census Bureau calls upon several categories of personnel:

a) The head of the BCR and his/her direct collaborators, for the conception and organization of work.

b) The delegates of the BCR, chosen from amongst the Ministry of Planning and Popular Development; they are responsible, at the level of each province, for the coordination of provincial commissions and the Census Execution Committees.

c) The departmental and provincial supervisors, chosen from amongst local service fields; they are responsible for the organization and execution of counting in their administrative entity.

d) The supervisors, recruited from educational and other local professionals; they supervise the work of a team of census agents in their control zone.

e) The census agents also recruited from educational and other local professionals, as well as students in the final years of high school; they are responsible for the census of the population in their counting zone.

[p. 5]
1.5 - Division of land

1.5.1 - Administrative division

The administrative organization of Burkina Faso is as such: provinces, departments, communes, districts, villages.

The basic administrative unit is the village in rural areas and the district in urban areas. Each household unit belongs to an administrative unit. Villages are grouped into departments, and departments into provinces. Cities and communes are divided into districts.

1.5.2 - Census operational division

Villages are kept as base units to produce census information.

They are of different sizes, ranging from less than 100 to more than 5,000 inhabitants.

Therefore, it is necessary to divide certain villages or group together others so that the census agents have approximately the same amount of work.

Keeping this in mind, as well as the needs of the census, two types of operational units were formed:

- The control zone: this is a geographical area lacking any administrative signification in which the total population falls between 4,000 and 6,000 inhabitants. The control zone will be counted by a team of census agents placed under the supervision of a supervisor.

- The counting zone: this is the smallest operational unit of the census. In principle, the counting zone should include between 800 and 1,000 inhabitants. It may be made up of one or several villages, or a fraction of either a larger village or a district of a commune or city. It will be counted by one individual census agent. In certain cases, a census agent may be assigned to count more than one counting zone, if it is particularly small.

[p. 6]
Chapter Two: General Guidelines

2.1 - Role and tasks of census agent

Your work, which will take place within a counting zone (CZ) during the entirety of the operation, principally consists of:

Scouting your counting zone; to assist you in this, you will be accompanied by a local leader/official. You should travel your entire counting zone or village in order to be familiar with its borders.

- The numbering of land concessions

- Visiting each household in your zone, with the aim of registering each household member's information in the census notebook according to the guidelines in this manual.

Other than the recommendations given on the inside cover of this manual, you will also respect the following guidelines:

In no case shall you:

- Have someone who is not trained complete the census forms;
- Ask questions outside of those on the household form;
- Take part in discussions between members of the public, and especially in a heated manner;
- Abandon your work before the counting is finished; in case of sickness or other major unforeseen difficulty, contact your supervisor;
- Accept gifts from the public;
- Adjust/slant responses to questions in one way or another;
- Divulge collected information;
- Write in boxes reserved for encryption;
- Be accompanied by other people or a crowd of people.
[p. 7]

2.2 - Census agent's file

The census agent's file includes specific documents and supplies necessary for the execution of his/her work, including:

- The census notebooks containing the household forms that the census worker will fill out while with individuals;
- The census agent manual, which contains all instructions for filling out the census notebook and other forms;
- The summary table TR1, which is a form which summarizes the results for the CZ;
- Ballpoint pens;
- Other supplies.
2.3 - Recording period

The recording period for the population is from December 10-20, 1985. Therefore, the work of the census agents begins December 7, 1985.

2.4 - Reference date

The reference date for the recording of the population's characteristics is the night preceding the census agent's visit to the household. The reference date is therefore mobile.

2.5 - Reference period

This is the week preceding the reference date and the week pertinent to the information of the population's economic activity. This reference period is one week long (7 days).

Ex: if a household is counted on December 15, 1985, the reference period is from December 8-14, 1985.

2.6 - Collection method

The collection method that will be used is direct interview.

[p. 8]

The recording of the population's information should be done by census agents at the dwelling of the persons whose census information is being taken. This information shall be based upon the willing statements of each person capable of responding to the questions asked.

