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Enumerators Training Manual

Population Census-1991

Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
Statistics Division
Ministry of Planning
3/2 Asad Avenue, Mohammadpur, Dhaka-1207

[The first introductory paragraph is omitted here.]


All of you know that Population Census will be held in Bangladesh in March, 1991. As a preparatory work of Population Census, the first pretest was held during 7-9 March 1989. On the basis of the findings of the 1st pretest some corrections were made in the questionnaire. The second pretest was held during 11-14 December 1989 using this corrected questionnaire. On the basis of the experiences gathered through these pretests, necessary corrections and modifications were done in the questionnaire and a dress rehearsal pertaining to methodological and practical issues of the census was conducted through a pilot census during June 3-6, 1990. The census expects to finalize this questionnaire reviewing the experience of this pilot census (show the questionnaire). The census calendar was determined after necessary modification in the training manual, field manual and distribution process on the basis of the experience in the pilot census.

Chapter I
General Rules of Census

01. Training will be held for two days. Today training will be imparted using the verbatim manual. After completion of each chapter, there will be an open discussion and there will be a provision of asking questions. You should participate in the discussion to eliminate your confusion without any hesitation. A field trip will be arranged this afternoon. In this trip each of you has to fill up four questionnaires. After enumeration, the oval cell should be filled in and the questionnaires should be submitted to your supervisors. Tomorrow morning, discussion will be held on the filled in questionnaire and there will be mock training (rehearsal as enumerator and respondent). On March 11 supervisors must show the boundary of the enumeration area of all the enumerators of adjacent areas and will take preparation for the enumeration of the floating population. After the training, materials will be distributed.

02. You have been supplied with an enumeration area map to ensure proper enumeration (show map). You know that in census, no household can be counted twice and no household can be excluded. You must know better than us about the settings of your village/[mohalla]. This map has been prepared to ensure enumeration of all households in your area during enumeration period. Therefore, using this map you must start your enumeration from north-west corner of your area and complete the enumeration by serpentine method moving towards right hand side write the number 001 in the door of the head of household for the first household by lumber chalk (show sample) and then write 002 in the gate of the head of household of the second household and write the same number in the place earmarked to write the number of household by OMR pencil.

03. Fill up the questionnaire by OMR pencil only. Questionnaire cannot be perforated, folded, toned or made dirty in any case. In the questionnaire, there are multiple answers for each questionnaire (show the questionnaire). Validate answer of each question and then fill up the appropriate oval cell (show this in the board). In marking the oval cell make it solid and black by moving the edge of the pencil. Remember that the marking in the oval cell should not cross the oval cell and the oval cell should not be perforated (show how the oval cell can be marked).

04. Identify the location of the floating population in the day before the enumeration and enumerate them between 12.00 through 5.00pm in the night of 11th March. The floating persons of rail station, launch terminal, stadium, special graveyard premises (mazar), roads, areas beneath stairs will be included in the census. Persons staying in hospital or clinic, residential hotel, governmental rest house (Dak-Banglow) should also be enumerated in the census night. Take the help of the officers and staff of these institutions to enumerate those people if required.

05. Fill up the questionnaire by taking information from a responsible person of the household with courtesy (The respondent may be male or female; he/she may be old or young).

06. The person fishing in the deep sea or engaged in harvesting honey, wood or bamboo in the deep forest can be collected from the concerned check post.

07. There are two types of questionnaire; book-one is 100-paged and another is 40-paged. First, start the enumeration with a 100-page book. If the 100 paged-book is completed during enumeration then collect a 40-page book from the supervisor and complete the enumeration of the rest households. Remember, so that no household is excluded from the survey.

08. Using the de-facto method (enumerate the person in that place where he stayed in the census night). Include all persons who stayed in this household in the night of March 11.

09. On the last day of enumeration, ensure with a vigorous search that no household or individual has been counted twice and that no one has been left out of the enumeration.

[Paragraph 10 and 11 containing example and exercise questions are omitted here.]

