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Sample characteristics: Malaysia

Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title 1970 Population and Housing Census
Statistical agency Department of Statistics Malaysia
Population universe The 1970 Population Census was de facto count of all persons in the country on the midnight of August 24/25, 1970. However, the manner in which certain categories of persons were enumerated varied.

Nomads - In Malaysia, nomads are to be found amongst the Orang Asli. (Aborigines). The Department of Orang Asli assisted in enumerating the Orang Asli.

Persons living in remote areas
– The problem of persons living in remote and inaccessible areas was a particular problem in Sabah and Sarawak. In these areas, the two-stage system of enumeration was not employed, and the count was undertaken as a single operation.

Resident merchant, seamen and fishermen at sea on Census Night – In the Census these persons were designated as persons afloat. They were categorised into the following groups and with the exception of the last group (e), they were included in the Census Count:

(a) Crew and passengers on coastal ships sailing in Malaysian waters or at Malaysian ports or sailing between two Malaysian ports,
(b) Crew and passengers on vessels registered in Malaysia and engaged in regional trade,
(c) Persons living on boats and vessels moored in harbours, rivers or creeks,
(d) Fishermen at sea on Census Night, and
(e) Crew and passengers on foreign registered ships in port or in Malaysian waters.

Civilian residents who cross a frontier daily to work in another country – This category of persons was included in the Census in conformity with the principle of counting all persons present in the country on the night of August 24/25, 1970.

Civilian aliens who were temporarily in the country as seasonal workers were included in the Census count. So were all other Civilian aliens, other than those already listed, working in the country. Also, civilian aliens, other than those already listed, temporarily in the country were included in the count.

Foreign military, naval and diplomatic personnel and their families located in the country – All persons in this category were included in the Census count with the exception of persons claiming diplomatic immunity.

Wayfarers, homeless people and persons in hotels were included in the Census count – Special arrangements were made with the police and railway authorities to enumerate these persons. Recourse was made to road blocks to count travellers.

Military, naval and diplomatic personnel and their families located outside Malaysia were excluded from the Census count. Given the de facto approach, which requires only a count of persons present within Malaysia, these categories of persons were excluded from the count. Similarly, civilians who were temporarily away from the country on the night of the Census, were excluded.

Civilian residents, other than those already listed, working in another country were also excluded from the count. So were civilian residents, other than those already listed, temporarily absent from the country.

Civilian aliens who cross a frontier daily to work in Malaysia were omitted from the count.

De jure or de facto De facto
Census/survey day August 25, 1970
Field work period The 1970 Census was conducted as a two-stage operation comprised a house numbering stage and an enumeration stage. The first stage enumeration was carried out from July 27 to August 9, 1970. The second stage was carried out from August 25 to September 7, 1970.
Questionnaire Five separate forms constitute the total questionnaire. There was a House Listing Book, a Living Quarters Form, an Agricultural Census Form, a Household Census Form and a Persons Form. For ease of reference those were designated as Forms 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.
Type of fieldwork Direct enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design With 2 per cent as the sampling fraction, or a sample interval of 50, the sample was selected using the living quarters serial number starting from 1, 51, 101, 151, 201 ……. N.

**Note: The states of Borneo (Sabah and Sarawak) are excluded from the sample.

Sample fraction 2%
Sample size (person records) 175,997
Sample weights Self-weighting

Expansion factor = 50.

Units identified in microdata
Dwellings Yes
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Districts with 20,000+ population
Unit definitions
Dwellings Living quarters have been defined for census purposes as places of abode, which are structurally separate and independent. The terms separate and independent mean the following:

Separate: A structure is considered separate if it is surrounded by walls, fence, etc., and is covered by roof.

Independent: A structure is said to be independent if it has direct access via a public staircase, communal passageway or landing (that is, occupants can come in or go out of their living quarters without passing through someone else’s premises).

In general, living quarters can be classified into two categories, that is:

(i) Built or converted for living (e.g. house, flat, apartment, shophouse, makeshift hut, hotel, hostels, etc.)
(ii) Not meant for living but used for this purpose on Census Day (e.g. in a building such as office, shop, barn, community hall, etc.)