It is therefore clear that it is the job of the census agents to travel from one household to the next, not for inhabitants to come to the census agent. It is strictly forbidden for census agents to gather the population for counting purposes.

Information should be recorded by concession in the counting zone, by household in the land concession, and by person in the household.

Firstly, the census agent identifies the household and addresses himself/herself to the head of the household to collect information. In case the head of the household is not available, the census agent may speak with anyone else capable of providing the census agent with the information asked.

N.B. : In the case that the census agent cannot find any member of the household at home, they should continue working in a normal fashion at the neighboring houses, indicating the date of their next visit. It is imperative that the agent repeats his visit as many times as needed in order to find a member of the household that can provide the necessary information. If the agent cannot find a member of the household for the entire census period, he/she should fill out the questionnaire with neighbors, family, a landlord, or another person familiar with the household.

Concerning collective housing, a list of such establishments has already been compiled by the B.C.R. in collaboration with local authorities. Nevertheless, if the census agent identifies collective housing not previously identified, he/she shall continue and count them as such and notify his/her supervisor.

Military collective housing and penitentiaries will be counted by employees of these establishments, while Burkinabe diplomatic or ambassadorial personnel living abroad (with or without their families) will be counted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Cooperation.

[p. 9]

Chapter Three: Basic Definitions

In order for the census agent to properly complete his/her work, it is necessary for the census agent to know the meaning of the following basic concepts:

3.1 - Concession

A concession is a housing unit formed by an ensemble of buildings, possibly but not necessarily surrounded by an enclosure, in which one or several households reside. In a rural setting, a concession may also consist of an ensemble of enclosed buildings around which there exist one or more houses, the occupants of which claim to belong to the enclosed ensemble of buildings.

3.2 - Household

The household is the fundamental unit of the census. The census distinguishes between two types of households:

- The ordinary household
- The collective household

The meaning of the word household within the context of the census is fundamentally different from than that commonly given to the word family.

3.2.1 - The ordinary household

The household is generally considered the base socio-economic unit within which the members are blood-related or not; they live together in the same house or concession; they combine their resources and work together to satisfy their essential nutritional and vital needs.

In reality, the division of a house or concession into households based upon the above definition is not an easy task.

As a general rule, a household consists of a man, his spouse, his children, and other relatives and non-married domestic workers that live with them.

[p. 10]

Attention: In the case of concessions or houses occupied by a large family where there are more than two generations of people living under the same roof, you should not treat the grandparents, their married children, and their families as if they belonged to one single household. Each married child, together with their spouse and (non-married) children, constitute a household.

Some examples of households:

The examples of households below will aid you in recognizing what constitutes a household.

- A person of either male or female sex that lives alone and provides for their needs independently;
- Two or several people who are not related, and who live together and rely on common resources to provide for their needs;
- A man, his spouse, and his non-married children;
- A single, widowed or divorced woman and her non-married children;
- A man married to several women, all living in the same concession, and their non-married children.

If the wives of a polygamist husband do not live in the same concession, each woman constitutes a separate household. Nevertheless, the polygamist husband is not counted more than once, that time being the household in which he spent the night prior to the census agent's visit.

3.2.2 - Collective household

Definition: a collective household is made up of a group of people who generally share no familial relation but live together under special conditions, that is to say principally using the resources furnished to them by an establishment to provide for their essential needs (food, lodging, care). Included in collective households are:

- Members of the military residing in barracks;
[p. 11]
- Students residing in a public or private boarding school/dormitory at the time of the census reference date;
- Students residing on a university campus;
- Persons lodged in tourist establishments (hotels, motels, etc.);
- Sick persons staying in a public or private hospital the night of the reference date;
- Members of a religious community living in a convent, monastery, mission, etc.;
- Persons detained in penitentiaries;
- Workers staying in the rudimentary camp of a temporary construction site;
- All persons living in an establishment with similar conditions.
Attention: On occasion, in the establishments described above, one finds an individual or a group of people that stay there in an autonomous and separate fashion, and who take their meals independently or outside of the establishment. This person or group of people constitute an ordinary household living within the confines of the establishment and should be counted as such.