12. Is it a tribal household? According to local government ordinance of 1989, households of the tribe, namely Chakma, Marma, Bom, Khushi, Uchai, Chak, Tangchaingya, Tripura, Pakhung and Khiang, living permanently in the hilly districts of Rangamati, Bandarban and Khagrachari are treated as tribal. Moreover, the tribal households belonging to Garo, Hajang, Dhalu, Rajbangshi, Hadi, Saotal, and Coach, living in the districts of Mymensingh, Jamalpur, Dinajpur, Rangpur, Rajshahi, Chittagong and Sylhet are also termed as tribal. Tribal people are also seen in towns. Most of the time, tribal households can be identified by appearance and language. In these cases, it is not necessary to ask this question. Otherwise, ask whether this household is a tribal household? If the answer is positive mark the oval cell (1) and fill up the census form-1 with the name of the tribe of that household. If the answer is negative mark the oval cell (2).

[The next two paragraphs consisting of discussion and exercises are omitted here.]

Chapter 2

1. Census moment:
The ensuing 11th March, Monday night should be treated as census moment.

2. Census night:
The time during census moment through 5.00 A.M. in the morning should be treated as census night. All the floating population should be enumerated during the census night. Persons temporarily staying at residential hotel, hospital and clinic should be enumerated in this night with the help of the authority.

3. Reference period:
For occupation, the reference period will be one month prior to census, for household income reference period will be one year prior to census and for all other variables census night will be the reference period.

a. Generally: Census night.
b. Main occupation: One month (12th February through 11th March 1991)
c. Source of household income: One year (12th March 1990 through 11th March 1991)

4. Census period:
The days that are fixed for enumerating population are termed as census period. For the census 12-15th March 1991 Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday have been termed as census period.

5. De-facto method: (Include the person in the place where he stayed in the census night).
According to de-facto method those who stayed in the same household and took food from the same cooking pot in the census night should be enumerated as the member of the household. If a usual member of a household does not stay in the household in the census night, then he should be enumerated in the household where he stayed in the census night. If a person die before the census moment he will not be include. Similarly if a child takes birth after census moment then he could not be included in the census.

6. Floating:
Those who stayed in the rail station, mosque, boat, launch or under the strains temporarily in the census night they should be treated as floating. The floating population should be enumerated in the census night.

7. Household:
A household is an individual or a group of individuals who stayed in a house and took food from the same cooking pot in the census night they comprise a household. But, the person who stayed in a household in the census night whether took food there or not he should be enumerated in that household. There should be one or more household in housing structure/house. All these households should be enumerated separately. The members of the households may be connected by blood or law or unrelated even from the other religion. Households are classified into these three categories:

a. General household: The households which are only used for living and taking food these households are treated as general household.

b. Institutional household: Institutions like hostel, hospital, clinic, jail, barrack, orphanage should be treated as institutional households and the person stayed in these households during the census night should be enumerated as the member of the institutional households. The temporary persons staying in the hospitals and clinics should be enumerated in the census night with the help of the authority.

The working officers and staffs of the institutional households should be enumerated in their residence/quarter. Similarly, the hostel super should be enumerated in his quarter (if any), the staffs of the jail in their quarter as general household. But the students/nurses inmates of the jail, patients of the hospitals etc. should be enumerated as the member of the institutional household.

c. Other household: All the households other than general and institutional households are other households. The inmates of offices, residential hotel, religious institution, educational institution and the guards of business and industry who stay at night and the inmates of messes will be the member of these households. Persons not working in the residential hotel but staying there temporarily should be enumerated in the census night with the help of the authority.

