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Sample characteristics: United Kingdom

Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title Census of the Population 1851
Statistical agency Secretary of State
Population universe All persons who slept in an dwelling in the country on the night of March 30, 1851
De jure or de facto De facto
Census/survey day March 31, 1851
Field work period March 31, 1851
Questionnaire A single household form collected information on individual characteristics
Type of fieldwork Self-emumeration and direct enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Not applicable
Sample fraction 100%
Sample size (person records) 17,711,044
Sample weights Not applicable
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Parish
Unit definitions
Households Where houses were let or sub-let to different persons or families, in separate stories or apartments, the single occupier or head of household of each such story or apartment completed a separate household schedule
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title Census of the Population 1851
Statistical agency Secretary of State
Population universe All persons who slept in a dwelling in the country on the night of March 30, 1851
De jure or de facto De facto
Census/survey day March 31, 1851
Field work period March 31, 1851
Questionnaire A single household form collected information on individual characteristics
Type of fieldwork Self-emumeration and direct enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Not applicable
Sample fraction 100%
Sample size (person records) 2,899,281
Sample weights Not applicable
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Parish
Unit definitions
Households Where houses were let or sub-let to different persons or families, in separate stories or apartments, the single occupier or head of household of each such story or apartment completed a separate household schedule
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title Census of the Population 1851
Statistical agency Secretary of State
Population universe All persons who slept in a dwelling in the country on the night of March 30, 1851
De jure or de facto De facto
Census/survey day March 31, 1851
Field work period March 31, 1851
Questionnaire A single household form collected information on individual characteristics
Type of fieldwork Self-emumeration and direct enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Highly clustered sample of parishes. For more information, see sample description.
Sample fraction 2%
Sample size (person records) 399,216
Sample weights Weights computed by data producer should be used for most types of analysis.
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Parish
Unit definitions
Households Where houses were let or sub-let to different persons or families, in separate stories or apartments, the single occupier or head of household of each such story or apartment completed a separate household schedule
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title Census of England and Wales, 1861
Statistical agency Secretary of State
Population universe All persons who slept in a dwelling in the country on the night of April 7, 1861 and persons who were working or travelling on the night April 7,1861 but returned home on April 8, 1861
De jure or de facto De facto
Census/survey day April 8, 1861
Field work period Household schedules were delivered between April 1 and April 6, 1861
Questionnaire A single household form collected information on individual characteristics
Type of fieldwork Self-emumeration and direct enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Not applicable
Sample fraction 100%
Sample size (person records) 19,828,561
Sample weights Not applicable
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Parish
Unit definitions
Households Where houses were let or sub-let to families or lodgers, each occupier or lodger completed a separate household schedule
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title Census of Scotland, 1861
Statistical agency Secretary of State
Population universe All persons who slept in a dwelling in the country on the night of April 7, 1861 and persons who were working or travelling on the night April 7,1861 but returned home on April 8, 1861
De jure or de facto De facto
Census/survey day April 8, 1861
Field work period Household schedules were delivered between April 1 and April 6, 1861
Questionnaire A single household form collected information on individual characteristics
Type of fieldwork Self-emumeration and direct enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Not applicable
Sample fraction 100%
Sample size (person records) 3,008,817
Sample weights Not applicable
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Parish
Unit definitions
Households Where houses were let or sub-let to families or lodgers, each occupier or lodger completed a separate household schedule
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title Census of Scotland, 1871
Statistical agency Secretary of State
Population universe All persons who slept in a dwelling in the country on the night of April 2, 1871 and persons who were working or travelling on the night April 2,1871 but returned home on April 3, 1871
De jure or de facto De facto
Census/survey day April 3, 1871
Field work period Household schedules were delivered between March 27 and April 1, 1871
Questionnaire A single household form collected information on individual characteristics
Type of fieldwork Self-emumeration and direct enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Not applicable
Sample fraction 100%
Sample size (person records) 3,349,656
Sample weights Not applicable
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Parish
Unit definitions
Households A group of people who eat at the same table or in the same house, including lodgers and servants
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title Census of England and Wales, 1881
Statistical agency Registrar General
Population universe All persons who slept in a dwelling in the country on the night of April 3, 1881 and persons who were working or travelling on the night April 3,1881 but returned home on April 4, 1881
De jure or de facto De facto
Census/survey day April 4, 1881
Field work period Household schedules were delivered between March 28 and April 2, 1881
Questionnaire A single household form collected information on individual characteristics
