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Sample characteristics: Brazil

Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title VII Recenseamento Geral do Brasil. Censo Demográfico de 1960.
Statistical agency Servico Nacional de Recenseamento. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística
Population universe People who spent the night of August 31st to September 1st, 1960, as well as the people who were temporarily absent from the dwelling. Also included: population in transit (those on ships, planes, trains and buses) and people in collective dwellings. Brazilians residing abroad, even those who were performing official governmental functions, were not enumerated. The indigenous population was only partially enumerated - only those living in villages in contact with civilization.
De jure or de facto De jure and de facto
Census/survey day September 1, 1960
Field work period From September, 1st to December 1960
Questionnaire Long and short enumeration forms. The short form contains general information about the characteristics of the dwelling and each of persons in the dwelling. The long form contains general and more specific information about the characteristics of the dwelling, families, and each of the people in the dwellings and was applied to a 25% sample of the population.
Type of fieldwork Direct enumeration. After a selection process, interviewers and supervisors were hired and trained.
Estimated undercount No official estimates
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Long-form sample. Systematic sample selected with the same probability inside each census tract. A sample was taken of individual dwellings and of families or individuals in "grupos conviventes" inside collective dwellings with the same sample fraction for tract of that municipality. Each collective dwelling had a separate list form - CD 3 - (Lista de Domicílio Coletivo) to select the families or individuals for the sample. A 25% sample was taken of individual dwellings and of families or individuals in "grupo conviventes". From this original sample, IPUMS drew a systematic sample of every fifth dwelling. **NOTE: Several states totaling approximately one sixth of the national population are missing from the long-form microdata, and are thus not included in the 1960 sample data. These states are Rondônia, Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, Pará, Amapá, Maranhão, Piauí, Espírito Santo, Guanabara, and Santa Catarina.
Sample fraction 5% (but excluding certain states; see above)
Sample size (person records) 3,001,439
Sample weights Weight field unreadable. Within rural and urban, there is a very close match to published tabulations. The IPUMS sample assumes a weight appropriate to the theoretical 25% sample density for the long-forms. Because the IPUMS sample includes every fifth dwelling from the long-form data, all persons and households receive a weight of 20, suggesting a 5% sample.
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units Yes
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography State
Unit definitions
Households Structurally independent living quarters, consisting of one or more rooms with a private entrance, serving up to three families.
Collective dwellings Group living together under relations of administrative subordination; group of six or more persons not related by kinship; or a dwelling with more than 3 families.
Special populations Indigenous persons, with exceptions.
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title VIII Recenseamento Geral do Brasil. Censo Demográfico de 1970.
Statistical agency Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística
Population universe People who spent the night of August 31st to September 1st, 1970, as well as the people who were temporarily absent from the dwelling, including minors away at boarding school. Also included: Brazilians on diplomatic and military missions abroad; crew and passengers of Brazilian ships that were not in domestic ports. Not included: members of foreign diplomatic or military missions in Brazil who lived in embassies on Brazilian soil; crew and passengers of foreign ships in transit in domestic ports; indigenous population living in tribes without direct and permanent contact with civilization.
De jure or de facto De jure and de facto
Census/survey day September 1, 1970
Field work period From September, 1st to November 1970
Questionnaire Long and short enumeration forms. The short form contains general information about the characteristics of the dwelling and each of persons in the dwelling. The long form contains general and more specific information about the characteristics of the dwelling, families, and each of the people in the dwellings and was applied to a 25% sample of the population.
Type of fieldwork Direct enumeration. After a selection process, interviewers and supervisors were hired and trained.
Estimated undercount No official estimates
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Long form sample. Systematic sample selected with the same probability inside each census tract. A sample was taken of individual dwellings and of families or individuals in "grupos conviventes" inside collective dwellings with the same sample fraction for tract of that municipality. Each collective dwelling had a separate list form - CD 1.03 - (Lista de Domicílio Coletivo) to select the families or individuals for the sample. A 25% sample was taken of individual dwellings and of families or individuals in "grupo conviventes". From this original sample, IPUMS drew a systematic sample of every fifth dwelling.