8. Review who should be enumerated where:

a. If a student stays at the hostel in the census night instead of his own house he should be enumerated in the hostel (institutional household).
b. A jail inmate should be enumerated in the jail not in his house (institutional household).
c. If a married daughter stay in the residence of his father in the census night with his children, then she and her children should be enumerated in the residence of her father not in the house of her husband (general household).
d. A newly married bride if come to the residence of her father in law from the residence of her father she should be enumerated in the residence of her father in law not in the household of her father. Similarly if the bridegroom stays at the residence of his father in law in the census night coming from the residence of his father he should be enumerated in the residence of his father in law not the residence of his father (general household).
e. If a patient stays in the hospital in the census night he should be enumerated in the hospital not in his own household. Nurses or doctors who will stay in the hospital for duty in the census night they should not be enumerated in the hospital, they should be enumerated in their own household (general household). Similarly persons engaged in night duty should be enumerated in their own household.
f. Those who stayed in the residential hotel temporarily in the census night they should be enumerated in the hotel. The staffs of the hotel who work in the hotel and reside in the hotel they should be enumerated in the hotel (other household).
g. If an individual work in the town and stays in a mess in the town but his family stays in the village, then he should be enumerated in the town not in the village (other household). His family should be enumerated in the village (general household).
h. If a person stays outside the country temporarily for job and was not present in the residence in the census night then he should not be counted.
i. If any beggar or vagabond is found in the enumeration area in the census night he should be enumerated as floating (floating).
j. The guards and chowkiders who are found looking after the government and non-government offices in the census night and took food there they should be enumerated as the resident of that building. But if those guards and chowkiders return to their own residence after their duty then they should be enumerated in their own household.

[The next paragraph consisting of questions and exercise is omitted here.]

Chapter Three
Methods/Instructions for filling Questionnaire

Household related Questions

Write the address of the household in short. Please include house name/no., road number, and area name in the address. Mention the name of the place (in case of floating people). For example-Kamalapur railway station, Highcourt shrine etc.

Floating :
Look carefully whether there are floating people in the Enumeration Area and count all of them. Starting from 12 am to 5 am on Monday, the 11 March 1991. Use the same questionnaire to count floating people and mark the oval cell "Yes" against "Floating people?" Write the name of the place against "Address" and write '999' against "Household Serial Number". Please ask no other questions of "Part I" and note down name, sex, marital status, religion, highest class passed, field of education, attending to educational institution, can write letter or not, main occupation, working status and nationality of individuals in "Part II" in accordance with the instructions given below. Write the corrected serial number if the total number of the Households are more than 11 and tick/mark accordingly against "Part of previous Household?". For example-write '12' if the serial number is twelve and '21' if twenty one etc.

Part of previous household:
If the total member of Household exceeds 11 then mark at the "Yes" of "is it a part of previous household" in the following questionnaire. Correct the serial number and write the right number. Please don't write the check mark in this cell if the total number of the household member is less than 11. Write the same household number in the following questionnaire if the total number of the household member exceeds 11 and mark the oval cell accordingly. In this case don't ask the remaining questions of "Part I" and write down the personal information of "Part II" accordingly.

Household serial number: To identify all the members of a household in your enumeration area please write a 3-digit serial number in each of the household. Start counting at the North West corner and the serial number of the 1st household will be "001". Thereafter, following the Serpentine method write the serial number "002", "003" successively and mark the upper oval cell for the first digit, middle oval cell for the second and bottom oval cell for the third digit.

[Paragraph consisting of an example on how to mark in the household number cells is omitted here.]

Write the household number clearly in the main door of the main dwelling house of the household using lumber chalk. Write the household number cumulatively in the main door of the house if any housing structure has more than one household. For example-if a housing structure has 5 household starting from 045 to 049 then write 045-049 in the main door of the house.

Types of household:
Consider the household as "General household" if it is used mainly as dwelling house and mark the (1) oval accordingly. For jail, hostel, barrack and hospital treat them as "Institutional household" and check (2) oval cell. Please don't ask this question directly to the respondent, rather observe and note down the appropriate answer.

Information of dwelling house of the household:

4. Material of the wall:
To identify the main dwelling house, consult with the respondent (if necessary). Don't embarrass the respondent by asking the question, rather observe and the materials of the wall of the main dwelling house of the household and mark the appropriate oval cell. If the household consists of more than one dwelling house, please check which house's wall is more expensive. Mark at oval cell (1) if the materials of the house mainly made of straw/bamboo, mark at (2) if it is made of brick, mark at (3) if it is tin, (4) if it is wood and (5) if it is made of cement/brick.