Type of fieldwork Self-emumeration and direct enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Not applicable
Sample fraction 100%
Sample size (person records) 26,124,585
Sample weights Not applicable
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Parish
Unit definitions
Households A group of people who eat at the same table or in the same house, including lodgers and servants
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title Census of Scotland, 1881
Statistical agency Registrar General
Population universe All persons who slept in a dwelling in the country on the night of April 3, 1881 and persons who were working or travelling on the night April 3,1881 but returned home on April 4, 1881
De jure or de facto De facto
Census/survey day April 4, 1881
Field work period Household schedules were delivered between March 28 and April 2, 1881
Questionnaire A single household form collected information on individual characteristics
Type of fieldwork Self-emumeration and direct enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Not applicable
Sample fraction 100%
Sample size (person records) 3,741,017
Sample weights Not applicable
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Parish
Unit definitions
Households A group of people who eat at the same table or in the same house, including lodgers and servants
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title Census of England and Wales, 1891
Statistical agency Registrar General
Population universe All persons who slept in a dwelling in the country on the night of April 5, 1891 and persons who were working or travelling on the night April 5,1891 but returned home on April 6, 1891
De jure or de facto De facto
Census/survey day April 6, 1891
Field work period Household schedules were delivered between March 29 and April 4, 1891
Questionnaire A single household form collected information on individual characteristics
Type of fieldwork Self-emumeration and direct enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Not applicable
Sample fraction 100%
Sample size (person records) 29,509,255
Sample weights Not applicable
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Parish
Unit definitions
Households A group of people who eat at the same table or in the same house, including lodgers and servants
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title Census of Scotland, 1891
Statistical agency Registrar General
Population universe All persons who slept in a dwelling in the country on the night of April 5, 1891 and persons who were working or travelling on the night April 5,1891 but returned home on April 6, 1891
De jure or de facto De facto
Census/survey day April 6, 1891
Field work period Household schedules were delivered between March 29 and April 4, 1891
Questionnaire A single household form collected information on individual characteristics
Type of fieldwork Self-emumeration and direct enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Not applicable
Sample fraction 100%
Sample size (person records) 4,013,567
Sample weights Not applicable
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Parish
Unit definitions
Households A group of people who eat at the same table or in the same house, including lodgers and servants
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title Census of England and Wales, 1901
Statistical agency Registrar General
Population universe All persons who slept in a dwelling in the country on the night of March 31, 1901 and persons who were working or travelling on the night March 31, 1901 but returned home on April 1, 1901
De jure or de facto De facto
Census/survey day April 1, 1901
Field work period Household schedules were delivered between March 25 and March 30, 1901
Questionnaire A single household form collected information on individual characteristics
Type of fieldwork Self-emumeration and direct enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Not applicable
Sample fraction 100%
Sample size (person records) 32,493,318
Sample weights Not applicable
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Parish
Unit definitions
Households A group of people who eat at the same table or in the same house, including lodgers and servants
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title Census of Scotland, 1901
Statistical agency Registrar General
Population universe All persons who slept in a dwelling in the country on the night of March 31, 1901 and persons who were working or travelling on the night March 31, 1901 but returned home on April 1, 1901
De jure or de facto De facto
Census/survey day April 1, 1901
Field work period Household schedules were delivered between March 25 and March 30, 1901
Questionnaire A single household form collected information on individual characteristics
Type of fieldwork Self-emumeration and direct enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Not applicable
Sample fraction 100%
Sample size (person records) 4,438,418
Sample weights Not applicable
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Parish
Unit definitions
Households A group of people who eat at the same table or in the same house, including lodgers and servants
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title Census of England and Wales, 1911
Statistical agency Registrar General
Population universe All persons who slept in a dwelling in the country on the night of April 2,1911 and persons who arrived to the dwelling on the morning of April 3, 1911 having not be enumerated elsewhere
De jure or de facto De facto
Census/survey day April 3, 1911
Field work period Household schedules were delivered between March 27 and April 1, 1911
Questionnaire A single household form collected information on individual characteristics
Type of fieldwork Self-emumeration and direct enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Not applicable
Sample fraction 100%
Sample size (person records) 36,353,455
Sample weights Not applicable
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Parish
Unit definitions
Dwellings A place in which any person entitled to receive a schedule usually lives. A dwelling may be an ordinary private house or a separately occupied room or rooms in a house; a flat in a block of residential mansions or model dwellings; a maisonette; rooms over stables, over shops, in a factory, etc.; an hotel, club, institution, etc.; or a caravan, tent, canal boat, vessel, etc.