Example: Members of the military or other security personnel who live with their family, either alone in a private dwelling or within the confines of an establishment, make up an ordinary household and should be counted as such.

[p. 12]

Chapter Four: Counting
`
4.1 - Preparatory work

To ensure the complete recording of households in your zone, you should complete certain tasks before the counting date in addition to the work done by the B.C.R.

4.1.1 - Presentation in the counting zone

The work in your counting zone will begin by contact with the local C.D.R. delegates. On this occasion, you will explain to them what your work consists of and solicit their help raising the population's awareness of the census, even with campaigns already having been run.

This awareness campaign is very important because the success of the census depends upon the truthfulness of the responses people will give you. In order for this to happen, it is above all necessary to gain their complete trust by explaining the census objectives to them and repeating that the information given is confidential and will not be able to used in any case involving financial motives, legal prosecution, or others.

[p. 13]

4.1.2 - Survey of the counting zone

You will perform a survey of the counting zone accompanied by the C.D.R. delegates. For any confusion or questions concerning the limits of the counting zone, notify your supervisor to obtain directions on how to proceed.
[Sections 4.1.3 - 4.2.3 are omitted from this translation of the original document]

[p. 18]
4.2.4 - Completion of the household form

At the top of the household form are the following elements:

- Concession
- Household

You will write the numbers of the concessions and the households in the boxes next to them. They are noted on the second and third pages of the cover.

- Page number and number of pages
- Page number: indicates the location of the page amongst all the pages used to count that particular household.
- Number of pages indicates the total number of pages used for each household.
- Nationality of the head of household: enter the nationality declared by the head of household.
- Language currently spoken in the household: enter the language most often used in the household.
- Deaths during the last 12 months and the summary table. These tables will not be filled out until all members of the household are counted.
[p. 19]

The second part of the household form is for recording the individual characteristics of each member of the household. It is comprised of 21 columns and 10 lines, each line being reserved for a member of the household.

Columns 1 to 8 concern all persons recorded in the household.

Columns 9 to 15 concern residents age 10 or older.

Columns 16 to 20 concern residents age 12 or older.

Column 21 concerns any member of the population recorded as handicapped.

The population is counted according to several characteristics.

A) Demographic characteristics

Column one - order number:

The order number is printed on the household form. If the number of persons exceeds 9, you will complete this by adding denominations of 10 before the number. Thus, in putting a 1 before a 0 you have the order number 10; putting a 2 before 1 on the third sheet will give you order number 21.

[p. 20]

Column two - full name:

Record the full names of the members of the household, beginning with the head of household. Respect the following order:

1. Head of household;
2. The spouse, or the first spouse if the head of household is polygamous;
3. The non-married children of this spouse, beginning with the oldest and ending with the youngest;
4. The second spouse, if there is one, followed by her non-married children living in the household;
5. The non-married children of the head of household living in the household whose mothers reside elsewhere. Always begin with the oldest;
6. Other non-married children who are not born of the spouses of the head of household but live in the household, starting with the oldest;
7. Persons related to the head of household: ascendants (father, mother, grandparents), descendants (grandchildren whose parents do not live in the concession), collaterals (brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces, cousins);
If one of these persons lives with their spouse in the household, it is necessary to count them as a separate household.
8. Non-relatives who are not married, or who are married but whose spouse does not live in the household (domestic workers, friends, children of friends);
9. Persons passing through the household (visitors).
Note: in the instance of a newborn who has not yet been baptized, record the name followed by NN.

Column three - sex:

Record M for male, F for female.

Attention: don't always rely on first names to determine the sex of an individual.

[p. 21]

Column four - relationship:

This indicates the relationship of each person in the household to the head of household or to the closest relative living in the household concerned. You will use the following abbreviations:

- CM = Head of household
- EP = Spouse
- FS = Son
- FL = Daughter
- S = Sister
- P = Father
- M = Mother
- N = Nephew or niece
- AP = Other relative
- NP = Non-relative

Add numerical indications to these abbreviations in order to show the direction of lineage. The numbers should correspond to the order numbers of the persons on the household form.