Living quarters built or converted for living can be further classified into housing units and collective living quarters. Housing units are classified into six main types, namely: House; Flat/apartment/condominium; Shop house, office; Room (with direct access to the outside); improvised/temporary hut; and others. House can be further classified into Detached house; and Semi-detached house.

Households A household consists of a group of persons who live together and make common provision for food and other essentials of living. The group pay for main meals out of a commond budget and have common arrangements for basic needs.

A household may either be a one person household or a multi-person household. The persons may be related by blood or marriage, or unrelated, or a combination of both.

Collective dwellings Living quarters which is built or converted for living (e.g. house, flat, apartment, shophouse, makeshift hut, hotel, hostels, etc.).
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title 1980 Population and Housing Census
Statistical agency Department of Statistics Malaysia
Population universe The 1980 Population Census included all Malaysians and non- Malaysians who had slept in private or small institutional living quarters during Census Night. However, there were several group of people who did not fall into the above category and for whom special arrangements were made:

(a) Persons living in remote and security areas
- These include the Orang Asli (Aborigines) in Peninsular Malaysia and other indigenous groups who live deep in the jungles in the interior of Sabah and Sarawak; also persons in security areas were included. The enumeration of such persons was done in a single stage operation.

(b) Military, naval and diplomatic personnel and their families and civilians staying outside Malaysia
- Since the strategy of enumeration was based on the de facto approach, this group of persons were excluded from the count. Civilians who were temporarily away from the country were also excluded.

(c) Resident merchants, seamen and passengers who were at sea on Census night

The following were included:-
(i) Crews and passengers on coastal ships sailing in Malaysian waters or in Malaysian ports or sailing between Malaysian ports;
(ii) Crews and passengers on vessels registered in Malaysia and engaged in regional trade. Crews and passengers on foreign registered ships in port or in Malaysian waters were, however, excluded.

(d) Civilian residents who cross a frontier daily to work in another country
-This group was included in the census if they were in Malaysia on Census night.

(e) Foreign military, naval and diplomatic personnel and their families located in the country
-All persons in this category were included in the census with the exception of persons having diplomatic immunity.

(f) Transients
-Wayfarers, homeless people and travellers were included in the census. Special arrangements were made with the police, railway and marine authorities to enumerate these people.

(g) Institutions
-Institutions in large hotels, hostels, hospitals and prisons were also included.

(h) Army camps and army personnel on patrol
-Army personnel were included in the census, through the assistance of the commanding officers of the camps.

De jure or de facto De facto
Census/survey day June 10, 1980
Field work period The 1980 Population and Housing Census was conducted in two stages. The first stage involved the listing of all living quarters as well as a preliminary count of the population and was carried out from May 17 to 26, 1980. The second stage involved the actual count of the population as well as an enumeration of the personal characteristics of every person, and was carried out from June 11 to 28, 1980.
Questionnaire Five types of schedules were used for the 1980 Population and Housing Census: Form 1 consisted of a House Listing Book; Form 2 was the schedule used in the Housing Census; Form 3 was used to collect information on households and; Form 4 was used for collecting individual particulars. However, persons in large hotels, hostels, hospitals, prisons and other institutions were enumerated on Form 33, a shortened version of Form 4.
Type of fieldwork Direct enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Unknown.

**Note: The states of Borneo (Sabah and Sarawak) are excluded from the sample.

Sample fraction 1.67%
Sample size (person records) 182,601
Sample weights Self-weighting

Expansion factor = 60.

Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Districts with 20,000+ population
Unit definitions
Dwellings Living quarters have been defined for census purposes as places of abode, which are structurally separate and independent. The terms separate and independent mean the following:

Separate: A structure is considered separate if it is surrounded by walls, fence, etc., and is covered by roof.

Independent: A structure is said to be independent if it has direct access via a public staircase, communal passageway or landing (that is, occupants can come in or go out of their living quarters without passing through someone else’s premises).