5. Materials of the roof:
Similarly you don't need to ask the respondent about the materials of the roof of the same house. Just observe the materials of the roof of the house and mark the appropriate oval cell accordingly. If the main material of the roof is made of straw/bamboo or polythene then mark at (1), mark at (2) if the material of the roof is either tally or tin; mark at (3) if it is made of cement and concrete.

6. Owner of the house:
Ask the respondent "Is the owner of this house is any member of the enumerated household?" if the answer is "Yes" mark at (1) as answer. If "No" then ask again "Do you pay any rent for this house?". If the answer is "Yes" then mark (2) as rent, and if "No" then mark (3) as non-rent.

7. Sources of drinking water:
Ask the respondent "What are the sources of your drinking water?" Write down the answer in a cell where appropriate. If the supply came through pipe water/tap, mark (1), if it is tube well mark (2) , mark (3) if it is well, (4) if it is pond and (5) if river/canal.

8. Toilet facilities:
Ask the respondent "Do you have sanitary toilet?" if you realize that the respondent cannot understand the meaning of the sanitary latrine, explain "If the waste of any toilet is placed in a deep place or placed to a distant place by a pipe and it neither pollutes the environment nor comes into the contact of man, animal or bird then it is termed as Sanitary latrine". If answer is "Yes" then mark (1) and in case of "No" ask again "Do you have other types of latrine?" Mark at (2) oval cell is answer is "Yes" and (3) is answer is "No".

9. Electricity connection:
Mark appropriately without asking the question to the respondent if the electricity connection is not visible or there is no electricity in the locality. If there is electricity in the locality but the connection is not visible then ask "Is there electricity connection in this household?". Mark (1) if there is electricity connection and (2) for not connection.

10. Own agricultural land:
Ask whether the household members have own agricultural land. Do any of the household members have own agricultural land except the dwelling house? Mark (1) if the household have own agricultural land and (2) for not. Don't count the own agricultural land of the relatives or guests if he/she arrive the household suddenly in the census night and included in the count as household member.

11. Main source of income of the household:
There may be more than one source of income of the members of the household. Consider the following 19 sources of income and in accordance with the regular income mark for that source which yearly income is maximum. Ask the respondent "Which is the maximum income source of your household?", considering the last one year. "Which is the most among the income source?" If the respondent mentioned more than one source then ask the respondent "Which source is the maximum among those you have already mentioned?" Mark the oval cell appropriately.

1. Own agricultural land: Most of the income come from own agricultural land or share cropping.
2. Livestock rearing: Income comes from livestock rearing.
3. Forest: Collection of Forest resources such as honey, wood, bamboo, leaf, wax, etc.
4. Fisherman: Income comes from catching and selling of fish.
5. Fish culture: Income comes from commercial fish farming and breeding center.
6. Agricultural labor: Income comes from working as laborer in other's land or farm
7. Non- Agricultural labor: Income comes from working as laborer other than agriculture work.
8. Handloom: Income comes from handloom industry.
9. Industry: Income comes from other cottage industry, heavy industry and factory
10. Business: Income comes from glossary shop trade and business activities
11. Hawkers: Don't have permanent shop but Income come from hawking
12. Non-mechanized vehicle: Income from rickshaw, cart, boat, push cart etc.
13. Mechanized vehicle: Bus, minibus, motor vehicles, scooter, lanch/steemer, boat driven by engine etc.
14. Construction work: Roads, highways, house, bridge construction/contracting activities etc.
15. Religious work: Income from religious works such as Imam, Moazzin, Clergy men, Milad mehfil, puja festival
16. Employment: Income from government, semi- government, private employment
17. Rent/remittances
18. Other services: Income from providing services as Barber, carpenter, lawyers, doctors (self-employed) etc.
19. Others: Income from begging, charity, etc.