Examples:

EP1 = Spouse of head of household
FS1 x 2 = Son of head of household and spouse recorded under the order number 2
FL-- X 2 = Daughter of the woman recorded under the order number 2, and whose father doesn't live in the household
M2 = Mother of the person recorded under order number 2.

This column does not concern members of a collective household. In this case, mark a dash (--) in the box of this column for each member.

Column five - residence status:

Residence is defined in relation to the household in which a person usually resides. Each person counted in the census must be classified in one of the four following residence status categories:

- Present Resident (RP) if he/she is present in the household;
- Absent Resident (RA) if he/she is absent from his/her usual household;
- Visitor (VIS) if he/she is a visitor in the household concerned;
- Emigrant (EM) if he/she resides outside of Burkina Faso.
[p. 22]

a) Present Resident (RP)

Someone is classified as a present resident if they have habitually lived in the household for more than 6 months and are present on the reference date. In most cases, the reference delay (six months) is sufficient for determining residence. However, there are exceptions. For example, people that have lived in a given location for less than six months but express the intention of staying there are classified as Present Residents (RP). In this case, they will not also be counted at the location they left less than six months prior.

Examples:

- A woman who has just married is a resident at her new home where she resides with her husband;
- A government worker who has been recently transferred to a new location should be counted as a resident in the new location. His/her family or household that is waiting elsewhere in order to move and join him/her will not be counted with him/her.
- A person, whether single or with a household, who has just changed their residence and intends on staying in the new location for whatever reason becomes a resident in the new location.
Other Present Resident cases:

The following persons shall be classified as "present residents", even if they have not spent the reference night in their household:

-- Doctors and other medical personnel on call;
-- Sentinels;
-- Factory workers who work overnight shifts;
-- Workers that work at night, either regularly or temporarily -- examples: truck drivers, persons commuting home during the reference night.
[p. 23]

b) Absent Resident (RA)

This is a person usually residing in the household who was absent the night preceding the interview, but whose absence was less than six months in duration. For this person, you will record "RA" in the corresponding box in column 5. The person must be absent from the household for a period of time lesser than six months.

However, in certain cases, persons absent from their household for less than six months are still not considered "absent residents" in their household. They are recorded as present residents at the location in which they are present during the census counting and will not be counted in the households to which they are linked. This is the case for persons who are part of a collective household, such as:

- Detainees in a penitentiary;
- Workers staying in the rudimentary camp of a temporary construction site;
- Members of the military staying in barracks;
- Members of a religious community living in a convent or seminary;
- Persons finding themselves in analogous situations;
- Students residing in a dormitory at the time of the census reference date.

However, if students are on vacation from school and home with their families at the time of the census, count them with their parents as visitors and in the dormitory as absent residents.

Certain categories of people absent from their household for a period longer than six months will be considered absent residents (RA) in these households. This includes women who have just given birth with their family and who are staying there for longer than six months.

c) Visitors (VIS)

This concerns persons present in the household the night before the interview but who don't live there, because their primary residence is elsewhere.

[p. 24]

For these people, it is necessary to record "VIS" in column 5. These persons should be visiting for a period less than six (6) months. In general, persons staying in hotels are "visitors".

But if they do not have a residence and they work in Burkina Faso, they are then considered present or absent residents, according to their situation on reference night (ex: a person undergoing a transfer or a foreign expert/specialist who has not yet found housing).

A person who is a member of a collective household but staying the reference night with their family should be recorded as "VIS", because they are "RA" in their establishment.

d) Emigrants (EM)

The following are considered emigrants and shall be recorded as EM in column 5:

- Persons who have been outside of Burkina Faso for more than six months.
- Persons who have been outside of Burkina Faso for less than six months and have the intention of staying there for more than six months.
Other special cases:
- Burkinabe students who are abroad shall be classified in their household as RA regardless of the length of time of their absence;
- Workers (either seasonal or permanent) who are working abroad will be counted in their households if they are absent for a period of less than six (6) months;
- Persons working abroad in lieu of military service and foreign experts/specialists whose contracts are longer than six months are counted as residents: RP or RA.
- Foreign students are counted as residents: RP or RA.
- Tourists and other foreign visitors in Burkina Faso at the time of the census will be counted as visitors in their respective ordinary or collective households if the length of
[p. 25]
their stay is less than six months.