In general, living quarters can be classified into two categories, that is:

(i) Built or converted for living (e.g. house, flat, apartment, shophouse, makeshift hut, hotel, hostels, etc.)
(ii) Not meant for living but used for this purpose on Census Day (e.g. in a building such as office, shop, barn, community hall, etc.)

Living quarters built or converted for living can be further classified into housing units and collective living quarters. Housing units are classified into six main types, namely: House; Flat/apartment/condominium; Shop house, office; Room (with direct access to the outside); improvised/temporary hut; and others. House can be further classified into Detached house; and Semi-detached house.

Households A household is defined as a group of persons who live together and make common provision for food and other essentials of living. The people in the group may be related or unrelated or a combination of both. A household may consist of only one person or it may be a multi-member household.
Collective dwellings Living quarters which is built or converted for living (e.g. house, flat, apartment, shophouse, makeshift hut, hotel, hostels, etc.).
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title 1991 Population and Housing Census
Statistical agency Department of Statistics Malaysia
Population universe In the 1991 Population and Housing Census, all persons including foreigners who were in Malaysia on Census Day were enumerated. Generally, the majority of people were found in their respective homes on August 14, 1991 and were enumerated under the normal enumeration procedures. However, a minority of the population did not fall in the above category and for the persons, special enumeration arrangements were made. The groups referred to were:

(a) Guests staying in hotels, lodging houses, rest-houses, etc;
(b) Persons staying in institutional living quarters such as educational, medical, charitable, religious and social welfare institutions, etc;
(c) Persons in prison, detention centers and lock-ups;
(d) Personnel in army/police camps and those on military patrol;
(e) Orang Asli (Aborigines) in Peninsular Malaysia;
(f) Wayfarers, homeless people and persons away at sea;
(g) Foreign military, naval and diplomatic personnel and their families.

All persons in this category were enumerated in the census with the exception of persons with diplomatic immunity who wished to be excluded.

De jure or de facto De facto
Census/survey day August 14, 1991
Field work period The 1991 Census has successfully attempted the one-stage operation of simultaneously listing the living quarters and interviewing the occupants to obtain information relating to households and persons using a consolidated questionnaire. A consolidated housing, household and person form was designed for this purpose. The enumeration period for the 1991 Census began on August 14, 1991 and continued until August 30.
Questionnaire Four types of forms were used in the 1991 Census.

Document 1: Listing Book which identified the Enumeration Block and list all living quarters in each block.

Document 2: The main census form which required the filling in of particulars on all listed living quarters, household and person.

Document 2a: Person Form. This document was used if a household contained more than seven members.

Document 3: Self-enumeration Form for Living Quarters/ Household.

Document 3a: Self-enumeration Person Form.

Document 4: Listing Card which assigned a control number to the living quarters.

Type of fieldwork Direct enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design With 2 per cent as the sampling fraction, or a sample interval of 50, the sample was selected using the living quarters serial number starting from 1, 51, 101, 151, 201 ……. N.
Sample fraction 2%
Sample size (person records) 347,892
Sample weights Self-weighting

Expansion factor = 50.

Units identified in microdata
Dwellings Yes
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Districts with 20,000+ population
Unit definitions
Dwellings Living quarters have been defined for census purposes as places of abode, which are structurally separate and independent. The terms separate and independent mean the following:

Separate: A structure is considered separate if it is surrounded by walls, fence, etc., and is covered by roof.

Independent: A structure is said to be independent if it has direct access via a public staircase, communal passageway or landing (that is, occupants can come in or go out of their living quarters without passing through someone else’s premises).

In general, living quarters can be classified into two categories, that is:

(i) Built or converted for living (e.g. house, flat, apartment, shophouse, makeshift hut, hotel, hostels, etc.)
(ii) Not meant for living but used for this purpose on Census Day (e.g. in a building such as office, shop, barn, community hall, etc.)

Living quarters built or converted for living can be further classified into housing units and collective living quarters. Housing units are classified into six main types, namely: House; Flat/apartment/condominium; Shop house, office; Room (with direct access to the outside); improvised/temporary hut; and others. House can be further classified into Detached house; and Semi-detached house.

