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Sample characteristics: Canada

Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title 1971 Census of Canada
Statistical agency Statistics Canada
Population universe Resident population in private dwellings in the areas with a minimum population of 250,000 persons. Foreign residents and non-permanent residents were excluded . Prince Edward, Yukon and Northwest Territories are not included in the sample.
De jure or de facto De jure
Census/survey day June 1, 1971
Questionnaire The long form which requested information about dwellings, households and individuals.
Type of fieldwork Direct and self-enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design (a) Systematic sample of every 3rd household with a random start was given a long form. (b) The long form sample was then stratified within each georgraphic region. (c) A sample of individuals was systematically drawn from each stata proportionally to represent 1% of the sample.
Sample fraction 1%
Sample size (person records) 214,019
Sample weights Self-weighting (expansion factor = 100)
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households No
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Province
Unit definitions
Dwellings A structurally separate set of living quarters with a private entrace from outside or from a common hallway or stairway inside the building, i.e., the entrance must not be through someone else's living quarters. Dwellings under construction that are not ready for occupancy are not included.
Households A person or group of persons occupying one dwelling. It usually consists of a family group, with or without lodgers, employees, etc. However, it may consist of two or more families shaing a dwelling, of a group of unrelated persons or of one person living alone.
Collective dwellings Household occupying a collective dwelling.
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title 1981 Census of Canada
Statistical agency Statistics Canada
Population universe Resident population in private dwellings in the areas with a minimum population of 250,000 persons. Foreign residents and non-permanent residents were excluded .
De jure or de facto De jure
Census/survey day June 3, 1981
Questionnaire The long form which requested information about dwellings, households and individuals.
Type of fieldwork Direct and self-enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design (a) Systematic sample of every 5th household with a random start was given a long form. (b) The long form sample was then stratified within each georgraphic region. (c) A one-in-fifty sample of individuals was systematically drawn from each strata and one-in-a-hundred sample was drawn for household/family file. Individual and household samples were drawn separately.
Sample fraction 2%
Sample size (person records) 486,875
Sample weights Self-weighting (expansion factor = 50 for individual data, expansion factor = 100 for household data)
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households No
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Province and census metropolitan area with 100,000+ population
Unit definitions
Dwellings A dwelling is a separate set of living quarterwith a private entrace from outside or from a common hallway or stairway inside the building. This entrance must not be through someone else's living quarters.
Households Refers to a person or group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy a dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada. It usually consists of a family group with or without lodgers, employees, etc. However, it may consist of two or more families sharing a dwelling, a group of unrelated persons, or one person living alone. Household members who are temporarily absent on Census Day are considered as part of their usual household. For census purpose, every person is a member of one and only one household.
Collective dwellings A person or group of persons who occupy a collective dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada.
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title 1991 Census of Canada
Statistical agency Statistics Canada
Population universe Canadian citizens and landed immigrants having a usual place of residence in Canada or residing aroad, on a military base or on a diplomatic mission. The file also includes data on non-permanent residents of Canada. The inclusion of non-permanent residents in the population universe of the 1991 Census marks a change from previous census coverage. The file excludes institutional residents, residents of partial refusal Indian reserves or Indian settlements, and foreign residents, namely foreign diplomats, members of the armed forces of another country who are stationed in Canada, and resdients of another country who are visiting Canada temporarily.
De jure or de facto De jure
Census/survey day June 4, 1991
Questionnaire The long form which requested information about dwellings, households and individuals.
Type of fieldwork Direct and self-enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design (a) Systematic sample of every 5th household with a random start was given a long form. (b) The long form sample was then stratified within each georgraphic region. (c) The final sample was selected systematically using a sampling interval of 100/9, with a random start between 0 and the sampling interval. The sample size is equal to 3% of the target population.
Sample fraction 3%
Sample size (person records) 809,654
Sample weights Self-weighting (expansion factor = 33.33)
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households No
Collective dwellings No
Smallest geography Province and census metropolitan area with 100,000+ population
Unit definitions
Dwellings A dwelling is a separate set of living quarterwith a private entrace from outside or from a common hallway or stairway inside the building. This entrance must not be through someone else's living quarters.