Column six - age or birthdate:

This column is divided into two subcolumns:

- Age in months or years;
- Date of birth.

Only one of these sub-columns needs to be filled out for each individual.

For each person, it is necessary to obtain as much precision as possible concerning the day, month and year of birth. You should consult the personal documents of those being interviewed on an as-needed basis: birth certificate, ID card, family record book.

- If the exact date is known, write it in numbers. Example: 15/10/82 for someone born on October 15, 1982.
- If only the year of birth is known, write it directly. Example: 1939 for someone born in 1939.
- If only the age is given, record the given number followed by the letter "A".

For children under a year old, record the age in months if between 1 and 12 months, followed by the letter "M", and in days if the child is less than one month old, followed by the letter "J".

Example:

3 years write 3A
8 months write 8M
25 days write 25J.

In the case that someone has no idea what their age is (or has a very vague idea), it is necessary to ask them, or the person responding for them, if they remember an important event in the history of the city or area, of which the date is well-known, in order to estimate the age of the person concerned.

In certain cases, you may ask the respondent to search their memory for another person in the area that is of a similar age to them to see if this person can either provide more information on their age or serve as a reference.

[p. 26]

You may also consult the relationship between a person's declared age (even the date) and certain other replies, such as: education, the age of their first child and the number of children for a woman, etc.

If the responses to these questions seem erroneous in comparison to the age of the individual, you must probe while with the respondent to obtain logical responses.

Column seven - place of birth:

a) for every person born in Burkina Faso, record:

- HERE if the person was born in the village (village or commune)
- The name of the administrative center of the province in which the birthplace is located.

b) for every person born outside of Burkina Faso, record the name of the country of birth.

Column eight - place of residence one year ago:

Ask the question: "Where were you living in December 1984?"

For people whose place of residence one year ago is the same as their place of residence at the time of the census counting, record "HERE".

For people whose place of residence one year ago is not the same as their place of residence at the time of the census counting, record the name of the administrative center of the province in which they were residing at that time, if it was in a province of Burkina Faso.

For people whose place of residence one year ago was outside of Burkina Faso, write the name of the country.

B) Educational characteristics

Column nine - literacy (in what language?):

A person is considered literate in a language when they are able to interpret and transcribe the details of their everyday life.

[p. 27]

You will use the following abbreviations:

[The abbreviations are omitted from this translation of the original document]

In the event a person is literate in more than one language, record the language most often used.

Column ten - level of education
[This section, column ten, is omitted from this translation of the original document]

[p. 28]

C) Economic characteristics

Column eleven - occupational status:

The reference period is the week preceding the census agent's visit to the household.

Occupational status is the connection between each person and economic activity within a determined time period.

This fundamental question allows the classification of the population into two categories: active and inactive.

a) Active

The active population includes those employed and those not employed but actively seeking employment.

- A person is considered employed if they have worked at least three days during the reference period. Record: OCC.
Attention:

Farmers and their family helpers are considered employed even if the reference week falls during a period of inactivity due to climate conditions. For example after a harvest, a farmer that carries out no activity should still be considered as employed.

- Workers that are sick, on vacation or laid-off during the reference period are also considered employed; a person who already works and is in training during the census counting is also considered employed.

- A person is considered not employed but actively looking if they did not work at all or worked less than three days during the reference period, but who are searching for employment. Two categories are distinguished:
[p. 29]
- Persons who worked previously but lost their job and are looking for employment during the reference period. For this category, record: CHO.