Sample fraction 5%
Sample size (person records) 4,953,759
Sample weights Ratio estimators were used to expand correctly to the level of the municipality. These rates were fixed for the 46 control groups at the municipality level. When necessary, some control groups were added together (i.e., when the expansion factor was greater than 16 or the control group universe was less than 100). Each person received an integer weight such that final mean of the sample attained the true fraction of the universe. For example, if 140 people were in the universe, 42 people would be included in the sample, which gives an overall sampling ratio of 3.333. 28 persons were randomly selected to receive a weight of 3 and 14 received a weight of 4 such that a final mean of 3.333 was attained. For estimates of family characteristics, the weight used is that attributed to the head of the family; for estimates of household characteristics, the weight used is that attributed to the head of dwelling. The IPUMS takes every 5th dwelling for its sample, and therefore multiplies all weights by 5.
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units Yes
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography State
Unit definitions
Households Structurally independent living quarters, consisting of one or more rooms with a private entrance, serving up to three families.
Collective dwellings Group living together under relations of administrative subordination; group of six or more persons not related by kinship; or a dwelling with more than 3 families.
Special populations Indigenous persons, with exceptions.
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title IX Recenseamento Geral do Brasil. Censo Demográfico de 1980.
Statistical agency Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística
Population universe People who were present in the country on the data of reference (Census day), including residents who were temporarily absent from the country on the referred date for a period of no more than 12 months. Also included: Brazilians (and their families) on diplomatic and military missions abroad; crew and passengers of Brazilian ships that were not in domestic ports; indigenous population living in villages, indigenous posts (postos indigenas), and religious missions, or in other areas. Not included: indigenous population living in tribes without contact with the outside, those preserving their primitive ways of life); foreigners on foreign ships in transit in domestic ports or domestic airports.
De jure or de facto De jure
Census/survey day September 1, 1980
Field work period From September, 1st to December 1980
Questionnaire Long and short enumeration forms. The short form contains general information about the characteristics of the dwelling and each of persons in the dwelling. The long form contains general and more specific information about the characteristics of the dwelling, families, and each of the people in the dwellings and was applied to a 25% sample of the population.
Type of fieldwork Direct enumeration for both short and long form. For the short form, some areas were designated for self-enumeration.
Estimated undercount No official estimates
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Long form sample. Systematic sample selected with the same probability inside each census tract. A sample was taken of individual dwellings and of families or individuals in "grupos conviventes" inside collective dwellings with the same sample fraction for tract of that municipality. Each collective dwelling had a separate list form - CD 1.03 - (Lista de Domicílio Coletivo) to select the families or individuals for the sample. A 25% sample was taken of individual dwellings and of families or individuals in "grupo conviventes". From this original sample, IPUMS drew a systematic sample of every fifth dwelling.
Sample fraction 5%
Sample size (person records) 5,870,467
Sample weights Post-stratification employed by age groups, by sex, by rural/urban, and by other characteristics asked of the universe (short form). This generated a matrixes of 48 lines by 15 columns, one for the universe and one for the sample. In an iterative way, a weighting matrix was generated which was the matrix whose weights are associated with each stratus. Matrix marginals were used to calculated the ratio estimators (rather than those for each cell). Each person received an integer weight such that the final mean of the sample attained the true fraction of the universe, as in 1970. The IPUMS takes every 5th dwelling for its sample, and therefore multiplies all weights by 5.
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units Yes
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Municipality
Unit definitions
Households Structurally independent living quarters, consisting of one or more rooms with a private entrance, serving up to three families.
Collective dwellings Group living together under relations of administrative subordination; group of six or more persons not related by kinship; or a dwelling with more than 3 families.
Special populations Indigenous persons, with exceptions.
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title X Recenseamento Geral do Brasil. Censo Demográfico 1991.
Statistical agency Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística
Population universe People who were present in the country on the date of reference (Census day), including residents who were temporarily absent from the country on the referred date for a period of no more than 12 months. Also included: indigenous population living in villages, indigenous FUNAI posts (postos indigenas), and religious missions, or in other areas. Not included: indigenous population living in tribes without contact with the outside (those preserving their primitive ways of life).