Chapter Four

Individual Questions

13/14: Name and age:
Write the name and age in complete years (at blank spaces beside "name" and under "age") of the members of the household who were in home at the household at census night. Of course, write the name and age accurately, start with the name of the head of the household and thereafter husband/wife and then children in ascending order(from youngest to elder), other relatives(including servant). Age must be written in complete years and in two digits. For example, write '01' if age is one year, '00' if age is less than one year. If age is not known by the respondents then ask questions highlighting some special events as mentioned in Appendix 'A'. Ask how many years before or after that event he/she was born? Somebody may answer date of birth in Bangla (local) calendar month. Please use the Calendar to convert Bangla (local) calendar month to English as attached in appendix 'B'. Keep in mind that age must not be reported depending on imagination. Therefore to verify whether you are informed the ages accurately, probe by the following questions:

a. Age difference between mother and child: usually the difference should not be less than 15 years, and age difference between father and children should not be less than 18 years.
b. Age difference between two children of the same mother (except twin) should not be less than one year and usually not more than 30 years.

If the actual age differs from certificate age or any other documents, write the actual age. If the actual age is 100 or more than that, write the actual age of the respondent in the box for age and mark '99' when coding. Write the successive information one after another whenever you complete to write the name and age of the household head and others.

[The next paragraph consisting of examples is omitted here.]

15. Relationship with the household head:
In the list of the members of the household, the first name must be the head of the household and mark (1) oval cell for him/her. Ask for other members of the household, "What is the relationship with the household head (with him/her)?" Mark (2) of oval cell if the relationship is husband/wife, if the answer is son or daughter then mark (3) otherwise mark (4). Mark (5) for mother, father, brother, sister, uncle, aunt, servant etc. Please don't ask the question and write the correct answer if the household is completely known to you.

16. Sex:
If you understand the sex of the person from his/her name then don't ask the question and write yourself. If it is difficult to identify the sex from his/her names then ask "Is the (person) male or female? Mark (1) if he is male and mark (2) oval cell if she is female.

17. Marital status:
If it is easily understandable from his/her age and relationship that he/she is married then don't ask the question and mark (2) oval cell. Ask "Have (person) ever married?" if you cannot understand. If the answer is "No" then mark (1) under unmarried and if "Yes" ask again "Is he/she currently married?" mark(2) under married if the answer is "Yes" and ask "Is she widow" female respondent and ask for men "Is he is widower?" if the answer is "No". If yes fill the oval cell (3) below widow/widower, and if no fill oval cell (4).

18. Religion:
If it is clear from name then mark the appropriate oval. Otherwise ask respondent to know religion of all and fill appropriate oval space. If religion is "Islam" mark oval cell (1), for "Hindu" mark oval cell (2), for "Buddhist" mark oval cell (3), for "Christian" oval cell (4) and oval cell (5) for others.

19. Highest class passed:
Highest which class you have passed? If passed highest class passed is S.S.C fill oval (10), for class eight fill oval (8), for Kamil oval 13, following the given passed code. Always mark that number of oval which number of years are required to pass corresponding highest class according to government system. Follow same system for those who obtained degree from Hindu or Buddhist College.

20. Field of education:
Considering the obtained degree the field of passing is divided into four categories:

1. General: If the degree is from a school, college and university in general subject then class one to class nine/S.S.C/B.A/B.S.C/B.Com./M.A/M.Sc./M.Com. etc.
2. Vocational: After general education those who are trained from vocational training institute, such as trained on television, refrigeration, type writing etc.
3. Technical: Engineer, doctor, Agriculturist and diploma in engineering.
4. Religious: Alim, Fazil, Kamil and educated in other religion such as Pandit, Padri, Acharjya, etc.

Fill the applicable oval number considering the highest degree and training of the previous question.

21. Do you go to educational institute?
Ask "Among members of this household who go to educational institute?" Those names then are mentioned in reply/response fill oval (1) for them and fill oval (2) for others.

22. Can you write a letter?
If the literacy of a person is clear from his educational attainment then fill the applicable oval without asking him this question. Otherwise ask the person to be clear "Can (the person) write a letter?" If 'yes' fill oval (1), if 'no' fill oval (2).