- Persons who have never worked, that is to say persons who are searching for their first job. For this category, record: QUE.

b) Inactive

Inactive persons are those that follow within the following classifications:

- Persons taking care of the household: POF
- Students: ETU
- Retired persons: RET
- Stockholders: REN
- Sick persons: INV
- Other inactive persons: AUT.
Some precisions

- Persons taking care of the household (POF):

These are persons of either sex that are not exercising any form of economic activity (neither agricultural, artisanal nor commercial), and who perform household tasks at their place of residence, such as housewives or family members taking care of the household and the children. However, domestic workers that receive remuneration should be classified as employed because they are part of the active population.
Attention: In rural areas, a woman that takes part in cultivation or livestock farming as well as performing household duties is employed.

- A wife that aids her husband or another household member in their profession or performs a paid activity (dying, cutting/styling hair, pottery) is considered employed, even if she also takes care of the household.

[p. 30]

- A woman who, for example, goes to the market in the morning to sell produce or other products and then returns to do housework is also considered employed.

- Students (STU):

A person of either sex is in this category if they perform no economic activity and frequent an establishment of private or public education to receive schooling at any level.

For persons in this category, refer to the situation of the person during the 1985/1986 school year.

For persons taking night or literacy classes, the following situations may arise:

- The person has a job they attend during the day. They should be recorded as employed.
- The person does not have a job. They should be recorded as CHO, QUE, POF, etc. based upon their situation.

- Retired (RET):

A person of either sex is in this category if they perform no economic activity and their resources come principally from a pension, state-funded or otherwise, resulting from previous activity.

If a person claiming to be "retired" performs an economic activity that earns them more money then their pension, this person should be considered employed.

- Stockholder (REN):

A person is in this category if they perform no economic activity and their primary resources come from placement of funds and assets, notably real estate.

[p. 31]

- Sick persons (INV):

A person of either sex is in this category if they have a physical or mental illness that prevents them from working. Nevertheless, sick persons who work should be classified as employed.

- Other inactive persons (AUT):

An inactive person of either sex is in this category if they perform no economic activity and are not classified in any of the categories mentioned above. Classified in this category in particular are children older than 10 years of age who do not attend school and are not economically active, and elderly persons who no longer work and have no pension or personal fortune and depend on the charity of family or others.

N.B.: Every person 10 years of age and older must have an occupational status recorded in column 11.

Attention: Columns 12 to 15 only apply to those persons employed or unemployed but looking for employment (OCC and CHO). In each case, they should describe their last job. For the other categories (QUE, POF, ETU, RET, INV, AUT), record a dash in these columns.

Column twelve - principal occupation:

- For an employed person, the principal occupation corresponds to the type of work actually performed during the reference period to which the person dedicated the most of their time.

- For people unemployed but looking for a job, we will consider their last job worked as their principal occupation (this applies to those who have previously been employed). It is concerned with the profession performed by the person being counted, not their rank, function or the job they were trained to do.

[p. 32]

Notes:

If the person being interviewed is a government worker, it is necessary to probe the person in order to obtain a detailed description of the work they perform.

- Ask the following question: "What do you do for a living?" Then record the principal occupation with as much precision as possible.
Attention: In rural areas, the principal occupation is that performed during the rainy season.

Here are some examples of good and bad responses:

[This section is omitted from this translation of the original document]

[p. 33]
Column thirteen - situation within principal occupation:

This is a person's situation in relation to their current principal occupation, or previous principal occupation if the person is unemployed but looking for work.

The possible categories and their codes are:

Employer, Boss -- EMP
Independent -- IND
Salaried -- SAL
Apprentice -- APP
Family helper -- AIF
Other -- AUT.

Employer, Boss (EMP): This is an active, employed person who runs their own economic enterprise or exercises a profession for their own well-being. To this effect, they employ one or more persons that are paid.

A person that employs one or more domestic workers is not an employer, even if the person pays them.

Independent (IND): This is an active person that is self-employed but does not employ anyone else. They may, however, have family helpers or non-paid apprentices.

Salaried (SAL): This is a person that works for a public or private employer and who in return receives a salary in cash or in benefits.

Family helper (AIF): This is a person who works for a business owned by a family member and does not receive compensation, a salary or any remuneration. Family helpers are most often found in agriculture, commerce and transport; they are generally given room and board and, from time to time, receive gifts.