De jure or de facto De jure
Census/survey day September 1, 1991
Field work period From September, 1st to December 1991
Questionnaire Long and short enumeration forms. The short form contains general information about the characteristics of the dwelling and each of persons in the dwelling. The long form contains general and more specific information about the characteristics of the dwelling, families, and each of the people in the dwellings. The long form was applied to a 10% sample of the population in municipalities with estimated populations greater than 15,000 and 20% in the remaining municipalities (Silva e Bianchini 1990).
Type of fieldwork Direct enumeration. After a selection process, interviewers and supervisors were hired and trained.
Estimated undercount No official estimates
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Long form sample. Systematic sample selected with the same probability inside each census tract. A sample was taken of individual dwellings and of families or individuals in "grupos conviventes" inside collective dwellings with the same sample fraction for that tract in the municipality (for instance, in large municipalities, 1 in 10 dwellings or, within collective dwellings, 1 in 10 families, or 1 in 10 individuals of "grupos conviventes"). There were two distinct sample fractions: a 10% sample in municipalities with an estimated population of greater than 15,000 inhabitants and a 20% sample of the remaining municipalities. From this original sample, IPUMS drew a systematic sample of every second dwelling.
Sample fraction 5.8% (approx.)
Sample size (person records) 8,522,740
Sample weights The expansion of the sample used Generalized Minimum Least Squares in two stages (see Silva, Bianchini e Albieri 1993). This method is based on a multivariate procedure in two stages developed by Bankier (1990). This procedure is similar to that developed by Statistics Canada used to weight the sample of the 1991 Canadian census. Each dwelling in the sample has its own weight, so each person of the dwelling has the same weight as the dwelling's weight. The weights are not necessarily integers and they must not be substituted with integers because one would violate the consistence of the restrictions employed for adjustment. The IPUMS takes every 2nd dwelling for its sample, and therefore multiplies all weights by 2.
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units Yes
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Municipality
Unit definitions
Households Structurally independent living quarters, consisting of one or more rooms with a private entrance, serving up to five families.
Collective dwellings Group living together under relations of administrative subordination; or a dwelling with more than 5 families.
Special populations Indigenous persons, with exceptions.
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title XI Recenseamento Geral do Brasil. Censo Demográfico 2000.
Statistical agency Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística
Population universe All people in dwellings in the country (Territorio Nacional). All residents of private (permanent and improvised) and collective dwellings were enumerated on the reference date. Also included: people who were absent (for reasons of vacation, education, work, or hospital stays, for less than 12 months) from their dwelling. Embassies, consulates and Brazilian representatives out of the country are considered National Territory; however, they are not included in the Census (the majority of Brazilian functionaries do not live on the grounds of diplomatic missions).
De jure or de facto De jure
Census/survey day August 1, 2000
Field work period From August, 1st to December 2001
Questionnaire Long and short enumeration forms. The short form contains general information about the characteristics of the dwelling and each of persons in the dwelling. The long form contains general and more specific information about the characteristics of the dwelling, families, and each of the people in the dwellings. The long form was applied to a 10% sample of the population in municipalities with estimated populations greater than 15,000 and 20% in the remaining municipalities (Silva e Bianchini 1990).
Type of fieldwork Direct enumeration. After a selection process, interviewers and supervisors were hired and trained.
Estimated undercount No official estimates
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Long form sample. Systematic sample selected with the same probability inside each census tract. A sample was taken of individual dwellings and of families or individuals in "grupos conviventes" inside collective dwellings with the same sample fraction for that tract in the municipality (for instance, in large municipalities, 1 in 10 dwellings or, within collective dwellings, 1 in 10 families, or 1 in 10 individuals of "grupos conviventes"). There were two distinct sample fractions: a 10% sample in municipalities with an estimated population of greater than 15,000 inhabitants and a 20% sample of the remaining municipalities. From this original sample, IPUMS drew a systematic sample of every second dwelling.
Sample fraction 6.0% (approx.)