23. Field of main work/occupation:

This information is to be collected for each. Someone might have more than one occupation. In this case select the field which the respondent thinks as his main occupation. Works are divided into two groups on the basis of most of the times engaged in last month, so that the data can be collected easily.

a. Economically inactive and
b. Economically active.

Those who are "economically inactive" are classified into two categories:

1. Not working: Those who are not suitable for work or old pensioner, student, disabled or unwilling to work
2. Looking for work: Those who are not working but looking for work.

"Economically active" is divided into 9 sectors:

3. House work: Those who look after sons, daughters and do family works at house. Women those who were engaged in economic activities and earned mentionable money from that work in last month, are to be shown where it is applicable.
4. Agriculture: Engaged in work of Agriculture, Forest, Livestock, Apiculture, Sericulture, Pisciculture activities.
5. Industry: Engaged in industry and factory work.
6. Water/Electricity/Gas: Engaged in works relating to water, electricity, gas etc.
7. Construction: Engaged in construction work of roads, houses, building, bridge, culvert etc.
8. Transport and Communications: Engaged in mechanized or non-mechanized (manual) transports and communication works.
9. Business: Engaged in business.
10. Service: Engaged in works of service like Barbour, laundryman, lawyer etc.
11. Others: Other than mentioned in classification 1 to 10, remaining others who are engaged in some other works.

24. Work status:
Considering the propensity of works, mark any one appropriate oval of the following for economically active people.
Not applicable for answer (1) and (2) of question number 23.

1. Employer: Mainly employer,
2. Salaried: who receives monthly salary against his/her work,
3. Self-employed: who accomplish his own work by himself,
4. Family helper: who helps in family work without salary,
5. Laborer: who works on the basis of daily remuneration.

Fill up without asking question if there is a clear idea about his/her nationality. If there is any doubt, ask " Is (the person) Bangladeshi? ". For Bangladeshi fill oval (1) and fill oval (2) for foreigner.

[The next paragraph consisting of exercises is omitted here.]

Chapter V
Method of filling up Tally Sheet

First step: Look at the tally sheet at first page of census book. Three parts of the tally sheet:

The upper part contains identity of the enumeration area(EA). Write the name of the district at blank space in front of district and below the code number write appropriate code from the first page of census packet. Similarly write the name of sub-district with geo-code. In next line, for rural write name of concerned union and for urban write ward number and write geo-code from census packet. Similarly in next line, for rural area write the name of mouza and for urban area write down the name of mahallah and mention geo-code from census packet. Then, for rural area write down the name of village along with geo-code. At last fill oval (1) for rural area, oval (2) for urban area and oval 3 for other urban area and write down the appropriate code at the blank space of the box.

In the middle part write the number of general household in three digit below the code number after counting total number of filled oval (1) of question no. 3 of the questionnaire. Similarly count filled oval (2) for institutional household of question no.3 of the questionnaire to find total number of institutional household and write down the number below the code number. From same question count filled oval 3 to find total number of other household and write down the total number. From question no.16 of each questionnaire of an enumeration area (EA) add all filled oval (1) against gender to find total number of male and add all oval (2) to find total number of female and write down the same below code number. From question no.22 count reply 'yes' of the question "Can (the person) write letter?" and write down the total number of literate persons at the appropriate space. Similarly count reply 'yes' against the question "Is (the person) floating people?" mentioned below address of the first question of person module and fill up this space.

Then, fill up appropriate ovals of upper and middle parts.

In the lower part enumerators will give entry of enumerator's name and signature, enumerator's number, date of receiving census book and supervisors will give entry of supervisor's name and signature, supervisor's number and shall record the date of submission of census books to the zonal officer. Finally, zonal officer will give entry of his name and signature, zone number and shall record the date of sending census book to the central control room.

Two tally sheets are there with each census book. After completion of first tally sheet, copy exactly in the second tally sheet.

[The last three pages of the document consisting of administrative information and conversion tables are omitted here.]