Households A group of people who eat at the same table or in the same house, including lodgers and servants
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title 1991 Census
Statistical agency Centre for Census and Survey Research
Population universe Every person who spends census night (21-22 April) in the household, including anyone staying temporarily; any other people who are usually members of the household but on the census night are absent on holiday, at school or college, or for any other reason even if they are being included on another census form elsewhere; anyone who arrives here on Monday 22nd April who was in Great Britain on the Sunday and who has not been included as present on another census form; and any newly born baby born before the 22nd April, even if still in hospital.
De jure or de facto De jure and de facto
Census/survey day April 21, 1991
Questionnaire Form for private households (H), Form for making and individual return (I), and Form for communal establishments, HM Ships or other vessels (L)
Type of fieldwork Self-enumeration
Estimated undercount 2.0% of the population of Great Britain missed entirely and a further 1.6 per cent for whom records were imputed.
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design All fully-coded household forms were ordered geographically with the lowest level the enumeration area. Households were then grouped into batches of 10 and one household selected at random from each batch. The two per cent Individual sample was then drawn from the remaining households. Individuals in the remaining households were stratified into groups of nine, and two individuals selected from each group at random. Individuals in communal establishments were stratified into groups of five and one individual selected at random from each group.

NOTE: The sample excludes Northern Ireland. It includes England, Scotland and Wales.

NOTE2: Many data items are not available for households with 12 or more persons, for confidentiality reasons. These cases are coded "not in universe" in the affected variables.

Sample fraction 2%
Sample size (person records) 541,894
Sample weights Weights computed by census agency.
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography SARs region
Unit definitions
Households A household comprises either one person living alone or a group of people not necessarily related, living at the same address with common housekeeping - that is, sharing at least one meal a day or sharing a living room or sitting room. People staying temporarily with the household are included.
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title 2001 Census
Statistical agency Centre for Census and Survey Research
Population universe Anyone who is temporarily away from home on the night of 29 April 2001 who usually lives at this address. Any baby born before 30 April 2001, even if sitll in hospital. People with more than one address if they live at this address for the majority of the time. Anyone who is staying with no other usual address. A spouse or partners who works away from home, or is a member of the armed forces, and usually lives at this address.
De jure or de facto De jure
Census/survey day April 29, 2001
Questionnaire England household form (H1)
Type of fieldwork Self-enumeration
Estimated undercount No official estimates
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design The sampling scheme for the household SAR (Sample of anonymised records) is a stratified simple random sampling, where the strata are EDs (Enumeration districts). Unlike 1991, there is no stratification within EDs. Random sampling is applied within each ED. The sampling scheme for the individual SAR follows the 1991 approach of drawing from the population excluding the household sample. Stratification is again by ED. The Individual SAR sampled both private and communal persons, unlike the household SAR which only sampled only households.
Sample fraction 3%
Sample size (person records) 1,843,525
Sample weights Weights computed by census agency.
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households No
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography SARs region
Unit definitions
Households A household comprises either one person living alone or a group of people not necessarily related, living at the same address with common housekeeping - that is, sharing at least one meal a day or sharing a living room or sitting room.