Sample size (person records) 10,136,022
Sample weights The expansion of the sample used Generalized Minimum Least Squares with the imposition that the final weight could be no less than 1 and no greater than 25 or 50, depending on the sampling fraction, (20% and 10% samples, respectively). This method is based on a multivariate procedure in twostages developed by Bankier (1990). Each dwelling in the sample has its own weight, so each person of the dwelling has the same weight as the dwelling's weight. The weights are not necessarily integers and they must not be substituted with integers because one would violate the consistencies of the restrictions employed for adjustment. Note: In order to obtain consistency with the published Census tables, it is necessary that the estimates are calculated in each table cell and that the row and column totals and subtotals are obtained by summing the corresponding basic estimates, after they have been rounded. A consequence of this procedure is that the total for the same characteristics could vary slightly from one table to another because of summing rounded numbers from the cells. In the same way, the estimates for Brazil could differ from the value obtained through summing the corresponding published estimates for each state in the union. The IPUMS takes every 2nd dwelling for its sample, and therefore multiplies all weights by 2.
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units Yes
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Municipality
Unit definitions
Households Structurally independent living quarters, consisting of one or more rooms with a private entrance.
Collective dwellings Group living together under relations of administrative subordination.
Special populations Indigenous persons.
Census/survey characteristics
Type Census
Title XII Recenseamento Geral do Brasil. Censo Demográfico 2010.
Statistical agency Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística
Population universe All people in dwellings in the country (Territorio Nacional). All residents of private (permanent and improvised) and collective dwellings were enumerated on the reference date. Also included: people who were absent (for reasons of vacation, education, work, or hospital stays, for less than 12 months) from their dwelling. Embassies, consulates and Brazilian representatives out of the country are considered National Territory; however, they are not included in the Census (the majority of Brazilian functionaries do not live on the grounds of diplomatic missions).
De jure or de facto De jure
Census/survey day August 1, 2010
Field work period From August, 1st to October 2010
Questionnaire Long and short enumeration forms. The short form contains general information about the characteristics of the dwelling and each of persons in the dwelling. The long form contains general and more specific information about the characteristics of the dwelling, families, and each of the people in the dwellings. The long form was applied to a 5% sample of the population in municipalities with estimated populations greater than 500,000; 10% sample of the population in municipalities with estimated populations between 20,000 and 500,000; 20% sample of the population in municipalities with estimated populations between 8,000 and 20,000; 33% sample of the population in municipalities with estimated populations between 2,500 and 8,000; and 50% in the remaining municipalities.
Type of fieldwork Direct enumeration. After a selection process, interviewers and supervisors were hired and trained.
Estimated undercount No official estimates
Microdata sample characteristics
Sample design Long form sample. Systematic sample selected with the same probability inside each census tract. A sample was taken of individual dwellings and of families or individuals in "grupos conviventes" inside collective dwellings with the same sample fraction for that tract in the municipality (for instance, in large municipalities, 1 in 10 dwellings or, within collective dwellings, 1 in 10 families, or 1 in 10 individuals of "grupos conviventes"). There were five distinct sample fractions: a 5% sample of the population in municipalities with estimated populations greater than 500,000; 10% sample of the population in municipalities with estimated populations between 20,000 and 500,000; 20% sample of the population in municipalities with estimated populations between 8,000 and 20,000; 33% sample of the population in municipalities with estimated populations between 2,500 and 8,000; and 50% in the remaining municipalities. From this original sample, IPUMS drew a systematic sample of every 2.13 dwellings.
Sample fraction 5%
Sample size (person records) 9,693,058
Sample weights Each dwelling unit selected in the sample of the 2010 Census was associated with an expansion factor or weight. This weight was obtained by adjusting an initial weight given by the inverse of the effective sampling fraction. The weight obtained for a given housing unit was also assigned to each of its residents. For households surveyed, means the occupied private households and families and people living alone, living in a collective household. The expansion of the sample used Generalized Minimum Least Squares with the imposition that the final weight could be no less than 1 and no greater than five times the initial weight of the effective level of a balancing area. This method is based on a multivariate procedure in twostages developed by Bankier (1990).
Units identified in microdata
Dwellings No
Vacant units No
Households Yes
Collective dwellings Yes
Smallest geography Municipality
Unit definitions
Households Structurally independent living quarters, consisting of one or more rooms with a private entrance.
Collective dwellings Group living together under relations of administrative subordination.
Special populations Indigenous persons.