Households Refers to a person or group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy a dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada. It usually consists of a family group with or without other non-family persons, of two or more families sharing a dwelling, of a group of unrelated persons, or of one person living alone. Household members who are temporarily absent on Census Day (e.g., temporary residents elsewhere) are considered as part of their usual household. For census purpose, every person is a member of one and only one household.
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title 2001 Census
Statistical agency Statistics Canada
Population universe The target population includes all Canadian citizens and landed immigrants who have a usual place of residence in Canada or who are abroad, either on a military base or attached to a diplomatic mission. The file also includes data on non-permanent residents of Canada. As non?permanent residents were not enumerated before 1991 (except in 1941), users wishing to make comparisons over time will have to take this factor into consideration. The file excludes institutional residents, residents of incompletely enumerated Indian reserves or Indian settlements, and foreign residents, namely foreign diplomats, members of the Armed Forces of another country who are stationed in Canada, and residents of another country who are visiting Canada temporarily.
De jure or de facto De jure
Census/survey day May 15, 2001
Questionnaire The long form which requested information about dwellings, households and individuals.
Type of fieldwork Direct and self-enumeration
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design (a) Systematic sample of every 5th household with a random start was given a long form. (b) The long form sample was then stratified within each georgraphic region. (c) Since the objective is to have a self-weighted sample making up 2.7% of the target universe, individuals are selected systematically, in proportion to their weighting factor, with a sampling interval of 37.
Sample fraction 2.7%
Sample size (person records) 801,055
Sample weights Calculated by Statistics Canada adjusting to sex, the sampling age groups, and the geographic areas in the Individuals File.
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households No
Collective dwellings No
Smallest geography Province and census metropolitan area with 100,000+ population
Unit definitions
Dwellings A dwelling is a separate set of living quarters with a private entrance from the outside or from a common hallway or stairway inside the building. This entrance should not be through someone else's living quarters.
Households Refers to a person or a group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy the same dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada. It may consist of a family group (census family) with or without other non-family persons, of two or more families sharing a dwelling, of a group of unrelated persons, or of one person living alone. Household members who are temporarily absent on Census Day (e.g. temporary residents elsewhere) are considered as part of their usual household. For census purposes, every person is a member of one and only one household. Unless otherwise specified, all data in household reports are for private households only.
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title 2011 National Household Survey
Statistical agency Statistics Canada
Population universe The National Household Survey covers all persons who usually live in Canada, in the provinces and the territories, including those persons who live on Indian reserves or in other Indian settlements, permanent residents, non-permanent residents such as refugee, slaimants, holders of work or study permits, and members of their families living with them.
De jure or de facto De facto
Census/survey day May 10, 2011
Field work period 2011-05-10 to 2011-08-24
Questionnaire NHS questionnaire containing individaul and dwelling questions
Type of fieldwork In wave 1 (May and June), the focus was on online collection. In wave 2 (June to mid-July), printed questionnaires were mailed out to households that did not respond in wave 1. In wave 3 (mid-July to mid-August), non-response follow-up was conducted for households that did not respond in waves 1 and 2, with the aim of maximizing the survey's response rate.
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design A random sample of 4.5 million dwellings was selected for the NHS. This is slightly less than one-third (30%) of all private dwellings in Canada in 2011. The sample size was determined to ensure a uniform dissemination probability for small areas and small populations, within the available budget and resources. The NHS sample was selected from the 2011 Census of Population dwelling list.
Sample fraction 2.78%
Sample size (person records) 925,564
Sample weights Calculated by Statistics Canada the weights are calibrated to census population counts for 33 post-strata. The sample is close to a self-weighting sample of households with 85% of the weights equal to 32.
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings No
Smallest geography Province
Unit definitions
Dwellings Refers to a separate set of living quarters with a private entrance either from outside or from a common hall, lobby, vestibule or stairway inside the building in which a person or a group of persons is permanently residing. The entrance to the dwelling must be one that can be used without passing through the living quarters of someone else.
Households Refers to a person or a group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy the same private dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada.
Collective dwellings --