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Sample characteristics: United States

Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title 1960 Census of Population and Housing
Statistical agency U.S. Census Bureau
Population universe Residents of the 50 states (not the outlying areas).
De jure or de facto De jure
Census/survey day April 1, 1960
Questionnaire The 1960 census used a machine-readable household form. Separate forms were used for each housing unit. Housing questions were included on the same form as the population items. Every fourth enumeration unit received a "long form," containing supplemental sample questions that were asked of all members of the unit. Sample questions are available for all individuals in every unit. Of the units receiving a long form, four-fifths received one version (the 20% questionnaire), and one-fifth received a second version with the same population questions but slightly different housing questions (the 5% questionnaire).
Type of fieldwork Direct and self-enumeration
Estimated undercount No official estimates
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design 1-in-100 national random sample drawn by the U.S. Census Bureau
Sample fraction 1%
Sample size (person records) 1,799,888
Sample weights Self-weighting. Expansion factor = 100.
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography State
Unit definitions
Households Dwelling places with fewer than five persons unrelated to a household head, excluding institutions and transient quarters.
Collective dwellings Institutions, transient quarters, and dwelling places with five or more persons unrelated to a household head.
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title 1970 Census of Population and Housing
Statistical agency U.S. Census Bureau
Population universe Residents of the 50 states (not the outlying areas).
De jure or de facto De jure
Census/survey day April 1, 1970
Questionnaire One in five housing units in 1970 received a long form containing supplemental sample questions. There were two versions of the long form, with different inquiries on both housing and population items; 15 percent of households received one version, and 5 percent received the other. Six independent 1 percent public use samples were produced for 1970, three from the 15 percent questionnaire and three from the 5 percent questionnaire. IPUMS-International uses the "Form 2 Metro" sample.
Type of fieldwork Direct and self-enumeration
Estimated undercount No official estimates
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design 1-in-100 national random sample drawn by the U.S. Census Bureau
Sample fraction 1%
Sample size (person records) 2,029,666
Sample weights Self-weighting. Expansion factor = 100.
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units Yes
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Metropolitan areas and county groups with 250,000+ residents
Unit definitions
Households Dwelling places with fewer than five persons unrelated to a household head, excluding institutions and transient quarters.
Collective dwellings Institutions, transient quarters, and dwelling places with five or more persons unrelated to a household head.
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title 1980 Census of Population and Housing
Statistical agency U.S. Census Bureau
Population universe Residents of the 50 states (not the outlying areas).
De jure or de facto De jure
Census/survey day April 1, 1980
Questionnaire The 1980 census employed a single long form questionnaire completed by one-half of housing units in places with a population under 2,500 and one-sixth of other housing units.
Type of fieldwork Direct and self-enumeration
Estimated undercount No official estimates
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design 1-in-20 national random sample drawn by the U.S. Census Bureau
Sample fraction 5%
Sample size (person records) 11,343,120
Sample weights Self-weighting. Expansion factor = 100.
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units Yes
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography PUMAS (Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs) containing 100,000 or more residents
Unit definitions
Households Dwelling places with fewer than ten persons unrelated to a household head, excluding institutions and transient quarters.
Collective dwellings Institutions, transient quarters, and dwelling places with ten or more persons unrelated to a household head.
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title 1990 Census of Population and Housing
Statistical agency U.S. Census Bureau
Population universe Residents of the 50 states (not the outlying areas).
De jure or de facto De jure
Census/survey day April 1, 1990
Questionnaire The 1990 census used a single long-form questionnaire completed by one-half of persons in places with a population under 2,500, one-sixth of persons in other tracts and block numbering areas with fewer than 2,000 housing units, and one-eighth of all other areas. Overall, about one-sixth of housing units completed a long form.
Type of fieldwork Direct and self-enumeration
Estimated undercount No official estimates
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design 1-in-20 national random sample drawn by the U.S. Census Bureau
Sample fraction 5%
Sample size (person records) 12,501,046
Sample weights Weights computed by census agency should be used for most types of analysis.