Other (AUT): These are persons whose occupational situations cannot be classified in any of the categories mentioned above.

[p. 34]

Column fourteen - secondary occupation:

A person's secondary occupation is that which takes the most of his/her time after his/her principal occupation.

It is necessary to try and obtain the most detailed information possible about the work performed.

Example of a secondary occupation: an accountant that teaches accounting courses in an educational institution.

Attention:

- In a rural setting, the secondary occupation is that performed during the dry season.
- No one may have a secondary occupation if they have not already claimed a principal occupation.
- The secondary occupation may not be housewife (POF) or student (ETU).

Column fifteen - situation within secondary occupation:

Please refer to the instructions for filling out column 13.

D) Marriage and children

Column sixteen - marital status:

This is the information concerning the marital status of residents of both sexes age 12 years or older.

Use the following abbreviations:

CEL: single (man or woman);
MA 1: man married to one woman;
MA 2: man married to two women;
MA 3: man married to three women;
MA 4: man married to four women;
MM: woman married to a monogamist;
MP: woman married to a polygamist;
VE: widowed (man or woman);
DS: divorced or separated (man or woman).

[p. 35]

Columns 17 to 20 only concern women age 12 or older.

Column seventeen - total number of children born living:

For each resident woman age 12 or older, it is necessary to record the number of children born alive from her first pregnancy to her most recent pregnancy as of the reference date, including:

- Children currently living in the household;
- Children living outside of the household;
- Deceased children.

Abortions, miscarriages and stillbirths are not included in this category.

Column eighteen - children still living:

For these same women, you should record the total number of children still living at the time of the interview.

Example: For a woman who gave birth to 6 children who were living at the time of birth but of which only 5 are still living at the time of the interview, record 6 in column 17 and 5 in column 18.

Columns nineteen and twenty - births during the last 12 months:

This concerns live births in the household during the 12-month period preceding your visit (December 1984 to December 1985).

Write the number of children in columns 19 and 20 according to the sex of the child. If there are twins, note this at the bottom of the page.

Column twenty-one - nature of handicap:

[This section is omitted from this translation of the original document]

[p. 36]

Deaths during the last 12 months

This question, located at the top of the household form, concerns the number of deaths that happened in the household during the last 12 months (since December 1984). Put a cross in the box marked Yes or No according to whether or not a death happened in the household.

If Yes, specify the full name, sex and age (in years, months or days) of the deceased at the time of their death.

Summary

The summary table is also located at the top of the household form; it is meant to be filled out only after every member of the household has been recorded. It is filled out using the information in columns 3 and 5 of the household form.

[The remainder of this section is omitted from this translation of the original document]

[p. 37]
Chapter Five: End of the job

5.1 - Checking your work and the end of the job

During the completion of your task, several types of errors at several different levels may present themselves. Though you will be regularly monitored, you should also regularly check your work.

After counting each household, you must verify that:

- All persons were counted (no one forgotten or counted twice).
- All columns are filled out.
- The information included is comprehensible and logical.

For example, check the comprehensibility and logic of:

- Sex and familial relationship
- Age of parents and children
- Age and level of education and economic activity
- Age and number of children, etc.

You must never leave a concession without verifying that all households have been counted and arrangements have been made to count the absent households.

At the end of each work day, verify that all of the summary tables have been filled out, and that each household's information is reported in the summary tables on pages 2 and 3 of the cover.

[p. 38]

Having finished counting one area, never continue onto another without verifying that all households, especially the ones that were absent during your first visit, have been counted, the identification characteristics extracted and the totals of the summary tables completed.

When all areas of your ZD have been counted (complete registration of the entire population of your ZD), add up the information of the summary tables on the inside covers of your file. With your supervisor's assistance, fill out the summary table on the outside cover of your file; this will then allow you to complete the TR 1 table for your ZD.

When your work is completed in your ZD, give both your used and unused census packets and the TR 1 summary tables to your supervisor, who will then perform the last check of the work.

5.2 - Conclusion

[This section is omitted from this translation of the original document]