Households A household is made up of persons who may be related and/or persons unrelated who usually live together and make common provision for food and other essentials of living.
-This group makes provision for food from part of their pooled resources and makes the same preparation for other basic need.
-A household can comprise several members or may be a single member only.
-Persons in a household may be related or a combination fo both.
-Each living quarters is normally coccupied by a househod. However, sometimes a livng quarters may be occupied by more than one househod. This situation normally occurs in urban areas where households are forced to share a living quarters because of the shortage of accommodation.
Collective dwellings Living quarters which is built or converted for living (e.g. house, flat, apartment, shophouse, makeshift hut, hotel, hostels, etc.).
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title 2000 Population and Housing Census
Statistical agency Department of Statistics Malaysia
Population universe All persons including foreigners who had stayed or intended to stay in Malaysia for six months or more in the Census year were covered. Apart from Malaysians, the following categories were also included provided they had stayed or intended to stay for 6 months or more in Malaysia:
(a) Persons commuting across the Malaysian border (e.g. Singapore and Thailand) for work or studies but maintaining usual residence within Malaysia;
(b) Malaysians who were away overseas as tourists, on short-term study or attending conferences/seminars or on business;
(c) Expatriates and other foreign workers (including housemaids) as well as their family members;
(d) Foreign long-term visitors and students;
(e) Foreign military, naval and diplomatic personnel and their families staying in the country except for those who had diplomatic immunity and wished to be excluded; and
(f) Persons without permanent homes and were found along footways, etc;

The following categories were excluded from the Census count on the basis that they were staying in the country for less than six months in the Census year:-

(a) Malaysian citizens and permanent residents who were away or intended to be away from the country for six months or more in the Census year because of work, studies etc.;
(b) Malaysian military, naval and diplomatic personnel and their families who were staying outside Malaysia; and
(c) Foreigners such as tourists, businessman and the like who stayed or intended to be in Malayisa for less than six months.

De jure or de facto De jure
Census/survey day July 5, 2000
Field work period In the 2000 Census, the listing of living quarters and interviewing of respondents to obtain information relating to households and persons were done simultaneously in a single stage operation. The enumeration was conducted from July 5 to 20, 2000.
Questionnaire In the 2000 Population and Housing Census, three main schedules were used namely, Documents 1, 2 and 3/3a. Document 1, which is the Listing Book, was used to list all living quarters and obtain some related information. Document 2, which represented the main questionnaire, was divided into three sections. It collected information on living quarters, households and persons. Document 3/3a, which was an abbreviated version of Document 2, was used for institutions.
Type of fieldwork Direct enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design With 2 per cent as the sampling fraction, or a sample interval of 50, the sample was selected using the living quarters serial number starting from 1, 51, 101, 151, 201 ……. N.
Sample fraction 2%
Sample size (person records) 435,300
Sample weights Self-weighting.

Expansion factor = 50.

Units identified in microdata
Dwellings Yes
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings No
Smallest geography Districts with 20,000+ population
Unit definitions
Dwellings Living quarters have been defined for census purposes as places of abode, which are structurally separate and independent. The terms separate and independent mean the following:

Separate: A structure is considered separate if it is surrounded by walls, fence, etc., and is covered by roof.

Independent: A structure is said to be independent if it has direct access via a public staircase, communal passageway or landing (that is, occupants can come in or go out of their living quarters without passing through someone else’s premises).

In general, living quarters can be classified into two categories, that is:

(i) Built or converted for living (e.g. house, flat, apartment, shophouse, makeshift hut, hotel, hostels, etc.)
(ii) Not meant for living but used for this purpose on Census Day (e.g. in a building such as office, shop, barn, community hall, etc.)

Living quarters built or converted for living can be further classified into housing units and collective living quarters. Housing units are classified into six main types, namely: House; Flat/apartment/condominium; Shop house, office; Room (with direct access to the outside); improvised/temporary hut; and others. House can be further classified into Detached house; and Semi-detached house.

Households Household is a group of persons who:
- Usually live together
- Make common provisions for food and other essentials of living