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units Yes
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography PUMAS (Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs) containing 100,000 or more residents
Unit definitions
Households Dwelling places with fewer than ten persons unrelated to a household head, excluding institutions and transient quarters.
Collective dwellings Institutions, transient quarters, and dwelling places with ten or more persons unrelated to a household head.
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title 2000 Census of Population and Housing
Statistical agency U.S. Census Bureau
Population universe Residents of the 50 states (not the outlying areas).
De jure or de facto De jure
Census/survey day April 1, 2000
Questionnaire The 2000 census used a long form questionnaire. Long Form Sampling Entities (LFSEs) were used to determine sampling rates. If the smallest LFSE that included all or any part of a block had an estimated housing unit count of less than 800, the housing units in the block were sampled at a 1-in-2 rate. If it had an estimated housing unit count of 800 or more but less than 1,200, units were sampled at a 1-in-4 rate. If a block was not in either of the two previous categories, and was part of an interim census tract with 2,000 or more estimated housing units, units were sampled at a 1-in-8 rate. Housing units in all remaining blocks were sampled at a 1-in-6 rate. When all sampling rates were taken into account across the nation, approximately 1 out of every 6 housing units was included in the Census 2000 sample.
Type of fieldwork Direct and self-enumeration
Estimated undercount No official estimates
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design 1-in-20 national random sample drawn by the U.S. Census Bureau
Sample fraction 5%
Sample size (person records) 14,081,466
Sample weights Weights computed by census agency should be used for most types of analysis.
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units Yes
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography PUMAS (Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs) containing 100,000 or more residents
Unit definitions
Households Dwelling places excluding institutions and transient quarters.
Collective dwellings No threshold was applied; in order for a household to be considered group quarters in 2000, it had to be on the list of group quarters that is continuously maintained by the Census Bureau.
Census/survey characteristics
Type Survey
Title 2005 American Community Survey
Statistical agency U.S. Census Bureau
Population universe Residents of the 50 states (not the outlying areas) living in their residence for at least two months, excluding populations living in collective dwellings
De jure or de facto De jure
Census/survey day No specific day
Questionnaire The 2005 American Community Survey employed a single long form questionnaire completed by one of 100 households.
Type of fieldwork Direct and self-enumeration
Estimated undercount No official estimates
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design 1-in-100 national random sample drawn by the U.S. Census Bureau
Sample fraction 1%
Sample size (person records) 2,878,380
Sample weights Weights computed by census agency should be used for most types of analysis.
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units Yes
Households Yes
Collective dwellings No
Smallest geography PUMAS (Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs) containing 100,000 or more residents
Unit definitions
Households Dwelling places excluding institutions and transient quarters.
Collective dwellings Not included in microdata sample.
Census/survey characteristics
Type Survey
Title 2010 American Community Survey
Statistical agency U.S. Census Bureau
Population universe Residents of the 50 states (not the outlying areas).
De jure or de facto De jure
Census/survey day No specific day
Questionnaire The 2010 American Community Survey employed a single long form questionnaire completed by one of 100 households and group quarters.
Type of fieldwork Direct and self-enumeration
Estimated undercount No official estimates
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design 1-in-100 national random sample drawn by the U.S. Census Bureau
Sample fraction 1%
Sample size (person records) 3,061,692
Sample weights Weights computed by census agency should be used for most types of analysis.
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units Yes
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography PUMAS (Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs) containing 100,000 or more residents
Unit definitions
Households Dwelling places excluding institutions and transient quarters.
Collective dwellings A place where people live or stay, in a group living arrangement, that is owned or managed by an entity or organization providing housing and/or services for the residents. These services may include custodial or medical care as well as other types of assistance, and residency in commonly restricted to those receiving these services. People living in group quarters are usually not related to each other. Group quarters inlcude such places as college residence halls, residential treatment centers, skilled nursing facilities, group homes, military barracks, correctional facilities, and workers' dormitories.